The History of HTML5


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The history of HTML to HTML5, how it evolved via the browser wars and standards bodies, and how it relates to Apple's battle with Adobe Flash

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  • The History of HTML5

    1. 1. The History of HTML5 By Mike Wilcox May 4th 2010
    2. 2. Recent News Apple bans Flash from iPhone Developers demand to know why “Because I said so” says Steve Jobs.
    3. 3. In the Beginning... Prodigy 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000
    4. 4. HTML is born HyperText Markup Language by Tim Berners- Lee in 1989 Tim Berne rs-Lee Intended to deliver the features of ENQUIRE, a private hyperlinked DB as an open, distributed application that could work across the Internet 1989 1990 1995 2000 2005
    5. 5. SGML HTML was based on SGML, a markup invented by IBM in the early 60s Used to facilitate the transfer of files between different systems A way for governments, industry and the military to structure complex documents in a way that was unambiguous and could be accessed and modified by automated systems. Used to annotate presentational features, procedural features, or descriptive features
    6. 6. Standardization In 1993, submitted to the International Engineering Task Force 1990 1993 1995 2000 2005
    7. 7. Mosaic See? I did invent it! IETF required an implementation Lee references Mosaic in the spec Developed at the American NCSA, which had been funded by congressman Al Gore Part of an effort to promote the development communications by leveraging the power of market forces using strategic government investment. 1990 1993 1995 2000 2005
    8. 8. Open Standard HTML is open source and backed by government investment Kills the business models of CompuServe, GEnie, Prodigy Allows users to create their own pages and host them on any server 1990 1993 1995 2000 2005
    9. 9. Standards Groups In 1994, IETF creates the HTML Working Group Berners-Lee creates the World Wide Web Consortium The HTML 2.0 IETF specification was released in 1995 In 1996, the IETF closed W3C takes over 1990 1994 1996 2000 2005
    10. 10. Netscape Based on the Mosaic web browser, which was co-written by Marc Andreessen and funded by Jim Clark Begins immediately creating non- standard functionality, like page colors and font faces 1990 1994 1995 2000 2005
    11. 11. Internet Explorer MSN originally intended to be like Prodigy and CompuServe Sees threat to their desktop monopoly from Netscape and Sun MS licenses and forks Mosaic 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010
    12. 12. The Battle Begins Adds bgcolor, font-face Adds ActiveX, VB Script Adds JavaScript Adds JScript Adds cookies Adds Marquee tag Adds its own ActiveX Adds Frames! Adds Blink Tag! 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010
    13. 13. W3C to the rescue! < BLINK > Deprecates Netscape’s presentational markup Introduces CSS 1.0 Because HTML3.2 was such a disaster, allows “transitional” and “strict” pages HTML 3.2 and 4.0 released at the same time, one year after 2.0 which introduced international characters, tables, and image maps 1990 1995 1997 2000 2005
    14. 14. DOCTYPE That strict/transitional thing? It led to this. 1990 1995 1997 2000 2005
    15. 15. The Browser Wars Browser free for users Bundled free with Windows Constellation 1995 6 person team Web to replace OS grew in 1999 to 1000 Java promised to deliver Released 6 versions in 6 sophisticated web apps years Released 4 versions in 7 years 1990 1995 2001 2005
    16. 16. The Fall of Netscape Tried to support old Forces Apple to use IE Mariner and create Gecko Cripples Java Communicator bloated with an email client, a Ties IE to OS newsgroup reader, an Cuts vendor deals address book, calendar, collaboration tools, a push client, and an HTML editor 1990 1995 2001 2005
    17. 17. The Dark Ages Netscape continues to release faulty versions MS stops releasing versions and focuses on the security mess it created After-math was tons of proprietary, unfinished, buggy features Due to lack of browser innovation, developers turn to Macromedia Flash 1990 1995 2001 2006
    18. 18. Meanwhile, at the W3C...
    19. 19. XHTML “ The Answer to t he Ultimate HTML was too hard for implementers. Question of 1999, the W3C publishes XHTML 1.0, Life, the which is SGML/HTML 4.0, only in XML Universe, an d and with extensibility E ver ything." In 2002, W3C publishes XHTML 2.0 which “fixes” the web. It is not backwards compatible and focuses on extensibility 1990 1995 1999 2002 2005
    20. 20. Ian Hickson <script type="text/javascript"><!--//--><![CDATA[//><!-- ... //--><!]]></script> Uhm... IE doesn’t support XHTML. works a t google <style type="text/css"><!--/*--><![CDATA[/*><!--*/ ... /*]]>*/--></style> 1990 1995 2000 2002 2005
    21. 21. Mark Pilgrim "Standards are bullshit. XHTML is a crock. The W3C is irrelevant." at goo gle too works 1990 1995 2000 2002 2005
    22. 22. Meanwhile...
    23. 23. A browser with tabs!! When AOL scaled back its involvement, the Mozilla Foundation was launched on July 15, 2003 to ensure they could survive without Netscape. Three people fork the Netscape into a new browser: Dave Hyatt, Blake Ross and Joe Hewitt. The new browser is named: Phoenix e also created Firebird H Firebug! Mozilla Firebird Firefox 1990 1995 2000 2003 2005
    24. 24. Bill Gates on Firefox: So much software gets downloaded all the time, but do people actually use it?
    25. 25. Mozilla and Opera proposed to the W3C: Would you please drop your XHTML efforts in favor of extending HTML 4 in more practical new ways that focused on rich web applications? No. 1990 1995 2000 2004 2005
    26. 26. What the What? Apple, Mozilla, and Opera start up the independent WHATWG text App lication Web Hyper Group nology Working Tech I gotta have more standards! 1990 1995 2000 2004 2005
    27. 27. WHATWG Goals Return the web to its open roots backward Bypass Flash, Silverlight, JavaFX compatibility Modernize HTML specs match implementation Adapt the DOM, advance JavaScript specs clear and unambiguous Waitaminute! Where is IE?? 1990 1995 2000 2004 2005
    28. 28. New WHATWG Proposal W3C Accepts, forms the HTMLWG Drops XHTML. Ok. Yes. Another But I’m in one. charge. Sure you are. 1990 1995 2000 2005 2007
    29. 29. New WHATWG Proposal In 2008 the first draft of HTML5 is published. Ian Hickson I wrote it! 1990 1995 2000 2005 2008
    30. 30. Adobe Says... How do you get a consistent display of HTML 5 across browsers? It might be a decade before HTML 5 sees standardization. 1990 1995 2000 2005 2009
    31. 31. HTML5 Implementations canvas, getElementsByClassName, localStorage, sessionStorage, Database storage, Custom content handlers, ping attribute, cross-document messaging, Audio interface, video element, Server-sent DOM events, contenteditable attribute, Drag & drop, DOMContentLoaded, Web Workers, Offline Web applications, MathML, inline SVG, Web Forms 2.0 Seems fine w ithout Flash so far. 1995 2000 2005 2010
    32. 32. Meanwhile...
    33. 33. IE Setbacks MS loses interest in Mac, Safari replaces IE 5.5 Firebug makes developers swoon to Firefox Firefox has a bigger market share than IE8 IE7 sucked Get off my IE8 sucked Mac! It h as Tabs!!!! 1995 2000 2005 2010
    34. 34. IE Setbacks Google creates Gears to get around limitations of IE Google creates Chrome as an alternative to IE Google Wave doesn’t support IE pretty. YouTube drops support for IE6 Alex. Not feeling the love over here. 1995 2000 2005 2010
    35. 35. Introducing IE9 At MIX 2010, MS announces support for SVG Dean Hachamovitch says “The future of the web is HTML5” IE9 to support HTML5 Video (H.264) Expected to release in 2011 and not be tied to the OS Dean. We get it! We finally get it! 1995 2000 2005 2010
    36. 36. News Revisited Developers demand to know why Apple bans Flash from iPhone It should now be obvious that the Flash plugin was never part of Apple’s plan. It’s collateral damage.