Unit 5 evolution by natural selection

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  • The Origin of Species (Charles Darwin): two main ideas – descent with modification (evolution) explains life’s unity and diversity and that natural selection brings about the match between organisms and their environment.
  • Evolution is supported by an overwhelming amount of scientific evidence
  • Fossils in a particular stratum provide a glimpse of some of the organisms that populated Earth at the time that layer formed. Later, erosion may carve through younger strata, revealing older strata that may have been buried. Paleontologist, Cuvier, noted that the older the strata the more dissimilar its fossils were to current life forms. He observed that from one layer to the next some new species appeared while others disappeared. He inferred that extinctions must have been a common occurrence in the history of life.
  • Rivers carry sediment into seas and swamps. Over time sedimentary rock layers (strata) form under water. Some strata contain fossils. As water levels change and the seafloor is pushed upward, the strata and their fossils are exposed.
  • Evolution is a process of descent with modification: characteristics present in an ancestral organism are altered (by natural selection) in its descendants over time as they face different environmental conditions. As a result, a species can have characteristics with an underlying similarity even though they may have different functions = homology
  • Even though they have become adapted for different functions, the forelimbs of all mammals are constructed from the same basic skeletal elements. Such striking anatomical resemblances would be highly unlikely if these structures had arisen anew in each species. Rather, they are homologous structures that represent variations on a structural theme that was present in their common ancestor.
  • At some point in development, all vertebrate embryos have a tail located posterior to the anus, as well as structures called pharangeal pouches (which develop into structures with very different functions, such as gills in fishes and parts of the ears and throat in humans and other mammals)
  • Convergent evolution: the independent evolution of similar features in different lineagesConvergent evolution: Sugar glider (Australian marsupial) has a eutherian look alike, the flying squirrel in North America. But the sugar glider is much more closely related to kangaroos and other Australian marsupials than to flying squirrels and other eutherians. Although they evolved independently from different ancestors, these two mammals adapted to similar environments in similar ways. Thus species share features because of convergent evolution, the resemblance is said to be analogous, not homologous
  • eutherian: placental: mammals having a placenta (flying squirrel); all mammals except monotremes and marsupials (sugar glider)
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  • Adaptations: characteristics of organisms that enhance their survival and reproduction in specific environments
  • The Galapagos islands are home to more than a dozen species of closely related finches, some found only on a single island. The most striking differences among them are their beaks, which are adapted for specific diets.
  • inference: A conclusion reached on the basis of evidence and reasoning.
  • Related species of the insects called mantids have diverse shapes and colours that evolved in different environments.
  • Heritable traits – traits that are passed from organisms to their offspring i.e. no evidence that acquired characteristics (modified during its lifetime) can be inherited by offspring even if they help the organism in it’s environment.
  • Speciation – an evolutionary process in which one species splits into two or more speciesAn example of macroevolutionary change is the origin of new groups of organisms, such as mammals or flowering plants, through a series of speciation events.
  • As diverse as we may be in appearance, all humans belong to a single biological species (Homo sapiens), defined by our capacity to interbreed.
  • Speciation can take place with or without geographic separation
  • Mutation: a change in the nucleotide sequence of an organisms DNA, ultimately creating genetic diversity.Genetic drift: chance events can cause allele frequencies to fluctuate unpredictably from one generation to the next, especially in small populations.Allele: any of the alternative versions of a gene that produce distinguishable phenotypic effects.
  • Geographic isolation – a lake may subside, resulting in two smaller lakes; a river may change course and divide a population of animals that cannot cross it
  • Polyploidy – a condition in which an organism has en extra set of chromosomesReproductive isolation because of natural selection that results from a switch to a habitat or food source not used by the parent population
  • Unit 5 evolution by natural selection

    1. 1. EVOLUTION BY NATURAL SELECTION CAMPBELL AND REECE, 2010 CHAPTER 22
    2. 2. ORIGIN OF IDEAS ABOUT ORIGINS DIFFERENT KINDS OF EVIDENCE EXIST: 1. Fossil records 2. Modification by descent and Homology 3. Biogeography 4. Genetics
    3. 3. 1. FOSSIL RECORDS (P. 453-454, 461-462) • The study of fossils helped to lay the groundwork for Darwin’s ideas • Fossils are remains or traces of organisms from the past, usually found in sedimentary rock, which appears in layers or strata. • The fossil record provides evidence of the extinction of species, the origin of new groups, and changes within groups over time
    4. 4. FOSSILS FOUND IN SEDEMENTARY ROCK
    5. 5. 2. MODIFICATION BY DESCENT AND HOMOLOGY (P.463-465) • Homology is similarity resulting from common ancestry. • Homologous structures are anatomical resemblances that represent variations on a structural theme present in a common ancestor.
    6. 6. MAMMALIAN FORELIMBS: HOMOLOGOUS STRUCTURES
    7. 7. • Comparative embryology reveals anatomical homologies not visible in adult organisms
    8. 8. • Examples of homologies at the molecular level are genes shared among organisms inherited from a common ancestor. • Modification by descent is explained by: Convergent evolution • Convergent evolution is the evolution of similar, or analogous, features in distantly related groups. • Analogous traits arise when groups independently adapt to similar environments in similar ways • Convergent evolution does not provide information about ancestry.
    9. 9. CONVERGENT EVOLUTION
    10. 10. 3. BIOGEOGRAPHY • Darwin’s observations of biogeography, the geographic distribution of species, formed an important part of his theory of evolution. • Islands have many endemic species that are often closely related to species on the nearest mainland or island. • Earth’s continents were formerly united in a single large continent called Pangaea, but have since separated by continental drift. • An understanding of continent movement and modern distribution of species allows us to predict when and where different groups evolved.
    11. 11. PANGAEA – CONTINENTAL DRIFT
    12. 12. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN HYPOTHESIS AND THEORY • Hypothesis: A tentative answer to a well-framed question, narrower in scope than a theory, and subject to testing. • Theory: An explanation which is broad in scope, and is supported by a large body of evidence.
    13. 13. OVERVIEW OF THE HISTORY OF DIFFERENT THEORIES OF DEVELOPMENT • Spontaneous creation • Ontogeny • Lamarckism • Neo Darwinism • Punctuated Equilibrium
    14. 14. THEORY OF SPONTANEOUS CREATION/ GENERATION • The theory of spontaneous generation held that complex, living organisms may be produced from nonliving matter. • It was a popular belief that mice occur spontaneously from stored grain, or maggots spontaneously appear in meat.
    15. 15. THE THEORY OF ONTOGENY • Ontogeny is the origin and development of an individual organism from embryo to adult. • Within biology, ontogeny pertains to the developmental history of an organism within its own lifetime, as distinct from phylogeny, which refers to the evolutionary history of species
    16. 16. LAMARCKISM • Lamarck hypothesized that species evolve through use and disuse of body parts and the inheritance of acquired characteristics. • The mechanisms he proposed are unsupported by evidence.
    17. 17. EXAMPLE USED TO EXPLAIN LAMARCKISM THEORY • Giraffes stretching their necks to reach leaves high in trees (especially Acacias), strengthen and gradually lengthen their necks. These giraffes have offspring with slightly longer necks (also known as "soft inheritance").
    18. 18. NEO DARWINISM • Darwinism as modified by the findings of modern genetics, stating that mutations due to random copying errors in DNA cause variation within a population of individual organisms and that natural selection acts upon these variations.
    19. 19. PUNCTUATED EQUILIBRIUM (P. 502) • The fossil record includes examples of species that appear suddenly, persist essentially unchanged for some time, and then apparently disappear • Niles Eldredge and Stephen Jay Gould coined the term punctuated equilibrium to describe periods of apparent stasis punctuated by sudden change • The punctuated equilibrium model contrasts with a model of gradual change in a species’ existence.
    20. 20. PUNCTUATED CHANGE VS. GRADUAL CHANGE
    21. 21. CHARLES DARWIN: THE FATHER OF EVOLUTION
    22. 22. DARWIN’S RESEARCH • As a boy and into adulthood, Charles Darwin had a consuming interest in nature • Darwin first studied medicine (unsuccessfully), and then theology at Cambridge University • After graduating, he took an unpaid position as naturalist and companion to Captain Robert FitzRoy for a 5-year around the world voyage on the Beagle
    23. 23. DARWIN’S: VOYAGE OF THE BEAGLE • During his travels on the Beagle, Darwin collected specimens of South American plants and animals • He observed adaptations of plants and animals that inhabited many diverse environments. • His interest in geographic distribution of species was kindled by a stop at the Galápagos Islands near the equator west of South America.
    24. 24. VOYAGE ROUTE OF THE BEAGLE
    25. 25. DARWIN’S FOCUS ON ADAPTATION • In reassessing his observations, Darwin perceived adaptation to the environment and the origin of new species as closely related processes • From studies made years after Darwin’s voyage, biologists have concluded that this is indeed what happened to the Galápagos finches
    26. 26. BEAK VARIATION IN GALAPAGOS FINCHES
    27. 27. DARWIN’S BOOK: ON THE ORIGIN OF SPECIES • Darwin developed two main ideas: • Descent with modification explains life’s unity and diversity • Natural selection is a cause of adaptive evolution
    28. 28. • Darwin never used the word evolution in the first edition of The Origin of Species • The phrase descent with modification summarized Darwin’s perception of the unity of life. • The phrase refers to the view that all organisms are related through descent from an ancestor that lived in the remote past. • In the Darwinian view, the history of life is like a tree with branches representing life’s diversity
    29. 29. ARTIFICIAL SELECTION • Darwin noted that humans have modified other species by selecting and breeding individuals with desired traits, a process called artificial selection.
    30. 30. THESE DIFFERENT VEGETABLES HAVE ALL BEEN SELECTED FROM ONE SPECIES OF WILD MUSTARD. BY SELECTING VARIATIONS IN DIFFERENT PARTS OF THE BR PLANT, BREEDERS HAVE OBTAINED THESE DIVERGENT RESULTS.
    31. 31. • Darwin then described four observations of nature and from these drew two inferences; 1. Observation 1: Members of a population often vary greatly in their traits. 2. Observation 2: Traits are inherited from parents to offspring. 3. Observation 3: All species are capable of producing more offspring than the environment can support. 4. Observation 4: Owing to lack of food or other resources, many of these offspring do not survive.
    32. 32. • Inference 1: Individuals whose inherited traits give them a higher probability of surviving and reproducing in a given environment tend to have more offspring than other individuals. • Inference 2: This unequal ability of individuals to survive and reproduce will lead to the accumulation of favourable traits in the population over generations.
    33. 33. NATURAL SELECTION • Individuals with certain heritable characteristics survive and reproduce at a higher rate than other individuals • Natural selection increases the adaptation of organisms to their environment over time • If an environment changes over time, natural selection may result in adaptation to these new conditions and may give rise to new species
    34. 34. EXAMPLES OF EVOLUTIONARY ADAPTATION: CAMOPHLAGE
    35. 35. • Note that individuals do not evolve; populations evolve over time • Natural selection can only increase or decrease heritable traits in a population • Adaptations vary with different environments.
    36. 36. FORMATION OF NEW SPECIES • Speciation: the origin of new species. • Microevolution consists of adaptations that evolve within a population, confined to one gene pool • Macroevolution refers to evolutionary change above the species level.
    37. 37. BIOLOGICAL SPECIES CONCEPT • The biological species concept states that a species is a group of populations whose members have the potential to interbreed in nature and produce viable, fertile offspring; they do not breed successfully with other populations.
    38. 38. SPECIATION • Speciation can occur in two ways: • Allopatric speciation • Sympatric speciation
    39. 39. ALLOPATRIC SPECIATION • In allopatric speciation, gene flow is interrupted or reduced when a population is divided into geographically isolated subpopulations. (barriers separate them) • The definition of barrier depends on the ability of a population to disperse. • Separate populations may evolve independently through mutation, natural selection, and genetic drift. • In allopatric speciation, geographic isolation restricts gene flow between populations
    40. 40. • Regions with many geographic barriers typically have more species than do regions with fewer barriers Allopatric speciation of antelope squirrels on opposite rims of the Grand Canyon • Reproductive isolation between populations generally increases as the distance between them increases.
    41. 41. SYMPATRIC SPECIATION • In sympatric speciation, speciation takes place in geographically overlapping populations • Sympatric speciation can also result from the appearance of new ecological niches • For example, the North American maggot fly can live on native hawthorn trees as well as more recently introduced apple trees.
    42. 42. • In sympatric speciation, a reproductive barrier isolates a subset of a population without geographic separation from the parent species. • Sympatric speciation can result from polyploidy, natural selection, or sexual selection.
    43. 43. REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION • Reproductive isolation is the existence of biological factors (barriers) that impede two species from producing viable, fertile offspring. • Hybrids are the offspring of crosses between different species
    44. 44. MECHANISMS OF REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION • Breeding at different times of the year • Species specific courtship behaviour (animals) • Adaptation to different pollinators (plants) • Incompatibility of external reproductive organs (mating) • Prevention of embryonic development • Prevention of fertilisation • Infertile offspring
    45. 45. INFERTILE OFFSPRING HORSE AND DONKEY
    46. 46. EVOLUTION IN PRESENT TIMES • Important example of natural selection and evolution: • HIV resistance to anti-retrovirals
    47. 47. • The use of drugs to combat HIV selects for viruses resistant to these drugs. • HIV uses the enzyme reverse transcriptase to make a DNA version of its own RNA genome. • The drug 3TC is designed to interfere and cause errors in the manufacture of DNA from the virus. • Some individual HIV viruses have a variation that allows them to produce DNA without errors. • These viruses have a greater reproductive success and increase in number relative to the susceptible viruses. • The population of HIV viruses has therefore developed resistance to 3TC • The ability of bacteria and viruses to evolve rapidly poses a challenge to our society.

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