ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING : ITS
STATUS AND FUTURE
Presented by : Ankush Kalia
Contents to be discussed
What is Additive Manufacturing ?
What is its basic principle ?
Different methods of Additive Manufacturing.
Comparative overview of AM.
Capabilities of AM.
Applications in various areas.
Barriers in AM.
The term ‘additive manufacturing’ was given by the ASTM
Additive Manufacturing (AM) is the process of making 3D
objects from computer model data by joining materials layer by
layer under computer control using a 3D printer.
Steps involved in Additive Manufacturing :
a.) Creation of CAD model using:
CAD package ( eg. CATIA, SOLID-EDGE), 3D scanner,
camera & photographic software
b.) conversion to .STL format :
3D models are converted printing software readable format.
a.) Processing .STL file in slicer
SLICING model into series of thin layers (depending upon
resolution up to 16µm).
Produces G-Code file.
b.) Layer by layer construction
a.) Removing manufactured part from machine
b.) Removal of extra material such as supports.
c.) Minor cleaning, surface treatment, painting if required.
Comparative Overview of
1. Design flexibility.
2. Cost of geometric complexity.
3. Dimensional accuracy.
4.No need of assemblage.
5. Time and cost efficiency in production run.
Almost any shape can be manufactured.
No constraints such as fixtures, cutter reachability, diverse
tooling etc. like in traditional machining.
Easy to make changes in model by just editing the CAD model.
Capable of producing variety of products without making setup
Cost of geometric complexity
Very less influence on cost of product due to complexity
of the product.
Easy to create complex shapes and product parts by just
using the CAD software packages
The dimensional accuracy determines the deviation of the
finished model when compared to the original digital
Very less or negligible tolerances are provided in AM.
Parts to Nanoscale accuracy can be manufacture with
precise 3D printers.
No Need of assemblage
Capable of producing single-part assemblies.
The parts and joints are printed in place and are suspended
by support material that must be removed in post-
When compared with traditional machining, it reduces the
cost of assembling the parts .
Time & cost efficiency in production run
Unlike most of the traditional machining processes, AM is
suitable for low volume production.
On demand and on site production in AM reduces the
inventory cost and time required.
Very less material wastage as compared to other
manufacturing processes(ie maximum yield).
Building capabilities of AM
Lithium Ion Battery
Printed Turbine part Printed PCB Artificial Ear
Printed Prosthetic Limb
Building capabilities of AM cont…
Embedding foreign components.
Printing circuits, sensors and batteries.
1. Rapid Prototyping
Models and parts for research purposes can be easily manufacture
whenever required. Easy to make changes in the models as per the
Cornell Creative Machines Lab is making food items such as
chocolates, candy, pasta, pizza using 3D printing technique since
Products such as customize shoes, clothes and eye wears are being
Nike is using 3D printing to manufacture the “Vapor Laser Talon”
football shoe for players of American football
In 2010 Urbee became the first car whose whole body was 3D printed
(by US engineering group Kor Ecologic and the company Stratasys ).
In early 2014, Swedish supercar manufacturer, Koenigsegg,
manufactured a supercar having many 3D printed mechanical parts in it.
Defense arms such as guns, rifles and safety equipment has
also been manufacture by AM.
In 2012 US based group “Defense Distributed”, designed a
working plastic gun that could be downloaded and reproduced
by anybody with a 3D printer.
In 2013, ‘Solid Concepts’, based in Austin, Texas, USA
succeeded in manufacturing first working metal gun.
Nowadays medical devices, specific implants, hearing aids, dental products
and pills are being manufacture by AM.
During October 2014, a five year old girl born without fully formed fingers
on her left hand became the first child in the UK to have a prosthetic hand
made with 3D printing . Till now more than 400 hands have been
transplanted by E-NABLE.
In august 2015, US FDA( Food and Drug administration) approved 3D
printed pills which allows very porous pills to be produced, which enables
high drug doses in a single pill which dissolves quickly and can be ingested
Bioprinting refers to manufacturing artificial biological organs and
body parts capable of working like original ones.
In this process, layers of living cells are deposited onto a gel medium
or sugar matrix and slowly built up to form three dimensional
structures including vascular systems.
The first production system for 3D tissue printing was delivered in
2009, based on NovoGen bio-printing technology.
In 2013, Chinese scientists began printing ears, livers and kidneys,
with living tissue.
In 2014, researchers at the University of Hasselt, in Belgium had
successfully printed a new jawbone for an 83 year old woman.
In September 2014, “SpaceX” delivered the first zero gravity
3D printer to the International Space Station (ISS).
In December 2014, NASA emailed CAD drawings for a socket
wrench to astronauts aboard the ISS, who then printed the tool
using its 3D printer.
The European Space Agency plans to deliver its new advance
Portable OnBoard 3D Printer to the International Space Station
by the end of 2015.
9. Education and Research
Scientific instruments, replicas of historical items, internal
organs of human body, 3D models of molecules and
chemical compounds can be printed in classroom
laboratories to study them.
Current Barriers and Challenges
a.) Personal fabrication vs. mass manufacturing :
When compared with traditional manufacturing processes,
AM is economical when parts to be manufactured in low
When it comes to customized product manufacturing, AM
is best suited.
b.) Building scalability vs. layer resolution :
Increasing layer resolution decreases the layer thickness to
be laid / printed.
Decrease in layer thickness increases the surface finish as
well as number of layers.
Large number of layers increases the total build time.
c.) Material heterogeneity and structural reliability :
While consumer goods are comprised of a wide variety of
materials that render different behaviors and functionalities, the
material selection of AM systems is quite limited.
Products from AM systems suffer from anisotropic mechanical
properties due to interlayer bonding deficiencies
Most of the simple 3D printers are capable of printing single
material at a time. Multi material printing systems is limited
due to uncertain behavior at the material interfaces .
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