EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF VYGOSKY’S THEORY CHDV 343 (11)
Implications of Vygotsky’s Ideas 1. Present challenging tasks within the context of collaborative , cooperative activities (mixed ability groups, mixed-aged groups), and group work activities. (p. 323) 2. Scaffold Children’s efforts: (i) demonstrate complex tasks and encourage imitation, (ii) divide the complex task into simpler parts, (iii) provide a structure, a set of steps, guidelines, (iv) give frequent feedback.
3. Present problems in the Zone of Proximaldevelopment (scaffolding and dialogue methods)4.Provide opportunities for authenticactivities (video, performances, newspapers, etc.). AllanCollins (2006) has suggested that school knowledge has become toospecialized and removed from the world beyond school.5.The Importance of Play and its role inlearning.
Constructivism Views of Learning Grounded in the research of Piaget and Vygotsky. Both theories agree on two central ideas: 1. Learners are active in constructing their own knowledge. 2.Social interactions are important in this knowledge construction process. (p. 311) Emphasizes the active role of the learner in building understanding and making sense of information.
COMMON ELEMENTS OF CONSTRUCTIVISM KNOWLEDGE IN USE (critical thinking, inquiry, self- determination, active problem solving). CHILD-CENTERED EDUCATION (STUDENT CENTERED) LEARNING BY DISCOVERY These elements can be applied to all subjects in a curriculum (from science, to math to English).
The 5 Conditions of Learning For Child-Centered Teaching 1. Embed Learning in 3. Support multiple complex, realistic, and perspectives and use relevant learning multiple representations environments. of content. 4. Nurture self- 2. Provide for social awareness. negotiation and shared responsibility as part of 5. Encourage ownership learning. in learning. See page 314
Constructivist and Social Constructivist Perspectives Piaget Vygotsky Children benefit only Children benefit from from experiences that experiences that they can they can relate to what relate to with the help of they already know. a more knowledgeable (accommodation occurs partner. only when it is (Teach at the Zone of accompanied by some Proximal Development). degree of assimilation). Socio/Cultural Psychological/Individual Constructivism /Cognitive Constructivism
Teaching Approaches that put the student at the center PROBLEM BASEDINQUIRY LEARNING LEARNING TEACHER : presents a question, problem, an A realistic problem is presented interesting event. that does not necessarily have a “right” answer. Instead several STUDENT :formulates solutions are encouraged hypotheses, collects A DIFFERENT CURRICULUM data, draws APPROACH. conclusions, reflects. AIM: To learn content A DIFFERENT PROCESS OF LEARNING. and process of knowledge. (p. 317) TEACHER/PUPILS ROLE AN INDIVIDUAL or A CHANGES IN SIGNIFICANT COLLABORATIVE WAYS. PROCESS
Examples of Problem-Based Learning Current affairs, pollution, students conflicts, etc. “Cathie’s elementary class learned about the Alaskan oil spill. She brought a newspaper article to class that sequenced in logbook fashion the events of the oil spill in Prince William Sound. To prepare her students to understand the article, she had her students participate in several background building experiences. First, they used a world map, an encyclopedia, and library books to gather and share relevant information. Next, she simulated an oil spill by coating an object with oil. By then, the class was eager to read the article.” (p.318)
Teaching Approaches that put the student at the centerCognitive Apprenticeship Cooperative Learning–Reciprocal Teaching A relationship in Situations where which a less experienced learner elaboration, interpr acquires knowledge etation, explanation under the guidance of and argumentation an expert. 1. S.observe an expert, 2. are integral to the S.get external support, 3. S. learning activity. receive conceptual scaffolding, 4. S. articulate and reflect, 5. S. are required to explore new ways to apply knowledge. P. 321