2What are Wastes?Definition of Wastes“substances or objects which are disposed of or are intendedto be disposed of or are required to be disposed of by theprovisions of the law”Disposal means“any operation which may lead to resource recovery,recycling, reclamation, direct re-use or alternative uses ”
3Kinds of WastesSolid wastes: domestic, commercial and industrial wastesespecially common as co-disposal of wastesExamples: plastics, styrofoam containers, bottles,cans, papers, scrap iron, and other trashLiquid Wastes: wastes in liquid formExamples: domestic washings, chemicals, oils, wastewater from ponds, manufacturing industriesand other sources
4Classification of Wastes accordingto their PropertiesBio-degradablecan be degraded (paper, wood, fruits and others)Non-biodegradablecannot be degraded (plastics, bottles, old machines,cans, Styrofoam containers and others)
5Classification of Wastes according totheir Effects on Human Health and the EnvironmentHazardous wastesSubstances unsafe to use commercially, industrially,agriculturally, or economicallyNon-hazardousSubstances safe to use commercially, industrially,agriculturally, or economically
6Sources of WastesHouseholdsCommerce andIndustry
8Waste Generation by Country(Global Waste Survey Final Report )*Countries Amount /yearJapan 395 M tonnes/yearGermany 104 M tonnes/yearNetherlands 6.1 M tonnes/yearHungary 102 M tonnes/yearPoland 130 M tonnes/yearRomania 607 M tonnes/yearBahrain 92,000 tonnes/yearChina 6 B tonnes/yearPhilippines 1.3 M tonnes/yearINDIA 290 M tonnes/year
9Waste Generation in IndiaIn Metro cities:• It is estimated that 10-25 tonsof liquid waste isgenerated• Hundreds of tons of domestic wastes are generated dailyby households contributing to the enormousenvironmental problems the world is facing.• 2,000-8,000 MT of solid wastes are generated daily. Ofthese, only about 3,400 MT are collected andtransported to disposal sites.
12EFFECTS OF WASTE IF NOTMANAGED WISELY• Affects our health• Affects our socio-economic conditions• Affects our coastal and marine environment• Affects our climate
13EFFECTS OF WASTE…According to NAS:• GHGs are accumulating in Earth’s atmosphere as a result of human activities,causing global mean surface air temperature and subsurface oceantemperature to rise.• Rising global temperatures are expected to raise sea levels and changeprecipitation and other local climate conditions.• Changing regional climates could alter forests, crop yields, and water supplies.• This could also affect human health, animals, and many types of ecosystems.• Deserts might expand into existing rangelands, and features of some of ournational parks might be permanently altered.
14EFFECTS OF WASTE…According to NAS:- Some countries are expected to become warmer.- Scientists are unable to determine which parts of those countries willbecome wetter or drier, but there is likely to be an overall trend towardincreased precipitation and evaporation, more intense rainstorms, and driersoils.- Whether rainfall increases or decreases cannot be reliably projected forspecific areas.
15Effects of waste….Activities that have altered the chemical composition of the atmosphere:-Buildup of GHGs primarily carbon dioxide (CO2) methane (CH4), andnitrous oxide (N20).-C02 is released to the atmosphere by the burning of fossil fuels, woodand wood products, and solid waste.-CH4 is emitted from the decomposition of organic wastes in landfills,the raising of livestock, and the production and transport of coal, naturalgas, and oil.-N02 is emitted during agricultural and industrial activities, as well asduring combustion of solid waste and fossil fuels. In 1977, the USemitted about one-fifth of total global GHGs.
16WHAT SHOULD BE DONE• Reduce Waste- Reduce office paper waste by implementing a formal policyto duplex all draft reports and by making training manualsand personnel information available electronically.- Improve product design to use less materials.- Redesign packaging to eliminate excess material whilemaintaining strength.- Work with customers to design and implement a packagingreturn program.- Switch to reusable transport containers.- Purchase products in bulk.
17WHAT SHOULD BE DONEReuse- Reuse corrugated moving boxes internally.- Reuse office furniture and supplies, such as interofficeenvelopes, file folders, and paper.- Use durable towels, tablecloths, napkins, dishes, cups, andglasses.- Use incoming packaging materials for outgoing shipments.- Encourage employees to reuse office materials rather thanpurchase new ones.
18WHAT SHOULD BE DONEDonate/Exchange- old books- old clothes- old computers- excess building materials- old equipment to local organizations
19WHAT SHOULD BE DONEPreventing Waste- packaging waste reductions andchanges in the manufacturing process- use biodegradable materials
20WHAT SHOULD BE DONEConduct outreach program adopting anecologically sound waste managementsystem which includes:• waste reduction• segregation at source• composting• recycling and re-use• more efficient collection• more environmentally sound disposal