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Additive manufacturing

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Recent trends in AM/ 3D Printing/ Rapid prototyping

Published in: Engineering
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Additive manufacturing

  1. 1. Seminar On ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING : ITS STATUS AND FUTURE Presented by : Ankush Kalia NIFFT, Ranchi
  2. 2. Contents to be discussed  What is Additive Manufacturing ?  What is its basic principle ?  Different methods of Additive Manufacturing.  Comparative overview of AM.  Capabilities of AM.  Applications in various areas.  Barriers in AM.
  3. 3. Additive Manufacturing  The term ‘additive manufacturing’ was given by the ASTM F42 committee.  Additive Manufacturing (AM) is the process of making 3D objects from computer model data by joining materials layer by layer under computer control using a 3D printer.
  4. 4. General Principle 1) Modeling 2) Printing 3) Finishing Steps involved in Additive Manufacturing :
  5. 5. 1.) Modeling a.) Creation of CAD model using:  CAD package ( eg. CATIA, SOLID-EDGE), 3D scanner, camera & photographic software b.) conversion to .STL format :  3D models are converted printing software readable format.
  6. 6. 2.) Printing a.) Processing .STL file in slicer  SLICING model into series of thin layers (depending upon resolution up to 16µm).  Produces G-Code file. b.) Layer by layer construction
  7. 7. 3.) Finishing a.) Removing manufactured part from machine b.) Removal of extra material such as supports. c.) Minor cleaning, surface treatment, painting if required.
  8. 8. Classification
  9. 9. Comparative Overview of Additive Manufacturing 1. Design flexibility. 2. Cost of geometric complexity. 3. Dimensional accuracy. 4.No need of assemblage. 5. Time and cost efficiency in production run.
  10. 10. Design flexibility  Almost any shape can be manufactured.  No constraints such as fixtures, cutter reachability, diverse tooling etc. like in traditional machining.  Easy to make changes in model by just editing the CAD model.  Capable of producing variety of products without making setup changes.
  11. 11. Cost of geometric complexity Very less influence on cost of product due to complexity of the product. Easy to create complex shapes and product parts by just using the CAD software packages
  12. 12. Dimensional accuracy The dimensional accuracy determines the deviation of the finished model when compared to the original digital model. Very less or negligible tolerances are provided in AM. Parts to Nanoscale accuracy can be manufacture with precise 3D printers.
  13. 13. No Need of assemblage Capable of producing single-part assemblies. The parts and joints are printed in place and are suspended by support material that must be removed in post- processing. When compared with traditional machining, it reduces the cost of assembling the parts .
  14. 14. Time & cost efficiency in production run Unlike most of the traditional machining processes, AM is suitable for low volume production. On demand and on site production in AM reduces the inventory cost and time required. Very less material wastage as compared to other manufacturing processes(ie maximum yield).
  15. 15. Building capabilities of AM Pulmonary series Rhinos Locomotive mechanism Lithium Ion Battery Printed Turbine part Printed PCB Artificial Ear Printed Prosthetic Limb
  16. 16. World’s First 3D Printed Jet Engine
  17. 17. Building capabilities of AM cont… Multi-material printing. Printed assemblies. Embedding foreign components. Printing circuits, sensors and batteries.
  18. 18. APPLICATIONS 1. Rapid Prototyping  Models and parts for research purposes can be easily manufacture whenever required. Easy to make changes in the models as per the research proceedings. 2. Food  Cornell Creative Machines Lab is making food items such as chocolates, candy, pasta, pizza using 3D printing technique since 2012.
  19. 19. 3. Apparel  Products such as customize shoes, clothes and eye wears are being manufactured.  Nike is using 3D printing to manufacture the “Vapor Laser Talon” football shoe for players of American football 4. Vehicle  In 2010 Urbee became the first car whose whole body was 3D printed (by US engineering group Kor Ecologic and the company Stratasys ).  In early 2014, Swedish supercar manufacturer, Koenigsegg, manufactured a supercar having many 3D printed mechanical parts in it.
  20. 20. 5. Firearms  Defense arms such as guns, rifles and safety equipment has also been manufacture by AM.  In 2012 US based group “Defense Distributed”, designed a working plastic gun that could be downloaded and reproduced by anybody with a 3D printer.  In 2013, ‘Solid Concepts’, based in Austin, Texas, USA succeeded in manufacturing first working metal gun.
  21. 21. 6. Medical  Nowadays medical devices, specific implants, hearing aids, dental products and pills are being manufacture by AM.  During October 2014, a five year old girl born without fully formed fingers on her left hand became the first child in the UK to have a prosthetic hand made with 3D printing . Till now more than 400 hands have been transplanted by E-NABLE.  In august 2015, US FDA( Food and Drug administration) approved 3D printed pills which allows very porous pills to be produced, which enables high drug doses in a single pill which dissolves quickly and can be ingested easily.
  22. 22. 7. Bioprinting  Bioprinting refers to manufacturing artificial biological organs and body parts capable of working like original ones.  In this process, layers of living cells are deposited onto a gel medium or sugar matrix and slowly built up to form three dimensional structures including vascular systems.  The first production system for 3D tissue printing was delivered in 2009, based on NovoGen bio-printing technology.  In 2013, Chinese scientists began printing ears, livers and kidneys, with living tissue.  In 2014, researchers at the University of Hasselt, in Belgium had successfully printed a new jawbone for an 83 year old woman.
  23. 23. 8. Space  In September 2014, “SpaceX” delivered the first zero gravity 3D printer to the International Space Station (ISS).  In December 2014, NASA emailed CAD drawings for a socket wrench to astronauts aboard the ISS, who then printed the tool using its 3D printer.  The European Space Agency plans to deliver its new advance Portable OnBoard 3D Printer to the International Space Station by the end of 2015.
  24. 24. 9. Education and Research Scientific instruments, replicas of historical items, internal organs of human body, 3D models of molecules and chemical compounds can be printed in classroom laboratories to study them.
  25. 25. Current Barriers and Challenges a.) Personal fabrication vs. mass manufacturing : When compared with traditional manufacturing processes, AM is economical when parts to be manufactured in low volume. When it comes to customized product manufacturing, AM is best suited.
  26. 26. b.) Building scalability vs. layer resolution : Increasing layer resolution decreases the layer thickness to be laid / printed. Decrease in layer thickness increases the surface finish as well as number of layers. Large number of layers increases the total build time.
  27. 27. c.) Material heterogeneity and structural reliability :  While consumer goods are comprised of a wide variety of materials that render different behaviors and functionalities, the material selection of AM systems is quite limited.  Products from AM systems suffer from anisotropic mechanical properties due to interlayer bonding deficiencies  Most of the simple 3D printers are capable of printing single material at a time. Multi material printing systems is limited due to uncertain behavior at the material interfaces .
  28. 28. References  1. Rayner, Alex , "3D-printable guns are just the start, says Cody Wilson". The Guardian (London) , (6 May 2013).  2. Amberlee S. Haselhuhn, Bas Wijnen, Gerald C. Anzalone, Paul G. Sanders, Joshua M. Pearce,” In Situ Formation of Substrate Release Mechanisms for Gas Metal Arc Weld Metal 3-D Printing”, Journal of Materials Processing Technology. 226, pp. 50–59 (2015)  3. Jane Bird. "Exploring the 3D printing opportunity". The Financial Times. Retrieved (2012-08-30).  4. Excell, Jon. "The rise of additive manufacturing". The Engineer. Retrieved 2013-10-30.  5. "3D Printer Technology – Animation of layering". Create It Real. (2012-01-31).  6. http://www.thethirdindustrialrevolution.com/  7. "3D Printing: What You Need to Know". PCMag.com. Retrieved 2013-10-30.
  29. 29. Thank You

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