Ppt race and ethnic variations

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  • It really depends on society how we classify racial groups. There are 5 racial categories that we invented .
  • 1. Construction of a self based on the individual. 2. Kinship, extended family, obligations to family, etc. 3. Male-dominated.
  • Assimilation would argue that people are integrated and letting go of their home culture to become part of a new one. (Hispanic [East coast] vs. Latino [West coast]) Acculturation is regarding maintaining the home culture. (Video example: yolanda perez y don cheto estoy enamorada 1) [The dad is less acculturated, the daughter has adopted more of the host culture]
  • Marginalized category is mostly theoretical.
  • Melting pot: all come together, blend in, have the same cultural values. (Biculturalism: higher self-esteem, adjustment, etc.)
  • These create a distinction by race. Social class (example with the higher education chart) Prejudice/Discrimination (opportunities are jeopardized when prejudice/discrimination exist) Segregation (some communities have better resources than others, example regarding zip codes as a deciding factor for schooling)
  • Videos: Blue eyes/brown eyes test (“The Angry Eye” –part 1- Brown Eye-Blue Eye Experiment It impacted their cognitive abilities.
  • African Americans (Black in America – The Black Woman and Family
  • Skin tone matters because the darker you are, the more you’re discriminated. There’s a societal endorsement for lighter skin. They woulod thus attain higher levels of educational attainment, occupation, and income. This was perpetuated during slavery. They didn’t choose to come here so they were involuntary migrants.
  • It’s hard to trace your culture.
  • Still have disparities given the discrimination, transitions they’ve faced. These disparities affect self-efficacy, education, parenting outcomes/goals.
  • Re: Matricentric, could just be higher levels of cohabitation/not getting married. Re: Two-parent, example regarding the man in Black in America saying he just wanted to be a dad until he died.
  • Re: Hierarchical (parents have much more authority over children) Re: Harsh discipline (it doesn’t affect this population as negatively as much as it does other races) Economic conditions: unemployment, education, income Social prejudices and bigotry: Enforce strong values of racial identity, prepare their children for racial bias.
  • Both Asian and Latino populations have similar growing rates, interestingly.
  • Collectivism: baptisms/godparents, etc. Familism: Sense of responsibility, must maintain close connections to the family (example: older kids taking care of younger kids).
  • High levels of fertility rates Slight shift in terms of egalitarian roles Last bullet point: a given, seeing the high levels of familism
  • Value of education related to bien educado
  • Japanese: higher incomes, more likely to be in 2-parent homes with parents who have higher education levels Cambodian children have a difficult time in the U.S. If they were experiencing war in their home country, the first few generations were pushed out perhaps because of political asylum and being kicked out by those in political power.
  • Generally a young population.
  • Parenting: endorse honesty, filial piety, respect for elders and in general/in authority, doctrine value to learn, obedience Challenges: Highest acculturation (education, income, etc). Why can’t other minority groups be like that?
  • Term “American Indian” in current distinction
  • Higher proportion of suicides
  • Highly impacted by values on the reservation. They just give more power to the child within the parent-child relationship, it doesn’t lead to negative outcomes. Experience high levels of alcohol abuse as well as domestic violence.
  • Ppt race and ethnic variations

    1. 1. Agenda <ul><li>Discuss midterm results </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Race and Ethnic Variations </li></ul>
    2. 2. Chapter 5: Race and Ethnic Variations
    3. 3. Race and Ethnicity <ul><li>Race is a socially constructed classification system that assumes that physical differences represent genetic, biological, and psychological capabilities and predispositions. </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnicity refers to people from different cultural backgrounds. </li></ul>
    4. 4. Historical Context <ul><li>Cultural themes that distinguish minority from dominant race/ethnic groups in the US: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Collectivism/communalism (vs. Individualism) </li></ul><ul><li>2. Familism </li></ul><ul><li>3. Patriachy </li></ul>
    5. 5. Assimilation and Acculturation <ul><li>For minority groups in the U.S.: </li></ul><ul><li>Assimilation —integration into existing systems of social relationships. </li></ul><ul><li>Acculturation —adoption of dominant cultural values. </li></ul>
    6. 7. What does acculturation mean at the individual level? Integrated/Bicultural (Stew) Separated/Segregated (“Barrio”) Marginalized (Invisible) Assimilated (Melting Pot) Majority Minority
    7. 8. Ecological Conditions <ul><li>Race and ethnic differences may be the result of ecological conditions brought about by prior historical experience. These include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Social class </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prejudice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discrimination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Segregation </li></ul></ul>
    8. 9. Prejudice and Discrimination <ul><li>Prejudice refers to negative impressions and bias towards minority group members. </li></ul><ul><li>Discrimination refers to negative and exclusionary behaviors towards minority group members. </li></ul>
    9. 10. 12.6% of the US population 2010 Census
    10. 11. African Americans <ul><li>Until 2001, w ere the Largest Racial-Ethnic Minority Group in the U.S. ( 12.5% of U.S. Population </li></ul><ul><li>Not a Uniform Entity, but a Very Diverse Group </li></ul><ul><li>Understood Within a Particular Social and Historical Context </li></ul>
    11. 12. Historical Transitions Affecting African American Families <ul><li>From Africa to the United States </li></ul><ul><li>From Slavery to Emancipation </li></ul><ul><li>From Rural/Southern to Urban/Northern Areas </li></ul>
    12. 13. From Africa to the U.S. <ul><li>The three relevant factors in this transition are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Color –Skin tone has always had significant effects on educational attainment, occupation, and income. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural Discontinuity –Culture disrupted by slavery and social conditions in the U.S. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slavery –African Americans did not choose to come here. </li></ul></ul>
    13. 14. From Slavery to Emancipation <ul><li>The Emancipation Proclamation and the end of slavery resulted in three patterns of family life: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tenant farmers; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Skilled laborers; and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disrupted families. </li></ul></ul>
    14. 15. From the Rural South to the Urban North <ul><li>This geographic shift resulted in: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Metropolitan/urban residence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heavy concentrations of poverty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disruption of nuclear families </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Geographic separation from extended families </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased access to schools, social services, and medical facilities </li></ul></ul>
    15. 16. Socioeconomic Context <ul><li>Black Americans have realized tremendous gains in recent years. </li></ul><ul><li>Disparities still exist in: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Employment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Income </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Education levels </li></ul></ul>
    16. 17. Two Patterns of African American Family <ul><li>Matricentric —Female headed with males who come and go and who may struggle with unemployment and incarceration. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>55-60% of the African American Population </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Two-parent —Males are likely to have more stable employment and assume an active role in decision-making and child-rearing responsibilities. </li></ul><ul><li>There is a wide range of family structures beyond these two patterns </li></ul>
    17. 18. African American Parents and Children <ul><li>Parenting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Importance of extended family and kin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hierarchical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Harsh discipline </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Challenges </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social prejudices and bigotry </li></ul></ul>
    18. 19. 16.3% of the US population 2010 Census
    19. 20. Hispanic American Families <ul><li>The Hispanic American population includes people of Mexican, Cuban, Puerto Rican, South and Central American, and Spanish origin. </li></ul><ul><li>The Hispanic American population is the largest and fastest growing ethnic minority population in the U.S. </li></ul>
    20. 21. Common Characteristics of Hispanic American Families <ul><li>Collectivism/communalism —The incorporation of friends and extended family members into the lives of parents and children ( compadrazgo ) </li></ul><ul><li>Familism —High levels of obligation and responsibility to family members </li></ul><ul><li>Patriarchy —Emphasis on male leadership ( machismo ) and female subordination ( marianism ) </li></ul>
    21. 22. Socioeconomic Context <ul><li>Socioeconomic conditions vary widely between Hispanic groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cubans are best off financially </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Puerto Ricans and Mexican Americans have higher rates of poverty </li></ul></ul>
    22. 23. Patterns of Hispanic Family Life <ul><li>Hispanic families fall between Blacks and Whites in percentages of both married couple and single parent families. </li></ul><ul><li>Female-headed families are more likely to be poor. </li></ul><ul><li>Male-female roles are changing. </li></ul><ul><li>Levels of extended family integration are higher than for White Americans. </li></ul>
    23. 24. Mexican Cuban Puerto Rican Central and South American Family Households by Type and Hispanic Origin Group: 2000 Source: Current Population Survey, March 2000, PGP-4 Female householder, no spouse present Married couple Male householder, no spouse present
    24. 25. Hispanic Parents and Children <ul><li>Parenting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hierarchical parenting style </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural Values: relationships, respect, responsibility </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Challenges </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parents may be challenged to apply new child-rearing scripts </li></ul></ul>
    25. 26. 4.8% of the US population 2010 Census
    26. 27. Asian American Families <ul><li>Chinese </li></ul><ul><li>Filipino </li></ul><ul><li>Asian Indian </li></ul><ul><li>Vietnamese </li></ul><ul><li>Korean </li></ul><ul><li>Hawaiian </li></ul><ul><li>Samoan </li></ul><ul><li>Japanese </li></ul><ul><li>Thai </li></ul><ul><li>Laotian </li></ul><ul><li>Cambodian </li></ul><ul><li>Hmong </li></ul><ul><li>Guamanian </li></ul>
    27. 28. Historical and Socioeconomic Context <ul><li>Compared to White non-Hispanics, Asian Americans as a group are younger, better educated, and have higher median family incomes. </li></ul><ul><li>Within this group there are substantial differences in ancestry, language, culture, immigration, and residence patterns. </li></ul>
    28. 29. Marital/Family Patterns <ul><li>Asian American Families are Characterized by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High Marriage Rates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low Divorce Rates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strong Kinship Associations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Care of the Elderly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Children who Tend Toward Cultural Assimilation </li></ul></ul>
    29. 30. Asian American Parents and Children <ul><li>Parenting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parents often adopt the Confucian training doctrine in child rearing. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Challenges </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Model minority </li></ul></ul>
    30. 31. 0.9% of the US population 2010 Census
    31. 32. Native American Families <ul><li>Hundreds of Distinct Tribes or Nations </li></ul><ul><li>Over Half Live on Tribal Designated Areas, Reservations, or Trust Lands </li></ul><ul><li>Increased Numbers of Native Americans Because of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rising Birth Rates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced Infant Mortality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More People Identifying as Native American </li></ul></ul>
    32. 33. Historical Context <ul><li>Native Americans were the most disrupted of any minority group in the United States because: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tribal lands were forcibly taken and others franchised to Christian groups for proselytizing; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Educational systems were designed to separate children from families and instill non-native values; and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The federal government attempted to break up tribal landholdings and turn Native Americans into individual landowners and taxpayers. </li></ul></ul>
    33. 34. Socioeconomic Context <ul><li>Lower median age </li></ul><ul><li>Shorter life expectancy </li></ul><ul><li>Low educational achievement </li></ul><ul><li>Under- and unemployment </li></ul><ul><li>Poor housing conditions </li></ul>
    34. 35. Marital/Family Patterns <ul><li>Low Marriage Rates </li></ul><ul><li>High Rates of Interracial Marriage </li></ul><ul><li>Strong Kinship Ties </li></ul><ul><li>Extended Family Support Networks </li></ul><ul><li>Less Rigid Gender Roles </li></ul><ul><li>High Status for Elders </li></ul>
    35. 36. Native American Parents and Children <ul><li>Parenting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Influenced by reservation life. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Children are viewed as treasured gifts; individual differences are tolerated and accepted. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parenting style perceived to be permissive but is not </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Challenges </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Influenced by reservation life. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poverty </li></ul></ul>

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