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  2. 2. The JourneyMay 1, 1882 - from Calamba to ManilaP 356 - allowance" I do not know why every time I pick up your letters, I cannotkeep the tears from my eyes, especially the first letter youwrote after you had left where you said that you had passed bythe house on Monday morning, on your way off, and I wassleeping and so could not see you any more.Mother also tellsme you took very little money with you so that I am alwaysworrying how you are. That is why I want to send you thediamond ring; tell me to whom would be best to send it so that itmay get to you safely...."Saturnina Hidalgo to Jose Rizal, 26 September 1882Requoted from The First Filipino
  3. 3. "....Poor girl, what tears has she not shed from the firstdays when she arrived from her hometown and did not findyou in the house but instead five thousand leagues fromManila! Your sister Maria can tell you about it, becauseshe was in tears before her. One day she told me that shewas not in the mood for anythingm not even for herintimate friendsm and that she wanted to dye all herclothes. I replied that she should not despair because theyears pass by quickly.... and that one of your greatestsorrows, if not the only onem when you left was that youhad to be separated from her. We have to console hersome way!"Jose M. Cecilio to Jose Rizal, 16 September 1882Requoted from The First Filipino
  4. 4. On the ship with 37 other passengers" Tonight Messrs. Barco, Morlan, Pardo, Buil, and others weretalking. A lot was said about the government in the Philippines.Criticisms flowed as never before. I discovered that everyonein my poor country lives in hopes of sucking the blood of theFilipino, friars as well as administrators. There may beexceptions, they claim, but few and far between. This is thesource of great evils and enmities among those who quarrelover the booty....."Requoted from The First Filipino
  5. 5. El Amor Patrio, Diaryong Tagalog, June1882"...The love of country can never be expunged once it hasentered the heart because it bears a divine mark that makes iteternal and imperishable... ...Beautiful and great is the country when her sons, at thecall of battle, make ready to defend the ancient land of theirancestors; fierce and proud, when from her high throne seesthe stranger flee in panic before the invincible phalanx of hersons; but when, divided in opposing camps, they destroy oneanother, when anger and rancor devastate the fields, the townsand the cities, then shem in shame, tears her garments and,throwing away her scepter, puts on mourning for her dead.Whatever, then, be our situation, let us love her always and letus desire nothing but her good.....
  6. 6. .... You who have lost your hearts who wish tolove but find no one worthy, look to your country, love her!Love her, yes, but no longer as she was loved in othertimes, with the practice of ferocious virtues, denied andcondemned by true morality and the natural law, nt by thedisplay of fanaticism, destruction and cruelty, no; a brighterdawn is on the horizon, softer and more peaceful, themessanger of life and peace, the true dawn, in brief, ofChristianity, the harbinger of happy and tranquil days. Itwill be our duty to follow the arid but peaceful andproductive paths of Science which lead to progress, andthence to the union desired and called for by Jesus Christin His night of sorrow..."Written in Barcelona, Spain
  7. 7. Rizal in MadridUniversidad Central - course leading to licentiate in Medicine,Philosophy and lettersAcademia de San Fernando - painting and sculptureMadrid Ateneo - French, English and GermanSchool of Sanz and Carbonell - fencingJanuary 1883 - ItalianSeptember 1883 - took an examination in Roman Law leadingto Law
  8. 8. Sample of Rizals monthly expendituresSource: Ambeth Ocampo, Rizal Without the Overcoat Jan 4 For the barber and the 1.10 cursed Christmas present Jan 5 Los Cuatro Reynos de la 14.20 Naturaleza subscription Jan 6 Wandering Jew 10.00 Works of Horace and Dumas 2.50 Supper with a friend 32.00
  9. 9. Jan 9 without spending a centJan 12 Bath 2.00 Teatro de la Comedia 2.10 A dish newspaper and 0.30 refreshment 0.35Jan 15 One pen knife 0.30Jan 16 Postage stamps 1.30 Ball of yarn 0.50Jan 20 1/10 of a lottery ticket 3.00 Laundrywoman Domestic postage stamp 3.00 0.10
  10. 10. Jan 27 Today I had my picture taken at Otero 10.00 Half dozen postcards with cover 3.00 1/10 of lottery ticket 3.00 A box of matches 0.10Jan 29 Candles (one pound, 6) 1.25 Tickets for the dance 1.00 Coffee, refreshments, and tip 1.70Jan 30 Review for the degree 30.00 Postage stamps for letters and periodicals 2.80 A handkerchief 0.45 Streetcar 0.30 Excelsior Ball 2.50Jan 31 One book 1.00 Arte de Estudiar 2.50
  11. 11. " Money spent 257.88. Food for this month71.75. Total 329.63. This exense, which for meis large, is due to the review and the dinnerwhich I gave. The books I bought alsocontributed to it."Rizal
  12. 12. Paciano Mercados letter to Rizal,26 May 1883" As soon as his death was known, the Vicar Fray Villafrancacame to collect the money of the Church recorded in the books,but as it happened that the safe was closed and the key was inManila, by virtue of the apostolic power of the Church, hesummoned our father to the hacienda: there he commandedhim to pay the amount that was inside the safe, intimidating himwith threats revealing to the Archbishops the secrets of thedead man, that in a way concern a member of our family; as aresult of the pressure; father had to pay the money in gold andit was returned to him in silver three weeks later. Intimidatingan old man with threats of unearthing secrets that he mighthave is a truly repulsive behavior."
  13. 13. Rizals Reply to Paciano, 20 July 1883 " I have sincerely regretted the death of the parish priest, notprecisely because of our friendship, but because he was agood priest, rara avis, something not easy to find. My bloodboils every time I read what you say of Fr. Villafranca, but I amglad that his behavior confirms and justifies my dislike for him:if he had acted otherwise, perhaps I would be obliged torecognize my mistake. A bonzo or a brahman could not doworse than that: if they, the priests, the virtuous ministers ofGod, demand secrecy and avoid scandal with big words; if theywho believe in being simple like doves and wise as serpents,they who speak about respect for old people and the dead, theywho always talk about fasting, prayer and Mass, they who haveGod on their lips while stealing the coins of poor man to enrichthemselves; while threatening to reveal the faults
  14. 14. committed during youth, dishonoring the way the illustriousmemory of a wise old man, who has probably cried his faultsand has been less hypocritical than his would be judges....Noless than that should be expected from a follower ("adepto" ofthe friars, and this fact shows that I am fair in my opinions. If Ihad been there I would have challenged him to expose thefaults of the dead priest and would have shown him to be like adung beetle that devotes its days on earth to unearth dirt andrubbish. Let us see who would dare cast the first stone at thedead Fr. Leoncio, and I am sure that everyone from theArchbishop to Fr. Ambrosio would not feel invested withauthority to do it. Woe to those who can only confrontknowledge and virtue with stupid dogmatism to do it. I believe Ican perceive the petty hatred of those miserable individuals".
  15. 15. "Well, lets see if they get to enjoy the profits of thosethanksgiving masses, I dont know if heaven will close its earswhen these requests, motivated by ignorance and greed, reachit. When I see so much fanaticism, mixed with all those vilepassions, when I see so much misery in those....."
  18. 18. Excerpt from the Speech Delivered atthe Banquet" Just as a mother teaches her child to speak so as tounderstand his joys, his needs, his sorrow, so also Spain, as amother, teaches her language to the Philippines, despite theopposition of those who are so short-sighted and small-mindedthat, making sure of the present, they cannot foresee the futureand will not weigh the consequences, soured nurses, corruptand corrupting, who habitually choke every legitimate sentimentand perverting the hearts of the people, sow in them the seedsof discord whose fruit, a very wolfs bane, a very death, will begathered by the future generations..."Requoted from The First Filipino
  19. 19. MIGUEL DE •  Liberal •  33rd degree freemasonMORAYTA •  Head of the Spanish Gran Oriente •  Rizals History Professor GIORDANO BRUNO •  Dominican priest who was condemned to death by the Roman inquisition because of his public defense of atheism Source: Javier de Pedro, Rizal through a Glass Darkly
  20. 20. Letter of Professor Miguel Morayta toRizal, 23 January 1883"On the last days of February, the group will celebrate thebirthday of Giordano Bruno with a literary soiree. Onlystudents papers will be read. As I am aware of yourremarkable worth, I beg you to send me one of your writings....The evening will be dedicated to the defense of freethinking,and there is plenty of room for other issues, besides GiordanoBruno.."Requoted from Rizal: Looking through a Glass Darkly
  21. 21. " I will not get my degrees certificate while Creus is still rectorof the university. I do not want my most glorious personaldocument to be signed by a man that everyone detests....(aman) without dignity, although learned, very learned. Where heto sign it, I would tear it up."Rizal, 26 November 1884
  22. 22. Rizal to Ricardo Carcinero Dapitan, Zamboanga“ In Madrid they know perfectly well what the friars do here (in the Philippines), so much so that in the first talks I had with Pi and (Aureliano) Linares Rivas, when the latter belonged to the Liberal Party, they made me realize things which I, born in that country, did not know. Like them I could mention to you many who were equally informed of the lives and miracles of the friars in the Philippines.”
  23. 23. Paris, 1885 Mastered technique of eye operationsDr. Louis de Wecker Dr. de Wecker’s Clinic
  24. 24. Germany, 1886 Mastered the technique of diagnosis DR. BECKER’S CLINICDR. OTTO BECKER
  25. 25. “It is a pity that here in the Philippines, the principal adornment of women almost always consists of clothes and finery rather than knowledge…..if these qualities that nature gives the women there were exalted by intellectual qualities, as it happens in Europe, the Filipino family has nothing to envy the Europeans for. For this reason, now that you are still young and you have time to learn, it is necessary that you study by reading and reading attentively. It is a pity that you allow yourself to be dominated by laziness when it takes so little effort to shake it off. It is enough to form only the habit of study and later everything will go by itself.”Letter of Rizal to his sister Trinidad
  26. 26. Maximo Viola
  27. 27. To my country:In the catalogue of human ills there is to be found a cancer so malignant that the least touch inflames it and causes agonizing pains; afflicted with such cancer, a social cancer, has your dear image appeared to me, when, for my own heart’s ease or to compare you with others, I have sought, in the centers of modern civilization, to call you to mind.Now, desirous of your welfare, which is also ours, and seeking the best cure for your ills, I shall do with you what was done in ages past with sick, who were exposed on the steps of the temple so that the worshippers, having invoked the god, should each propose a remedy.To this end, I shall endeavor to show your condition, faithfully and ruthlessly. I shall lift a corner of the veil which shrouds the disease, sacrificing to the truth everything, even self-love, for, as your son, your defects and weaknesses are also mine. The AuthorEurope, 1886