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Divoli Presentation at EBI Apr2011 Usability Part

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Part of a talk given by Anna Divoli at EBI in April 2011.
Outline of three usability studies conducted for the development of the BioText Search Engine.
http://biosearch.berkeley.edu/

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Divoli Presentation at EBI Apr2011 Usability Part

  1. 1. European Bioinformatics Institute 13 - Apr - 2011 Human factors in computational biology: from mathematical models to user interfaces Anna Divoli
  2. 2. Outline <ul><li>Human factors: expert opinions & usability studies </li></ul><ul><li>BioText Usability Studies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>HCI principles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Studies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Expert Opinions </li></ul><ul><li>Interviews </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Results </li></ul>motivation  [usability studies…]  [expert opinions…]  acknowledgments
  3. 3. BioText Search Engine Marti A. Hearst, Anna Divoli, Harendra Guturu, Alex Ksikes, Preslav Nakov, Michael A. Wooldridge and Jerry Ye (2007) “BioText Search Engine: beyond abstract search” Bioinformatics, 23: 2196-2197 motivation  BioText  HCI  Usability Studies: one, two, three  Conclusions  [expert opinions…]  acknowledgments
  4. 4. Tools for: machines… workflows… end users! motivation  BioText  HCI  Usability Studies: one, two, three  Conclusions  [expert opinions…]  acknowledgments
  5. 5. <ul><li>Design for the user, not for the designers or the system </li></ul><ul><li>Needs assessment: who users are what their goals are what tasks they need to perform </li></ul><ul><li>Task analysis: characterize what steps users need to take create scenarios of actual use decide which users and tasks to support </li></ul><ul><li>Iterate between: designing & evaluating </li></ul>HCI principles motivation  BioText  HCI  Usability Studies: one, two, three  Conclusions  [expert opinions…]  acknowledgments Design Prototype Evaluate
  6. 6. <ul><li>Make use of cognitive principles where available </li></ul><ul><li>Important guidelines: Reduce memory load Speak the user ’s language Provide helpful feedback Respect perceptual principles </li></ul><ul><li>Prototypes: Get feedback on the design faster Experiment with alternative designs Fix problems before code is written Keep the design centered on the user </li></ul>HCI principles motivation  BioText  HCI  Usability Studies: one, two, three  Conclusions  [expert opinions…]  acknowledgments
  7. 7. Three Usability Studies for BioText: Study 1 <ul><li>Pilot study before releasing BioText to the public </li></ul><ul><li>Hearst, M.A., Divoli, A., Ye, J. and Wooldridge, M.A. (2007) &quot;Exploring the Efficacy of Caption Search for Bioscience Journal Search Interfaces&quot;, BioNLP Workshop at ACL 2007 </li></ul><ul><li>Primary Goal: Determine whether biological researchers would find the idea </li></ul><ul><li>of caption search and figure display to be useful or not . </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary Goal: Should caption search and figure display be useful, how </li></ul><ul><li>best to support these features in the interface . </li></ul><ul><li>8 participants, in person, via campus recruitment </li></ul><ul><li>three views, order of presentation was varied, used their own queries </li></ul><ul><li>we remained objective, evaluation via open-ended discussions & questionnaires </li></ul>motivation  BioText  HCI  Usability Studies: one , two, three  Conclusions  [expert opinions…]  acknowledgments
  8. 9. <ul><li>7 out of 8 said they would want to use one of the caption search interfaces in their bioscience journal article searches </li></ul><ul><li>Many participants noted that caption search would be better for some tasks than others </li></ul><ul><li>Best to show all the thumbnails that correspond to a given article after full text search </li></ul><ul><li>Best to show only the figure that corresponds to the caption in the caption search view </li></ul><ul><li>All four participants who saw the Grid view liked it, but noted that the metadata shown was insufficient : wanted to see title and other bibliographic data </li></ul>Study 1: Results motivation  BioText  HCI  Usability Studies: one , two, three  Conclusions  [expert opinions…]  acknowledgments
  9. 10. Three Usability Studies for BioText: Study 2 2. Study that explored whether or not to show term-extracted entity information to users Divoli, A., Hearst, M.A. and Wooldridge, M.A. (2008) &quot;Evidence for Showing Gene/Protein Name Suggestions in Bioscience Literature Search&quot;, PSB 2008 First Goal: Determine whether or not bioscience literature searchers wish to see related term suggestions (gene and protein names) Second Goal: Determine how to display to users term expansions - online surveys: 38 & 19 participants motivation  BioText  HCI  Usability Studies: one, two , three  Conclusions  [expert opinions…]  acknowledgments
  10. 11. Related Information Type Avg rating # selecting 1 or 2 Gene’s Synonyms 4.4 2 Gene’s Synonyms refined by organism 4.0 2 Gene’s Homologs 3.7 5 Genes from same family: parents 3.4 7 Genes from same family: children 3.6 4 Genes from same family: siblings 3.2 9 Genes this gene interacts with 3.7 4 Diseases this gene is associated with 3.4 6 Chemicals/drugs this gene is associated with 3.2 8 Localization information for this gene 3.7 3 1 2 3 4 5 (Do NOT want this) (Neutral) (REALLY want this) Study 2a: Results
  11. 12. Design 1: baseline motivation  BioText  HCI  Usability Studies: one, two , three  Conclusions  [expert opinions…]  acknowledgments
  12. 13. Design 2: links motivation  BioText  HCI  Usability Studies: one, two , three  Conclusions  [expert opinions…]  acknowledgments
  13. 14. Design 3: checkboxes motivation  BioText  HCI  Usability Studies: one, two , three  Conclusions  [expert opinions…]  acknowledgments
  14. 15. Design 4: categories motivation  BioText  HCI  Usability Studies: one, two , three  Conclusions  [expert opinions…]  acknowledgments
  15. 16. Study 2b: Results motivation  BioText  HCI  Usability Studies: one, two , three  Conclusions  [expert opinions…]  acknowledgments Design Participants who rated design 1st or 2nd Average rating (1=low, 4=high) # % 3: checkboxes 15 79 3.3 4: categories 10 53 2.6 2: links 9 47 2.5 1: baseline 0 0 1.6
  16. 17. <ul><li>Strong desire for the search system to suggest information closely related to gene/protein names. </li></ul><ul><li>Some interest in less closely related information. </li></ul><ul><li>All participants want to see organism names in conjunction with gene names. </li></ul><ul><li>A majority of participants prefer to see term suggestions grouped by type (synonyms, homologs, etc). </li></ul><ul><li>Split in preference between single-click hyperlink interaction (categories or single terms) and checkbox -style interaction. </li></ul><ul><li>The majority of participants prefers to have the option to chose either individual names or whole groups with one click . </li></ul><ul><li>Split in preference between the system suggesting only names that it is highly confident are related and include names that it is less confident about under a “show more” link . </li></ul>Study 2: More Results motivation  BioText  HCI  Usability Studies: one, two , three  Conclusions  [expert opinions…]  acknowledgments
  17. 18. 3. Final study once the project was completed Divoli, A., Hearst, M.A. and Wooldridge, M.A. (2010) &quot;Full Text and Figure Display Improves Bioscience Literature Search ”, PLoS ONE 5(4): e9619 Four Hypotheses: H1: Most participants would have a favorable response to the display of the articles’ figures next to the search results, for most information seeking tasks. H2: Most participants would have a favorable response to searching over the full text , as opposed to just the abstract and title, for the primary search view. H3: Some participants would find the grid view with caption search appealing for specialized information seeking tasks. H4: Some participants would find the table view with table text and caption search appealing for specialized information seeking tasks . motivation  BioText  HCI  Usability Studies: one, two, three  Conclusions  [expert opinions…]  acknowledgments Three Usability Studies for BioText: Study 3 - in person surveys: 20 participants   15/20 10/20 7/20
  18. 19. motivation  BioText  HCI  Usability Studies: one, two, three  Conclusions  [expert opinions…]  acknowledgments Study 3: Results Text search Figure caption search Table search Frequently 15 8 6 Sometimes 4 7 4 Rarely 0 4 7 Never 0 0 2 Undecided 1 1 1
  19. 20. motivation  BioText  HCI  Usability Studies: one, two, three  Conclusions  [expert opinions…]  acknowledgments Study 3: More Results - Favourable features <ul><li>- Ability to see figure thumbnails . </li></ul><ul><li>Direct links to full paper without going through PubMed. </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to see excerpts and search in captions . </li></ul><ul><li>Good to have two figure view options ; grid is good for a quick browse. </li></ul><ul><li>Colors are helpful: easy to keep track what you are looking at. </li></ul><ul><li>The layout , it is easy to navigate. </li></ul><ul><li>Highlighting . </li></ul><ul><li>The expand options don’t require reload so it is fast. </li></ul><ul><li>Clear display/layout. Intuitive/simple. Not distracting despite all the information. </li></ul><ul><li>The caption is viewable without extra work. </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to link to all figures from one paper. </li></ul>
  20. 21. Usability Conclusions motivation  BioText  HCI  Usability Studies: one, two, three  Conclusions  [expert opinions…]  acknowledgments <ul><li>Biology/bioinformatics are unique. </li></ul><ul><li>Don ’t assume you know how users think. </li></ul><ul><li>You have to watch them interact with an interface. </li></ul><ul><li>You can never please everybody. </li></ul><ul><li>Several testing iterations are required. </li></ul><ul><li>We need to be publishing more usability studies ’ outcomes in Bioinformatics. </li></ul>
  21. 22. Acknowledgements Andrey Rzhetsky Eneida Mendonca James Evans Sarah White Zoe Nyssa Rzhetsky Lab LICR pre-interviews (4) interviews (28) focus group (7) Very grateful to all the experts/participants! Funded by: Marti Hearst Mike Wooldridge Preslav Nakov Jerry Ye Ariel Schwartz Harendra Gututru Alex Ksikes NSF, Genentech study 1 (8) study 2 (48) study 3 (20) motivation  [usability studies…]  [expert opinions…]  acknowledgments

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