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  1. 1. _______________________ Chapter 8 Socializing, Orienting and Developing Employees CHAPTER 8 SOCIALIZING, ORIENTING AND DEVELOPING EMPLOYEES CHAPTER OVERVIEW This chapter is about helping employees adapt to their organizations and work responsibilities. The opening scenario provides information about Chipotle Mexican Grill. The company provides language training in response to the diversity of their workforce. The chapter provides an overview of methods used for employee orientation, training, employee development and organizational development. Special topics include the role of change agents, training and development evaluation, and the new concept of “learning organizations,” as well as issues relevant to international training and development. Additional Features of This Chapter Exhibits illustrate the socialization process, a sample orientation agenda for a new employee, and a summary of principles of learning, including motivation, practice, and feedback. “Diversity Issues in HRM: Training and EEO” involves EEO application to the training process. Exhibit 8-4 shows Lewin’s Change Process “Did You Know: Training Expenditures” discusses per capita spending around the world. “Ethical Issues in HRM: OD Intervention” involves the political and relationship implications of the work done by a change agent. A “Workplace Issues” insert discusses the role of managers as “coaches” and the importance of coaching and counseling employees effectively. ADDITIONAL LECTURE OR ACTIVITY SUGGESTIONS Students enjoy sharing their experiences with orientation. There are a wide variety of approaches taken, since this is an area that is not regulated and allows a lot of creativity on the employers’ part. In many cases, there is considerable room for improvement. A good discussion focuses on why many employers don’t do an effective job of orientation (lack of awareness, time and other costs, lack of resources) and what the costs are of not doing a good job. A good outside-of-class project is to have students critique an existing orientation process. They can focus on one they went through or interview managers and employees at a local organization to obtain information on the process. 88
  2. 2. _______________________ Chapter 8 Socializing, Orienting and Developing Employees Bring in sample brochures for commercial training and management development programs. Have students review the information, noting the objectives, methods and costs involved. Discuss how they, in their future roles as managers and business owners, would decide whether to attend or whether to send employees to a particular program. How would they evaluate the need for and effectiveness of the program described? Have students discuss observations they have made at work or as customers which indicate a possible training need. (They may describe poor university teaching skills, for example or poor service at a restaurant). Then, discuss some other factors which may have led to their observations; i.e., low motivation, poor selection. How does a manager determine that training is the solution to organizational problems? What type of program would be effective for the problems they have observed? CHAPTER OUTLINE AND LECTURE SUGGESTIONS I. Introduction • Socialization, training and development are all used to help new employees adapt to their new organizations and become fully productive. • Ideally, employees will understand and accept the behaviors desired by the organization, and will be able to attain their own goals by exhibiting these behaviors. II. The Outsider-Insider Passage A. Socialization: A process of adaptation to a new work role. 1. Adjustments must be made whenever individuals change jobs; the most profound adjustment occurs when an individual first enters an organization. 2. The assumptions of employee socialization: a. Socialization strongly influences employee performance and organizational stability, by providing information on how to do the job and ensuring organizational fit. b. New members suffer from anxiety, which motivates them to learn the values and norms of the organization. Special attention is needed to put them at ease. c. Socialization does not occur in a vacuum. It is influenced by subtle and less subtle statements and behaviors exhibited by colleagues, management, employees, clients and others. d. Individuals adjust to new situations in remarkably similar ways. All new employees go through a settling-in period. I. The Socialization Process e. Prearrival stage: Individuals arrive with a set of values, attitudes and expectations which they have developed from previous experience and the selection process. f. Encounter stage: Individuals discover how well their 89
  3. 3. _______________________ Chapter 8 Socializing, Orienting and Developing Employees expectations match realities within the organization. Where differences exist, socialization occurs to imbue the employee with the organization’s standards. g. Metamorphosis stage: Individuals have adapted to the organization, feel accepted and know what is expected of them. 3. The Purpose of New Employee Orientation: a. Characteristics: • Orientation may be done by the supervisor, the HRM staff or some combination. • It may be formal or informal, depending on the size of the organization. • Typically it will cover such things as the organization’s objectives, history, philosophy, procedures, rules, HRM policies and benefits, and fellow employees. b. Learning the Organization’s Culture • Culture includes long-standing, often unwritten rules about what is appropriate behavior. • Socialized employees know how things are done, what matters, and which behaviors and perspectives are acceptable. • The CEO’s Role in Orientation • Since the mid-1980s, it has become more common for senior management to be visible during the new employee orientation process. • • II. III. CEOs can: Welcome employees, provide a vision for the company, introduce company culture -- what matters, convey that the company cares about employees, allay some new employee anxieties and help them to feel good about their job choice. HRM’s Role in Orientation • Coordinating Role: HRM instructs new employees when and where to report; provides information about benefits choices. • Participant Role: HRM offers its assistance for future employee needs (career guidance, training, etc.). Employee Training A. Definitions 1. Employee training is a learning experience designed to achieve a 90
  4. 4. _______________________ Chapter 8 Socializing, Orienting and Developing Employees relatively permanent change in an individual that will improve the ability to perform on the job. 2. Employee development is future-oriented training, focusing on the personal growth of the employee. B. C. IV. Determining training needs 1. Specific training goals should be based on the organization’s needs, the type of work to be done and the skills necessary to complete the work. 2. Drops in productivity, increased rejects, inadequate job performance, or a rise in the number of accidents may indicate a need for more training. 3. The value added by training must be considered versus the cost. 4. Training goals should be established that are tangible, verifiable, timely, and measurable. Training Methods 1. Training methods are generally classified as on-the-job or off-the-job training. Exhibit 8-3 provides a summary. Employee Development A. B. V. This future-oriented set of activities is predominantly an educational process. In today’s work environment, all employees, regardless of level, can benefit from the methods previously used to develop managerial personnel. Employee development methods 1. Job rotation involves moving employees to various positions in the organization to expand their skills, knowledge and abilities. 2. Assistant-to positions allow employees with potential to work under and be coached by successful managers. 3. Committee assignments provide opportunities for decision-making, learning by watching others, and becoming more familiar with organizational members and problems. 4. Lecture courses and seminars benefit from today’s technology and are often offered in a distance learning format. 5. Simulations include case studies, decision games and role plays and are intended to improve decision-making. 6. Outdoor training typically involves challenges which teach trainees the importance of teamwork. Organization Development A. B. What is change? OD efforts support changes that are usually made in four areas: the organization’s systems, technology, processes and people in line with the strategic direction of the business. Two metaphors clarify the change process. 91
  5. 5. _______________________ Chapter 8 Socializing, Orienting and Developing Employees 1. The calm waters metaphor describes unfreezing the status quo, change to a new state, and refreezing to ensure that the change is permanent. 2. The white-water rapids metaphor recognizes today’s business environment which is less stable and not as predictable. C. OD Methods 1. Organizational development facilitates long-term organization-wide changes. 2. OD techniques include survey feedback, process consultation, team building, and intergroup development. 3. Survey feedback assesses organizational members’ perceptions and attitudes. The summarized data are used to identify problems and clarify issues so that commitments to action can be made. 4. Process consultation uses outside consultants to help organizational members perceive, understand, and act upon process events. 5. Team building may include goal setting, development of interpersonal relationships, clarification of roles and team process analysis. Team building attempts to increase trust, openness, and team functioning. D. A Special OD Case: The Learning Organization 1. This type of organization values continued learning and believes a competitive advantage can be gained from it. 2. Learning organizations characteristics: a. Capacity to continuously adapt b. Employees continually acquire and share new knowledge c. Collaboration across functional specialties d. Teams are an important feature 92
  6. 6. _______________________ VI. Chapter 8 Socializing, Orienting and Developing Employees Evaluating Training and Development Effectiveness A. B. VII. Evaluation of Training Programs 1. Typically, employee and manager opinions are used, but these opinions or reactions are not necessarily valid measures, since they are influenced by things like difficulty, entertainment value or personality of the instructor. 2. Performance-based measures (benefits gained) are better indicators of training’s cost-effectiveness. Did the training program achieve its desired results? Performance-Based Evaluation Measures 1. Post-training performance method. Employees’ on-the-job performance is assessed after training. 2. Pre-post-training performance method. Employee’s job performance is assessed both before and after training, to determine whether a change has taken place. 3. Pre-post-training performance with control group method. This sophisticated technique compares the pre-post-training results of the trained group with the concurrent job performance of a control group, which does not undergo instruction. The approach is used to control for factors other than training which may affect job performance. International Training and Development Issues A. Cross-cultural training is necessary for expatriate managers and their families before assignments (to learn language and culture); during, and after foreign assignments (to adjust to changes back home). B. Cross-cultural training is more than language training; it includes learning about the culture’s history, politics, economy, religion, social climate and business practices and may involve role playing, simulations and immersion in the culture. C. Often, organizations do not do a good job of planning for the return of overseas managers. This leads to the managers’ being frustrated with lack of recognition and opportunity back home and to others’ reluctance to take overseas assignments. D. Returning expatriates can be assigned a domestic position, can prepare for a new overseas assignment, can retire or be terminated. 93
  7. 7. _______________________ Chapter 8 Socializing, Orienting and Developing Employees DEMONSTRATING COMPREHENSION: Questions for Review 1. How can a socialization process benefit an organization? Good socialization adds continuity and stability to an organization. Communication is facilitated, as members share visions and values. Goals are easier to set with a shared sense of purpose for the organization and are easier to attain when workers agree that the business in which they are engaged is worth doing. 2. What benefits can socialization provide for the new employee? Organizational entry is eased, so that new employees do not make as many mistakes. When new employees know what is expected of them, they have better organizational performance and less frustration and uncertainty. Turnover rates are lower for organizations that conduct a good orientation program for new employees. 3. Describe the role HRM plays in orientation. Each function in HRM has a specific role in orientation. Employment discusses how the promotion from within process works and usually coordinates the rest of the orientation process. Training and Development talks about development programs offered and what that means to the employee. Compensation and Benefits has forms completed and discusses salary and benefit offerings, and details of the compensation program. Employee Relations discusses the company's communications programs, health and safety issues, company rules, and employee recognition programs. 4. Explain the CEO/senior management’s role in orientation. The CEO/senior management's role in orientation is to welcome the new employees, reaffirm their choice of joining the company, and discuss the organization's goals and objectives while conveying information about the organization's culture. 5. What kinds of signals can warn a manager that employee training may be necessary? Training is needed when incumbents do not have the skills, knowledge or attitudes to perform necessary behaviors to do the work of the organizations. Such needs are signaled in various ways. Low job performance or a drop in productivity, high reject rates or larger than acceptable scrap, all may indicate training needs. Other factors that may cause poor performance, such as poor equipment or bad supervision, should be ruled out before training is offered. 6. Why is evaluation of training effectiveness necessary? 94
  8. 8. _______________________ Chapter 8 Socializing, Orienting and Developing Employees Training effectiveness should be evaluated for several reasons. First, the benefits gained by training programs must outweigh the costs. Second, training can not be improved unless its effectiveness is evaluated. Evaluation is a fact of life for operational divisions of a firm and it helps give credibility to trainers and the training function. Fourth, tracking training effectiveness is useful to use for long-term planning and strategic organizational development interventions in the firm. 7. Why is cultural training critical for employees embarking on an overseas assignment? Most of the problems in overseas assignments are cultural, not technical, in nature. Language training is essential. Expatriates who have good cultural training before departure experience less difficulty in the overseas assignment and re-acclimating when they return. It is costly to send an employee overseas, and the company loses when a valuable employee must return early because his/her family cannot adjust or when, shortly after his/her return from the assignment, a frustrated manager leaves the company. 8. Describe how selection and training are related. There can be a reciprocal relationship between selection and training. If both functions are aware of the needs of the organization, they can work together to get the right people in the right place, at the right time, at the right price. If selection has to hire people who are ready to perform, they are constrained by the external labor market. If training can provide certain skills or sets of skills to new workers, the selection function has more options and can hire a variety of workers who can be brought up to speed during training. 9. Describe how socialization and training are related. Training and socialization can work together in an organization. If employees are socialized into thinking that training is a vibrant, necessary part of the organization, a function that helps them grow and change with the company, then the job of trainers is an easier and more pleasant one. If training has partial responsibility for an orientation program, socialization is facilitated. Training that encourages employee growth and that is competency based helps to create positive morale in an organization. LINKING CONCEPTS TO PRACTICE: Discussion Questions 1. "Proper selection is a substitute for socialization." disagree with this statement? Explain. Do you agree or Agree. If an individual has the same values and respects the same norms, and is familiar with the roles used in an organization, then little socialization is 95
  9. 9. _______________________ Chapter 8 Socializing, Orienting and Developing Employees necessary. That individual has already learned and accepted the "Do's" and "Don'ts" of the organization. Little adjustment remains to be made. This type of situation may be possible when children of company officers are hired, or when new employees all come from the “right” schools or sister organizations. Disagree. Even the most compatible individual needs to learn the peculiarities of this organization. There are bound to be issues at one time or another where the individual and the organization are not in agreement. Knowing which human resource professional area to go to at that time is helpful. Socialization includes getting to know not only the company, but also the individuals, the groups, and the nature of the task. Help in making these initial adjustments is good. 2. Describe what a socialization program might look like if management desired employees who were innovative and individualistic. Let the class play with this. Notions of individuality and creativity are important. The idea that the socialization should be consistent with the desired outcomes is important. The program would not be a formal, cookie cutter, HRM–prepared two–day session. Possibilities include: Show the new employee the desk, give them a computer and a number to call for questions. Schedule an informal discussion session with coworkers to talk about current projects, current problems, or future plans, etc. Schedule meetings with clients or users that focus on problems, solutions or opportunities. Film other employees’ accomplishments – patents, new ideas, new processes, etc. Let the new employee spend the day with an innovative employee with similar interests. If schedules or checkpoints are discussed, leave goals open-ended and flexible. 3. Training programs are frequently the first items eliminated when management wants to cut costs. Why do you believe this occurs? Cost cutting targets nonessential or extraneous items in the short run. Training often falls into this category because human resource managers do not evaluate their programs carefully enough to demonstrate value to the organization. Also, if training is performed based on what the training department can do or likes to do, instead of on what skills and behaviors the organization needs to have in its employees, training is not perceived as part of the strategic goal setting of the organization. 96
  10. 10. _______________________ Chapter 8 Socializing, Orienting and Developing Employees When training departments are eliminated in long-term strategic plans, they have not demonstrated their ability to meet needs of the organization, nor demonstrated their cost-effectiveness. 2. Explain the effects a learning organization may have on employees in today’s organizations. What are the HRM implications of this effect? In a learning organization, employees practice knowledge management by continually acquiring and sharing new knowledge and willingly apply that knowledge in making decisions or performing their work. Employees feel a strong sense of community, caring for each other, and trust. They also feel free to openly communicate, share, experiment, and learn without fear of criticism or punishment. This produces an environment that adapts readily to change making HRM’s job much easier. CASE APPLICATION 8-A: DELIVERING AT UPS CASE SUMMARY UPS focuses on rules, regulations and procedures in order to operate effectively. However, when considering the demographics of the UPS workforce, the founder, James Casey, recognized the need for UPS managers to understand the diverse needs of the staff – and the need to adapt in certain circumstances. The resulting program is the Community Internship Program – CIP. 1. How does the CIP program at UPS foster a culture in the organization? CIP develops management sensitivity to the diversity of today’s workers and the issues they face. A deeper understanding of things like poverty, inequality and family responsibilities helps managers understand that, although UPS is procedurally-based, there are times to be more sensitive to workers’ needs. 2. What role can human resources play in ensuring success for this Internship program? Students’ answers may vary. Suggestions: HR might focus on greater diversity in hiring, ensuring the program continues to be funded, focus on on-going quality of the program, and link completion of the program into management accountabilities, such as annual performance plans. 3. Identify how you would evaluate the CIP program to demonstrate that it’s beneficial to the manager and the organization? Again, student responses may vary. 97
  11. 11. _______________________ Chapter 8 Socializing, Orienting and Developing Employees Suggestions: • “Pre and Post” surveys may show changes in management perspectives and could focus on specific knowledge learned during the activities. • Retention of employees may improve • HR may be able to compare retention and employee satisfaction of UPS to a benchmark CASE APPLICATION 8-B: TEAM FUN! CASE SUMMARY The new store is almost ready to open and 25 employees have been hired to staff it. The big decisions to be made now are how to acclimate the new employees to their new jobs. 1. Explain to Kenny and Norton why employee socialization is necessary (or not necessary) for the new TEAM FUN! store. Socialization has proven to be a positive activity for organizations. It aids in employee retention and positively influences employee performance. It helps new employees learn the values and norms of their respective work roles and how their positions “fit” into the big picture. Socialization helps reduce new employee anxiety and aids in the outsider-insider passage. 2. What orientation activities do you recommend? Who should be involved? Orientation activities can be many and varied. Typically, activities should be planned that achieve the following: a. Familiarize the new employee with the organization’s objectives, history, philosophy, procedures, and rules. b. Communicate HRM policies such as work hours, pay procedures, overtime requirements, and company benefits. c. Explain the specific duties and responsibilities of the new employee’s job. d. Familiarize the employee with the organization’s physical facilities, usually through a company tour. e. Introduce the employee to his or her supervisor or coworkers. f. Show the new employees that the company really cares about their successful transition to their new jobs. (A personal welcome from the CEO displays management commitment from the top.) Those usually involved in the process include the CEO, human resources staff, the employee’s supervisor, and coworkers. 3. What training needs should they consider? Identifying training needs is a systematic process. First is an identification of the organization’s goals. Second is determining what tasks must be completed to 98
  12. 12. _______________________ Chapter 8 Socializing, Orienting and Developing Employees achieve these goals. Third is determining what behaviors are necessary for each job incumbent to complete his or her tasks. Lastly would be an assessment of what deficiencies, if any, incumbents have in the skills, knowledge, or abilities required to achieve the necessary job behaviors. Armed with that information, Tony will know what training needs exist. WORKING WITH A TEAM: ORIENTING EMPLOYEES OVERVIEW Orienting Employees Benchmarking Activity: Have students attend an orientation or training program at their university or another local organization. They can then summarize their observations, compare them to those of others in the class, and describe the guidelines, policies or standards underlying the program they observed. SUGGESTIONS/VARIATIONS Students can also interview training program participants to obtain the employees’ perspective. If attendance at a training program is not practical, students can interview employees about their training needs and/or previous programs they have attended. Students can gather information on the career paths of those who do training as a profession. What do they have in common? How do they differ? What are the pros and cons of training as a profession? 99