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Circulatory system


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Circulatory system

  1. 1. System Circulatory
  2. 2. Circulatory system -is an organ system that passes nutrients, gases, hormones, blood cells to and from cells in the body Circulation -the movement of blood within the body.
  3. 3. A good circulation is essential to life. The cells making up the different tissues of the body need oxygen and food to maintain life. The oxygen and food are delivered to the cells by the blood, which also distributes hormones and other substances throughout the body.
  4. 4. The kidneys, lungs, sweat glands and liver eliminate carbon dioxide and other waste products from the body either by excretion or by changing wastes into harmless substances
  5. 5. Circulatory system increases the flow of blood to meet increased energy demands during exercise and regulates body temperature. In addition, when foreign substances or organisms invade the body, the circulatory system swiftly conveys disease-fighting elements of the immune system, such as white blood cells and antibodies, to regions under attack.
  6. 6. Also, in the case of injury or bleeding, the circulatory system sends clotting cells and proteins to the affected site, which quickly stop bleeding and promote healing. Circulatory system in vertebrates has two main divisions: - the cardiovascular system and - the lymphatic system
  7. 7. LYMPHATIC SYSTEM  Responsible for the removal of interstitial fluid from tissues  It absorbs and transports fatty acids and fats as chyle from the digestive system  It transports white blood cells to and from the lymph nodes into the bones  The lymph transports antegen- presenting cells to the lymph nodes where an immune response is stimulated CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM  Transport of nutrients , oxygen and hormones to cells throughout the body and removal of metabolic wastes  Protection of the body by white blood cells, antibodies and complement protections that circulates in the blood and defend the body against foreign microbes and toxins. Clotting mechanisms are also present that protect the body from blood loss after injuries  Regulation of body temperature, fluid ph and water content of cells FUNCTION OF CARDIOVASCULAR AND LYMPHATIC SYSTEM
  8. 8. Cardiovascular system -distributes blood. -Have the three main components: the HEART, BLOOD, and BLOOD VESSEL
  9. 9. HEART The heart is the engine of the circulatory system. It is divided into four chambers: the right atrium, the right ventricle, the left atrium, and the left ventricle. The walls of these chambers are made of a special muscle called myocardium, which contracts continuously and rhythmically to pump blood.
  10. 10. The pumping action of the heart occurs in two stages for each heart beat: diastole, when the heart is at rest; and systole, when the heart contracts to pump deoxygenated blood toward the lungs and oxygenated blood to the body. During each heartbeat, typically about 60 to 90 ml (about 2 to 3 oz) of blood are pumped out of the heart. If the heart stops pumping, death usually occurs within four to five minutes.
  11. 11. BLOOD A fluid that is pumped by the heart and circulates throughout the body. The function of the blood is to carry nutrients, oxygen and hormones to all tissues of the body and to carry waste products and carbon dioxide away from the tissues. Blood consists of three types of cells: oxygen-bearing red blood cells, disease- fighting white blood cells, and blood-clotting platelets, all of which are carried through blood vessels in a liquid called plasma. Plasma is yellowish and consists of water, salts, proteins, vitamins, minerals, hormones, dissolved gases, and fats.
  12. 12. BLOOD VESSEL Three types of blood vessels form a complex network of tubes throughout the body. Arteries carry blood away from the heart, and veins carry it toward the heart. Capillaries are the tiny links between the arteries and the veins where oxygen and nutrients diffuse to body tissues. The inner layer of blood vessels is lined with endothelial cells that create a smooth passage for the transit of blood.
  13. 13. This inner layer is surrounded by connective tissue and smooth muscle that enable the blood vessel to expand or contract. Blood vessels expand during exercise to meet the increased demand for blood and to cool the body. Blood vessels contract after an injury to reduce bleeding and also to conserve body heat.
  14. 14. Arteries have thicker walls than veins to withstand the pressure of blood being pumped from the heart. Blood in the veins is at a lower pressure, so veins have one-way valves to prevent blood from flowing backwards away from the heart. Capillaries, the smallest of blood vessels, are only visible by microscope—ten capillaries lying side by side are barely as thick as a human hair.
  15. 15. If all the arteries, veins, and capillaries in the human body were placed end to end, the total length would equal more than 100,000 km (more than 60,000 mi)—they could stretch around the earth nearly two and a half times.
  16. 16. The arteries, veins, and capillaries are divided into two systems of circulation: systemic and pulmonary. The systemic circulation carries oxygenated blood from the heart to all the tissues in the body except the lungs and returns deoxygenated blood carrying waste products, such as carbon dioxide, back to the heart.
  17. 17. The pulmonary circulation carries this spent blood from the heart to the lungs. In the lungs, the blood releases its carbon dioxide and absorbs oxygen. The oxygenated blood then returns to the heart before transferring to the systemic circulation.
  18. 18. Circulation of blood in the heart The heart pumps oxygenated blood to the body and deoxygenated blood to the lungs. In the human heart there is one atrium and one ventricle for each circulation, and with both a systemic and a pulmonary reaction there are four chambers. The right atrium is the upper chamber of the right side of the heart. The blood that is returned to the right atrium is deoxygenated and passed into the right ventricle to be pumped through the pulmonary artery to the lungs for re-oxygenation and removal of carbon dioxide. The left atrium receives newly oxygenated blood from the lungs as well as the pulmonary vein which is passed into the strong left ventricle to be pumped through the aorta to the different organs of the body
  19. 19. Lymphatic system -system that collects intercellular fluid in the body Lymph vessel -carry a clear fluid called lymph unidirectionally towards the heart. -have one-way valves to prevent any backward flow.
  20. 20. Lymph -a clear yellowish fluid made of white blood cells, especially lymphocytes, the cells that attack bacteria in the blood and fluid from the intestines called chyle, which contains proteins and fats. -lymph only flows in only one direction within its own system. This flow is only upward toward the neck. Here it flows into the venous blood stream through the subclavian veins which are located on either sides of the neck near the collarbones.
  21. 21. Lymph node -there are between 600-700 lymph nodes present in the average human body. It produce immune cells that help the body fight infection. They also filter the lymph fluid and removed foreign material such as bacteria and cancer cells. When bacteria recognized in the lymph fluid, the lymph nodes produce more infection-fighting white blood cells, which causes the nodes to swell.
  22. 22. The thymus, bone marrow and spleen also affect the immune system. When stimulated by the presence of antigens, they produce more antibodies. Antibodies fight antigens. Antibodies are protein molecules. Antigens are foreign substances or infectious microbes. The destroyed or altered antigens are taken in by the macrophages. If the macrophages reduce the number of antigens, internal stability continues. But if the antigens like cancer cells continue to multiply, a disease may occur.
  23. 23. Circulatory system disorders 1.Hypertension- characterized by a sudden rise in blood pressure. The person usually feels a terrible headache, a pain in the neck, dizziness and at times, sweating. This condition can result to he rupture of blood vessels. A hypertensive person usually gets a daily dosage of medication. This is to keep the blood pressure within its normal limits. It is advised that a person suffering from hypertension measures by his/her blood pressure regularly.
  24. 24. 2. Anemia- this is caused by the decrease in the number of hemoglobin in the red blood cells. This condition is due to iron deficiency. When ones suffers from anemia, the blood cannot produce enough hemoglobin. Hemoglobin is the oxygen-carrying pigment of the red blood cells. As a result, it cannot carry enough oxygen to different body cells. Anemia may be due to several causes: loss of blood, severe deficiencies in vitamin B12 or folic acid, or fast destruction of red blood cells due to diseases.
  25. 25. 3. Leukemia- leukemia occurs when the white blood cells become abnormally great in number. There are different types of leukemia. Some are curable while others are not. A person suffering from leukemia easily bruises, bleeds, and tires. He/She develops mouth and sore throats. This condition needs immediate medical attention. Anemia and leukemia may sometimes require blood transfusion.
  26. 26. 4. Heart attack- a heart attack may occur when a blood clot or fat gets lodged along the bloodstream. This blocks the passage of blood to the heart, thus preventing the heart from getting enough blood. A heart attack victim my feel pain in the neck, chest and upper abdomen. The victim may also experience difficulty in breathing. This is a medical emergency. The person must immediately see a cardiologist for proper treatment. A person may have a mild or serious heart attack. This person should remain calm and ask help.
  27. 27. 5. Arteriosclerosis- arteriosclerosis is a condition characterized by a reduction in blood flow. It is caused by fat or cholesterol deposited on the arterial wall. The fat deposits on the arterial wall narrows the area which through blood can flow resulting to high blood pressure. Arteriosclerosis may lead to the development of a serious heart disease. It is worsened by high blood pressure. The cholesterol-thickened walls of the arteries may become so narrow that the blood cannot flow easily. It is important that people monitor the amount of cholesterol they take. There are medical tests that easily can tell you how much cholesterol you have .
  28. 28. 6.Rheumatic heart fever- is a complication of a throat infection. It is caused by certain strains of streptococcus bacteria. It is accompanied by high fever and swollen painful joints. The muscles are weakened. The person easily tires and as usually pale. This kind of illness requires a doctor’s cares. The person needs to get long periods of rests
  29. 29. 7.Palpitation or irregular heartbeats- this condition maybe brought about by tension, disease or harmful changes. A person may feel the sudden change in her/his heartbeat from fast to slow or vise-versa. The change may bring about clammy palms , weakness and fatigue
  30. 30. CIRCULATORY SYSTEMS IN NONHUMAN One-celled organisms and many simple multicelled animals, such as sponges, jellyfishes, sea anemones, flatworms, and roundworms, do not have a circulatory system. All of their cells are able to absorb nutrients, exchange gases, and expel wastes through direct contact with either the outside or with a central cavity that serves as a digestive tract.
  31. 31. The circulatory system of all vertebrates, as well as of annelids and cephalopods are closed , just as in human. Still the systems of fish, amphibians, reptiles and birds show various stages in the evolution of the circulatory system. In fish, the system has only one circuit, with the blood being pumped through the capillaries of the gills and on to the capillaries of the body tissues. This is known as single cycle circulation. The heart of fish is therefore only one pump
  32. 32. In amphibians and most reptiles, a double circulatory system is used but the heart is not always completely separated into two pumps. Amphibians have three-chambered heart. In reptiles, the ventricular septum of the heart is incomplete and the pulmonary artery is equipped with a sphincter muscle. This allows a second possible route of blood flow. Instead of blood flowing through the pulmonary artery to the lungs, the sphincter may be contracted to divert this blood flow through the incomplete ventricular septum into the left ventricle and out through the aorta.
  33. 33. This means the blood flows from the capillaries to the heart and back to the capillaries instead of to the lungs. This process is useful ectothermic (cold-blooded) animals in the regulation of their body temperature. Birds and mammals show complete separation of the heart into two pumps, for a total of four heart chambers; it is thought that the four- chambered heart of birds evolved independently from that of mammals
  34. 34. Report by: Annadelle Alcantara
  35. 35.  References:  Microsoft ® Encarta ® 2009. © 1993-2008 Microsoft Corporation.  New standard encyclopedia vol. 4 pg.c-341- c-344   the-Cardiovascular-System.topicArticleld- 277792,articleld277673.html  em 