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Internet of Things (IoT) Intro

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Introduction to IoT and key challenges.
Presented at Brisbane Tech Newbies meetup April 2018.

Published in: Internet
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Internet of Things (IoT) Intro

  1. 1. Internet of Things (IoT) Intro Anna Gerber
  2. 2. Anna Maker of Things
  3. 3. Efficiency
  4. 4. IoT Applications Manufacturing Energy Wearables Healthcare (Ingestibles!) Retail Smart Buildings Automotive Connected Cities Agriculture Entertainment
  5. 5. Devices The things
  6. 6. Device Hardware Microcontrollers ● System on a Chip (SoC)-based ● Data processing & storage ● GPIO pins ● Popular development boards: ○ Arduino ○ Espressif ESP8266 & ESP32 ○ Particle ○ TI LaunchPad series Development Kits Single-Board Computers ● Higher processing, RAM & data storage capabilities ● Peripheral support (via USB, Bluetooth) ● Popular boards: ○ Raspberry Pi ○ Orange Pi ○ BeagleBone Black & Green ○ Qualcomm DragonBoard
  7. 7. Inputs / Sensors ● Temperature / Humidity ● Pressure / Force ● Smoke & Gas ● Current ● Magnetic ● Light ● Sound / Vibration ● Air & Water-flow ● Buttons / Touch ● Acceleration ● Proximity / Position etc... ● Linear actuator ● Solenoid ● Motor ● Relay ● LED ○ Matrix ○ Strip ○ Ring ○ OLED screen ● LCD screen ● Piezo / speaker Outputs / Actuators
  8. 8. Network Connecting the things
  9. 9. 7 Application 6 Presentation 5 Session 4 Transport 3 Network 2 Data Link 1 Physical Application Transport Internet Network Access & Physical OSI Model TCP/IP Model HTTPS, CoAP, MQTT, AMQP, XMPP UDP, TCP IPv6, 6LoWPAN, RPL IoT Protocols IEEE 802.15.4 Wifi (802.11 a/b/g/n) Ethernet (802.3) Cellular IoT Network Stack
  10. 10. The nice thing about standards is that you have so many to choose from — Andrew S. Tanenbaum
  11. 11. IoT Protocols Network Access & Physical Layer: ● IEEE 802.15.4 Low-Rate Wireless Personal Area Networks (LR-WPAN) e.g. ZigBee ● Wifi (802.11 a/b/g/n) ● Ethernet (802.3) ● LP-WAN (Low Power Wide Area Network) e.g. LoRa, SigFox ● Low Energy Bluetooth (BLE) ● Cellular: GSM, CDMA, 4G, LTE-M, NB-IoT ● RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) ● NFC (Near Field Communication) Internet Layer: ● IPv6 (Internet Protocol version 6) ● 6LoWPAN (IPv6 Low-power wireless Personal Area Network) ● RPL (IPv6 Routing Protocol for Low-power and lossy networks) Transport Layer: ● UDP (User Datagram Protocol) ● TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) Application Layer: ● HTTP/HTTPS (Hypertext Transfer Protocol/Secure) ● CoAP (Constrained Application Protocol) ● MQTT (Message Queue Telemetry Transport) ● AMQP (Advanced Message Queuing Protocol) e.g. RabbitMQ ● XMPP (Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol) … and many more
  12. 12. Network Topologies Star Tree Bus Mesh Ring Fully connected mesh
  13. 13. Key Challenges of IoT
  14. 14. Security Securing the network, the things and their data
  15. 15. Security challenges Securing devices Authorizing and authenticating devices Managing device updates Securing communication Ensuring data security Securing applications (web, mobile, cloud) Detecting vulnerabilities Detecting incidents Managing vulnerabilities Predicting incidents Read more: https://developer.ibm.com/dwblog/2017/iot-security-challenges/
  16. 16. IoT Security Strategies: ● Securing devices, network architectures and upstream applications & services (mobile / cloud) ● Authentication & Access control ● Port protection ● Encryption (message confidentiality) ● Digital signatures (message integrity) ● Event monitoring ● Activity logging ● Replay protection ● Threat assessment ● Ethical hacking / penetration testing
  17. 17. Usability & User Experience How people use the things and their data
  18. 18. Designing for IoT Transition from screen-based UIs (mobile / web apps) to (multiple) “invisible” interfaces ● Voice (Alexa, Google Home, Siri) ● Gestures ● Ambient interactions ● Augmented Reality Context Awareness Device hardware limitations Imperfect connectivity Accessibility
  19. 19. IoT at Scale Managing complexity
  20. 20. Edge Architecture 20 Edge Devices (with Sensors & Actuators) Gateways Wifi, BLE, NFC, RFID, ZigBee Cloud Storage Services Rules Engine MQTT AMQP CoAP HTTP/S Mobile Apps Web Apps Enterprise Apps HTTP/S Web sockets
  21. 21. IoT Platforms IoT Platform Capabilities ● Rapid application development ● Device management ● Data communication ● Data storage ● Authentication and Authorization services ● Rules and analytics ● Automation & Orchestration Example Platforms IBM Watson IoT (Bluemix) Kaa - Open Source, model-driven Amazon Web Services (AWS) IoT Microsoft Azure IoT Google Cloud IoT
  22. 22. Interoperability Handling heterogeneity
  23. 23. Full-stack interoperability ● Hardware protocols for connecting sensors & actuators e.g. CAN, SPI, I2C ● Over the air updates for device firmware and maintaining interoperability with devices that can’t be updated ● APIs for registering / managing / decommissioning devices ● Network protocols ● Data formats ● Metadata formats ● APIs for querying / filtering / managing / integrating / analyzing data ● Deploying & orchestrating apps & services ● Platform interoperability: avoid silos & lock-in
  24. 24. Data Analytics & Business Intelligence Making sense of and acting on data from the things
  25. 25. The world’s data doubles every two years
  26. 26. Data Analytics & Business Intelligence Edge Computing Filtering, normalization & pre-processing Real-time / stream analytics Data Storage & Management: NoSQL (Cassandra, DynamoDB, CouchDB, MongoDB, HBase) Time Series DB (InfluxDB, Riak, Prometheus, Graphite) Data transformation & integration, tracking provenance, ensuring reliability Distributed processing frameworks: Hadoop Spark Data visualization Machine Learning / AI: Data mining Pattern recognition Predictive analytics Actionable Insights
  27. 27. Learn more Attend the Brisbane IoT Meetup DeveloperWorks IoT learning paths https://www.ibm.com/developerworks/learn/iot/index.html
  28. 28. @AnnaGerber

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