History of Public Libraries


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History of Public Libraries

  2. 2. Bookmobiles 1905 Mary Lemist Titcomb creates the first bookmobile using a horse-drawn carriage at the Washington County Free Library in Hagerstown, Maryland Customizing the Logo 1912 The first automotive bookmobile! It was an International Harvester Autowagon with a customized body to carry books 1915 A motorized "library bus" was introduced in Hibbing, Minnesota
  3. 3. Libraries during Wartime Customizing the Logo <ul><li>  1914 WWI Begins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Public libraries saw war as an opportunity to extend their services and to increase their professional authority </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>While the US remained neutral, libraries attempted to provide materials that offered a fair and balanced reporting of the war abroad </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>German and British governments vied to influence America's official neutrality through propaganda campaigns conducted through public libraries  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sent unsolicited materials </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Anonymous donations to be spent on German books </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Donated books </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sent lists and bulletins recommending German books </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Libraries during Wartime Customizing the Logo <ul><li>   1917 US enters WWI </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Libraries are convenient, efficient, and readily available to disseminate information about the war  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Federal, state, and local government welcomed their help  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Government agencies sought to tap the library as a resource for circulating information they wanted give the public </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Goals for Libraries during WWI Customizing the Logo <ul><ul><li>&quot;Act as an agency of patriotic publicity&quot; to post and distribute any government war literature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>President's messages and war proclamations, federal legislation, any state decrees and bulletins concerning the war, and useful information from the Red Cross and other voluntary associations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If this information was not freely available, the public library had a responsibility to get it  </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All public libraries should furnish reading material on patriotism, the flag, military and naval training, and the &quot;truth&quot; about the war </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Set up bulletin boards identifying the nearest recruiting station, post lists of opportunities for national service in the armed services, identify members of the national and state councils of defense </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Libraries during Wartime Customizing the Logo <ul><ul><li>Huge increase in circulation of war books </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Display areas with maps charting Allied advances </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Served as recruiting stations, community spaces  </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Libraries during Wartime Customizing the Logo <ul><ul><li>ALA's War Service Library provided reading materials to soldiers and sailors at home and abroad </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Operated camp and hospital libraries </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Distributed books in Europe & Siberia; books-by-mail program </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Book drives to solicit magazines for military hospitals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This program laid the foundation for today's armed services libraries  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public libraries aided in collecting books for the War Service Library to stock training camp facilitates across the nation </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Propaganda Customizing the Logo
  9. 9. Libraries during Wartime Customizing the Logo <ul><ul><li>Worked together with schools to indoctrinate children  </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>  Intellectual freedom issues:   </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Withdrawal of questionable literature </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some libraries boasted about book burnings </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Refusal to admit new material of a &quot;suspicious nature&quot; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ensured that patriotic literature be given the widest dissemination possible  </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>American public librarians fell victim to the same wartime hysteria as many professions and institutions </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Libraries during the Depression Customizing the Logo <ul><ul><li>Public libraries tried to provide training in useful skills for people recently unemployed or those struggling to make ends meet </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Capitalized on the growing general fear of the unemployed by positioning the library as a mechanism for social control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The library, by keeping the masses busy with reading, would prevent the spread of revolutionary thought  </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Belief that by reading and reflecting on the right books, an educated citizenry could develop a rational solution to the depression </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A poster slogan: &quot;Turn discontent to constructive reform&quot; </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Works Progress Adminstration (WPA) Customizing the Logo <ul><ul><li>Library projects covered library extension, book repair, and book cataloging and indexing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Library Extension program established thousands of new libraries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Book repair projects provided jobs and saved libraries and schools money through the reconditioning of dilapidated books </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Federal Writers Program authors like Studs Terkel, Nelson Algren, Saul Bellow </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The WPA ’s Historical Records Survey undertook massive indexing and cataloging project </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Works Progress Adminstration (WPA) Customizing the Logo <ul><ul><li>Packhorse librarians in Appalachia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Houseboat librarian along the Yazoo River in Mississippi </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Customizing the Logo <ul><ul><li>1933 TVA created to provide navigation, flood control, electricity, and economic development in the Tennessee Valley </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most rural counties in the Tennessee Valley had no public library, and some were extreme in their isolation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1934 TVA hires Mary Utopia Rothrock, the director of the Knoxville Public Library to supervise the TVA libraries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Set up the first rural library in Norris, Tennessee, the model company town </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rothrock believed it was critical to make books available in remote locations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Established small 4,000- to 5,000-volume libraries in stores, post offices, and filling stations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Wherever they live or work, the library follows.” </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Public Libraries during WWII Customizing the Logo <ul><ul><li>Even after Pearl Harbor, librarians in Hawaii still took books to army camps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Libraries around the country were shook up </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Moved collections, worked with police & fire departments, strengthened security, trained midwives </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CPL shifted emphasis from industrial training to defense issues </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>mounted war maps </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Worked with government agencies to help disseminate information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>US Information Service, Office of Civilian Defense </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Desire for libraries to be a part of federal programs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>War information centers to help citizens keep up with rapid changes and new regulations (i.e. Detroit Public Library) </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Public Libraries during WWII Customizing the Logo <ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Story time featured tales of legendary Americans who &quot;seemed to embody American ideals&quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Helping the war effort: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Knitting,  cutting bandages, and studying first-aid </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Registrars for rationing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Spoke to women about wartime regulations, food conservation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bookmobile drivers brought news to those without radios </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Public Libraries during WWII Customizing the Logo <ul><ul><li>Shrinking staff </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Called into service </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Left for jobs in the war industry with lucrative salaries </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some women left to marry or follow their husbands </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some libraries granted unpaid leaves and promised jobs upon their return </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employed older women </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hired Japanese women, but they were not allowed any contact with the public </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Firemen and red cross drivers took over bookmobile routes </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Public Libraries during WWII Customizing the Logo <ul><ul><li>1944 ALA wants libraries to assist in military and industrial demobilization  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Revival of library adult education efforts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1945 War is over! Demand for technical,war, and peace books die down </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Readjustment to civilian life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shifted to recreational reading </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Growing interest in race relations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Home & design, precursor to consumer culture of 1950s </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>  Individual libraries responded differently; some didn't change in response to war </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Those kept their communities' needs in mind fared better than those who did not </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. McCarthyism & Libraries Customizing the Logo <ul><ul><li>Those who wanted to weed out subversion in libraries focused on: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>library staff </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>library services  </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>collection </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Logistical challenges as well as federal laws blocked many books and periodicals from entering the United States </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1952 Rep. Harold Velde proposed a bill to provide that the Library of Congress should mark all subversive matter in the collection and compile a list for the guidance of other libraries in the US. The bill never made it out of committee </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. McCarthyism & Libraries Customizing the Logo <ul><ul><li>Challenged books, films, and periodicals deemed overly sympathetic in their treatment of the Soviet Union </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also criticized libraries for not including books that they viewed as shining examples of American patriotism  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sen. Joseph McCarthy ’s book, McCarthyism, The Fight for America: Documented Answers to Questions Asked by Friend and Foe </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Labeling: system of stamping books to indicate that the author had known Communist affiliations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Variations on labeling: Stamped books should not be circulated, only available in reference </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  20. 20. Loyalty Programs <ul><ul><li>1947 President Truman signed the Executive Order 9835 AKA The Loyalty Order </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employees required to sign an oath indicating whether or not they had or continued to have any affiliations with organizations considered subversive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Those who admitted to affiliations, were suspected of lying, or refused to sign the oath were investigated, which often led to being fired and blacklisted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As many librarians were public employees, they were required to submit to loyalty programs operating at the state or local level </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Banned Items Customizing the Logo <ul><ul><li>Howard Fast's Tom Paine for vulgarity, but more likely because of his ties to the Communist Party </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Series of articles that were critical of the Catholic Church </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Nation was a well-known political magazine whose leftist editorial stance had long been established </li></ul></ul>