You cannot test in quality. However, testing is an important part of achieving quality. Testing can expose poor designs as well as finding bugs. V&V is more than just testing. It includes the process by which tests are designed It includes the signoff process by which test failures are certified to have been resolved. It includes the reporting structure of concerns and problems to upper management without endangering the career of the person reporting the problem. This latter requires some form of independent reporting channels. It includes concern the funding of the V&V activity. Project managers should not be able to cut V&V funding to get product out sooner. Possible homework problem: Suppose you are manager of a large software project. Your budget is $1 million over budget and that the V&V budget is $4 million. What do you do? Testers should be independent of builders -- builders have both a vested interest and may have a built in limited perspective. Test group must be closely related to project, though, to understand it. V&V group may follow project and evaluate processes as it goes.
latest tools and techniques of requirment elicitation
To discuss about latest
development in RE .
SE , the subject of large volume.
plays significant role in SDLC.
Requirement means any thing you want to get
Engeenring means to design and build
something like machines etc.
RE , a process, identifying a
goal and evaluate the needs of
Requirement engineering activities differs from
engineering activities as they are concerned with
identifying the problem
how the environment will be affected by the
other activities are concerned with the solution of the
problem and the behavior of the system
under these requirements. Furthermore, different factors
Factors create difficulties in RE
Re t de y
among already set
and new requirements
im n t
int nme tify
str viro iden t
Co y en and men
do ar en
❶ we evaluate the techniques of development of RE by
a road map designed by Nuseibeh and Easterbrook.
Current trends resolu
activities in RE
Latest development in RE techniques
Research methods and empirical research in
Observation during this research.
• The main work of RE is concerned
with static elicitation,
• One of the remarkable works on this field was
carried out by
Berry et al. . They suggested four levels
of RE activities
needed to support adaptive systems.
1. Level one, associated with human and
related to activities
associated with elicitation and analysis of
2. Level two, associated with the system
when it is running and
its ability to adapt according to various
inputs and behaviors.
3. Level three, associated with
human and related to the
previous level by determining the
adaption elements of the
4. Level four, also done by
human and associated with the
general understanding systems
Techniques and activities
1. Requirement engineering field is very huge,
the need to
have some sort of centralized repository or
index to the
work in this field can help researchers utilize
research time in evaluating work and find
The gap between
collaborative efforts between
them will help researchers obtain
a better understanding of
problems and challenges.
Lots of solutions and
models have been
scenarios, sharing this
More attention should
be given to evaluationbased and
• In conclusion,
• affecting it and making
it susceptible to change
all the time.
Elicitation techniques are really helpful for
collection rich information about the requirements.
The observational methods provide vital
information for designing solution.
R.E used some techniques that are really helpful
for collection rich information about the
R.E techniques bring certainty in the
A small mistake or fact ignorance
in analysis gives a great error.
User cant b explain there ideas due
to lake of knowledge .
Difference of knowledge between
user and analyst.