In the past, data was kept in physical catalogues, now kept in digital databasesWorks themselves are now digitisedDigitised content and data is importantly different to its physical counterparts – it can be copied at almost no cost at all.
Of course, this only reflects the legal side of openness – you may have openly licensed your data but it may be in non-machine readable formats like a PDF.There is a sliding scale of openness – xml or rdf, APIs with full documentation – so that programmers can build services on top of your data much
Theatricalia – a databasae of past theatre productions – some small theatres ceased to exist and so did their records as a result – Theatricalia the only place that maintained the records
Cost of digitisation – Google Books partnership – PUBLIC DOMAIN content – should it be monopolised?
Bring together organizations active in this area with representatives from cultural heritage institutions
The digital revolution and the internet promises greater access to and re-use of our shared cultural heritage because works and data can be copied at almost no cost at allThe EU may well create a legislative framework in which the data from cultural heritage institutions is treated in much the same way as other public sector information such as transport or traffic information
Open Cultural Heritage Content & Data
Open Cultural Heritage Content & Data Sam Leon The Open Knowledge Foundation @noeL_maS
1. What does it mean for cultural heritage content and data to be “open”?2. What are the advantages of openness?3. What are the challenges faced by cultural heritage organisations trying to open up their data?4. What does the Open Knowledge Foundation do in this field?
What do we mean by content and data?1. Content – the works themselves2. Data – information about the works, often referred to as “metadata”
What do we mean by “open”?• http://opendefintition.org• “A piece of content or data is open if anyone is free to use, reuse, and redistribute it — subject only, at most, to the requirement to attribute and share-alike”
Common Open Licenses• Creative Commons Attribution• Creative Commons Attribution Share-Alike• Creative Commons CCZero
Advantages of openness1. Enriched data2. Objects more discoverable3. Artifacts more accessible4. Preservation5. Spurs on the creation of new works, tools and services
Challenges to openness in the cultural heritage sector• Legal e.g. licensing frameworks• Technical e.g. standards• Cost of digitisation
What does the Open Knowledge Foundation do to in this field?
Open GLAM workshops, code sprints and hackathons
Publicise good work being done in this area – http://openglam.org
Build tools for working with cultural heritage data1. CKAN – http://ckan.org2. Open Shakespeare – http://openshakespeare.org3. The Annotator – http://annotateit.org4. Public Domain Calculators – http://outofcopyright.eu5. TEXTUS – http://textusproject.org
Promote the value of openly licensed cultural heritage data and content
Moment of opportunity• Proposed amendment to the 2003 PSI Directive• New open digitsation initiatives e.g. Internet Archive• Open metadata aggregators e.g. Europeana• A community of developers with skills for hacking cultural heritage data
Recommended reading• The New Renaissance Report (2011) – Elisabeth Niggeman, Jacques De Decker, Maurice Lévy• The Problem of the Yellow Milkmaid (2011) – Harry Verwayen, Martijn Arnoldus, Peter B. Kaufman
Thank you for listening firstname.lastname@example.org http://openglam.org Twitter: noeL_maS