Basic Points of Departure Cognitive Development Cognitive Development in terms of the in terms of distinct development of mental qualitative changes of structures: mental functioning. (i) The acquisition of (i) A stage theory mental operations (ii) Structural (ii) Mental schemes and Transformations: the concept of Development involves Equilibration changes in the organization of thought.
INFORMATION PROCESSING THEORIES COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT INVOLVES QUANTITATIVE CHANGES AND IS CONTINUOUS (i)Acquisition of knowledge: Memory and Attention mechanisms (ii) Repetition (iii) Practice (iv) Efficiency
THE CHILD BECOMES INCREASINGLY MORE EFFICIENT IN PROCESSING INFORMATION: The Structural Characteristics of IPSSENSORY MEMORY = The ability to briefly retain a large amount of information.WORKING MEMORY= The ability to combine sensory memory to long term memory. Increases with age.LONG TERM MEMORY = No limits.
Basic Assumptions OF IPS Model 1. Our mind is like a computer. Thinking is information Processing. 2. To study the change mechanisms/strategies that are involved in our thinking. 3. Change is produced by the individual’s continuous self-modification of existing strategies.
Information Processing Theories of Development 1. Our thinking is limited Two characteristics of (selective attention). mental functioning. 2. Our thinking is flexible and adaptable (several modalities are used to store sense information).
The Elements of our Computer Attention : Selective Sensory Memory = Duration: 1- Attention 3 seconds Difficulties in focusing or ignoring competing stimuli The process of Automatization Perception Attending a stimulus and assigning meaning to it. Gestalt Rules Bottom-Up Processing Top-Down Processing WORKING MEMORY
WORKING MEMORY 5-20 secondsCENTRAL EXECUTIVE : Initiates control and decisionprocesses Phonological Loop Visuospatial Sketchpad Short term buffer Visual Imagery/ Spatial Immediate recall tasks Efficient Strategy: Repetition E.g. If you rotate a p 180 degrees, do you get a b or a d?
Rehearsal THE GOAL OF TEACHING : MAINTENANCE / ELABORATIVE REHEARSAL Long Term Working Memory EFFICIENT Memory STRATEGIES FOR STORING : Chunking, mnemo nics, etc.Interference Decay Retrieval: Organizing, elaborating, using Forgetting context.
DIFFICULTIES AT ANY STEP WILL AFFECT PERFORMANCE ATTENTION Age related differences in ATTENTION SPANS ENCODING Relating short term information to long term information EFFICIENT Differences in Knowledge STRATEGIES base and organizational skills
MEMORY : The Development of Specific memory strategies help cognitive performance1. It is easier to remember the numbers: 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 than 13, 5, 9,7,1, 8. (organizational “chunks” of knowledge base).2. It is easier to remember the letters i,d,r,b when you form the word “bird”.
COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENTREFERS TO CONTINUOUS CHANGES IN COLLECTING INFORMATION-ENCODING INFORMATION-AND RETRIEVING INFORMATIONATTENTION-MEMORY- PRODUCTION
SOME EXAMPLES ATTENTION SPAN (destructions/boredom) Developmental ENCODING PROBLEMS differences, individual differences. PERCEPTION (Zinchenko, 1983) INFORMATION ONE STORES AND MANIPULATES (Klahr, 1985)
TEACHING IMPLICATIONS OF IPS TO STRENGTHEN THOSE SKILLS NECESSARY FOR ADVANCED INTELLECTUAL PERFORMANCE. These skills refer to the child’s increased ability to attend, to successfully store and to retrieve information from long-term memory.
IMPLICATIONS FOR DEVELOPMENT MIND –COMPUTER PERFORMANCE METAPHOR IMPROVES BECAUSE OF THE GRADUAL MATURATION OF THE “HARDWARE” AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF MORE EFFECTIVE INFORMATION PROCESSING STRATEGIES OF THE “SOFTWARE”
IMPLICATIONS GRADUAL THE ACQUISITION OF DEVELOPMENTS SKILLS THAT ARE NEEDED FOR COGNITIVE PERFORMANCE. INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES DUE TO PRACTICE- AUTOMATIZATION- EXPERIENCE