• Tommy Hilfiger
• Marks and Spencer
• Ann Taylor
• Nine West
• Liz Claiborne
How many of you have heard the names of these
• Did you know almost all these retailers and brands get there
apparel manufactured in India, exported to their stores in
the US and Europe?
• Export houses in India manufacture in mass for them
• With retailers placing close to 20 – 30 styles on order each
• Order sizes range from 2,000 – 2,00,000 pieces per style for
• This means on an average an exporter can manufacture
anywhere between 40,000 units to 20,00,000 units for
• So who is the person who co-ordinates between buyers
in USA/Europe/Australia and the manufacturers in
• That person is a ‘Merchandiser’
What is Garment Merchandising
• The word “MERCHANDISING” evolves from
• Merchandise is the commodities and goods that are
bought and sold in business
• Hence, merchandising is a function resulting in sale
and purchase of goods at the agreed price, at the
agreed date and of the agreed quality.
• Merchandising function involves all activities
directly or indirectly linked with procuring and
selling of goods, planning and monitoring.
Merchandising is the business art of matching
goods to the needs and preferences of customers
to ensure shelf off take". In other word
merchandising is the marketing activity responsible
for ensuring a product’s desirability, both in
qualitative and quantitative.
• Merchandising’ word is originated from Merchant
or Shopkeeper. The duty of the shopkeeper is to
arrange right products with right price before a
consumer decides to buy or knows about the
product from promotion or media. If a merchant
fails to supply goods on time or fails to supply the
right packaging, customer will go to other shops
and buy the products from competitors, who keep
the desired product in stock.
A person who ensures that the right
product reaches at the right price in
right quantity and at the right time to the
Merchandising…as the eyes may
The marketing methods and techniques of presenting products for sale.
Any activity to stimulate trade interest in moving the product to the
The planning involved in marketing the right merchandise at the
right place, at the Right time, in the right quantities, and at the
(American Marketing Assoc.)
In Eastern Europe, particularly in Russia, the term
“merchandising” is commonly used within the trading industry and
denotes all marketing and sales stimulation activities around PoS
(point of sale): design, creation, promotion, care and training of the
as commonly used in marketing, means maximizing merchandise
sales using product selection, product design, product packaging,
product pricing, and product display that stimulates consumers to
• Planning to have the right
merchandise at the right time, in
the right quantity & at the right
• It is the integral part of the
• Ultimate success lies in having
on time deliveries.
• It is a continuous process and
involves a strong element and
understanding of detailing.
DEFINITION: MERCHANDISE /MERCHANDISING / MERCHANDISER
Products that the entrepreneur deals on a
commercially viable scale.
Merchandising is basically planning, buying and
selling the merchandise for a profit.
Driver who have logical and analytical thinking with
intuitive and expressive capability to transform the
entire range into 3D MERCHANDISE.
Marketing and Merchandising
• Marketing works with the brand on a community/advertising level.
• Merchandising works with the product on a retail level.
• Marketing is how a company advertises itself, and how it raises awareness of it’s public
• Merchandising is how a
product is displayed in a retail market, including signage, shelf space and placement, end
caps, displays, planned promotions, etc.
• Marketing is creating a feeling around a company and a brand that makes a consumer want
to buy company products.
• Merchandising is creating promotions, displays, and maximizing revenue per square foot of
• Marketing is the management process through which goods and services move
from concept to the customer. As a practice, it consists in coordination of four
elements called 4P's: (1) identification, selection, and development of a product,
(2) determination of its price, (3) selection of a distribution channel to reach the
customer's place, and (4) development and implementation of a promotional
• Merchandising is the activity of promoting the sale of goods at retail markets.
Merchandising activities may include display techniques, free samples, on-the-
spot demonstration, pricing, shelf talkers, special offers, and other point-of-sale
methods. According to American Marketing Association, merchandising
encompasses "planning involved in marketing the right merchandise or service
at the right place, at the right time, in the right quantities, and at the right price”
Segregation on the
basis of shade and
Fabric store Segregation
acc. to shade, lot
Shade approval by
Checking for lay width
and no of panels
Bundling Checking in
Cutting section Sewing section
Endline checkersWith roaming
and pressingRough Checking
Final checking Measurement checkingWarehouse
Garment factory Department
Soul of Merchandising – co ordination with other
Merchandising is a
• Central body which coordinates between
• Is the main link of correspondence
between different levels.
• Is responsible for smooth flow of
inventory for timely delivery.
• Follow up with each & every aspect
involved in the shipment of final
How an order flows..
Lead time from order enquiry to dispatch 3-4 months
Costing & ORDER
TRIMS ORDERING &
Function of Merchandising
• Function of a Merchandiser
garment firm include:
Coordination with other departments.
Generation, execution and management
Understanding the importance of
working in a team.
Helping organizations in achieving their
Helping in meeting the expectations of
Representing buyers and conveying
message to & fro.
Duties and responsibilities of a
• Plans purchasing – fabric & trims.
• Sourcing – right kind of
merchandise to satisfy buyers
• Schedules Production.
• Follow up on sent shipments –
Handling customers complaints if
• Works on costing of garments.
• Works on deadlines of various
stages of the order – sampling,
production, finishing and
Types of merchandisers
• Design- Merchandiser interface: (mainly in
import sourcing or buying agent or liaison
• Manufacture merchandiser (mainly in export
• Retail merchandiser (in centralized or localized
retail buying operations)
TYPES OF MERCHANDISING
a) In an Export Production House
b) In Buying House
a) For domestic Market
MERCHANDISING ROLE- EXPORT HOUSE
MERCHANDISING DEVELOPMENT BASED ON BUYER’S OBJECTIVE
PO – FROM BUYER
PROTO SAMPLE WITH COSTING (As per details provided)
DEVELOPMENT OF LAB-DIP / DESKLOOMS
ORDER FOR RAW MATERIAL (AFTER LB-DIPS / DESKLOOMS APPROAL)
PROCUREMENT OF TRIMS
SAMPLE YARDAGE RECEIVED
BULK FABRIC / ACCESSORIES – INHOUSE
PILOT RUN/ PRE-PRODUCTION SAMPLES
INCEPTION OF BULK PRODUCTION
ONLINE AND MIDDLE INSPECTION
ROLE OF MERCHANDISER:
A Merchandiser must be a multi faceted individual who is involved in all functions that result in the creation
development, execution and delivery of the product
INTERFACE WITH SALES
A merchandiser is involved in every stage of the
process from design to sales……… they
• advise the designer on market trends,
• collect specifications from the buyers,
• get the samples approved
• and also negotiate the price.
• even responsible for ensuring that consignments are
delivered to the customers in time.
The Life of a Merchandiser
• Most work in fashion merchandising involves juggling the past,
present, and future.
• Merchandisers spend a great deal evaluating sales from previous time
periods in order to plan and make decisions for future sales.
• This requires an ability to forecast trends & then translate them into
a profitable business plan for the company.
Functions of the buyer
• Inventory replenishment
• Buying (procurement)
• Vendor management
Role of a Merchandiser
• Merchandisers need to have updated
information on colors, fabrics, and styling for
the forthcoming season
• Based on this information, sourcing
merchandisers should work with mills, fabric
sources and export houses for new
• Understand the buyer’s requirements after
receiving specification in sample order
• To get updated on the current status of the
• Receiving of PO from buyer.
• Development of Proto sample with costing.
Role of a Merchandiser
• Coordinating with factories for submits such as
yarns/ lab dips, desk loom, bulk fabrics, fit
samples, pre-production samples, etc.
• Ordering of Bulk fabrics and accessories or
• Carrying out pilot run
• Cross check samples at the pilot run, inline
and midline and keep a track of day-to-day
production output based on the status given by
the factory as well as the stationed QCs.
• To communicate with the buyers regarding the
• Merchandisers should perform the role of a
Role of a Merchandiser-As a
• Buyer contact and communication
• Product development
• Costing and Pricing of merchandise
• Selling and booking of orders
• Production follow up
• Quality Control
• The knowledge of IT applications and
• Basic economics and world trade
Role of a Merchandiser –for
• Planned date to start knitting to make the
• Planned date to start dyeing to color the
• Planned date to start cutting fabrics.
• Planned date to start sewing the required
• Planned date to start packing the required
• Planned date to hand over finished goods
to buyer nominated sea or air forwarder.
Role of a Merchandiser-In Quality
• Provide correct and clear information on time
to relevant departments
• Ensure fabric quality
• Ensure production friendly samples
• On time sealer sample availability
• Make sure to get the sources of accessories
and fabrics at as early as sampling stage of
• Ensure timely trims arrival
• Ensure right first time submissions to buyer to
save time, money and reputation
Role of a Merchandiser-In Quality
• Ensure timely approvals from buyers
• Identify possible problems in the style and the
ways to avoid them
• Discuss the style, its target and its T&Awith
• Timely handing over production file with all the
• Timely preparation of budget for fabric and
• Conduct/be present for in-line inspection to
anticipate defects and avoidance of the same
in the future.
• Merchant should regularly visit production floor
in order to locate if any defect is left unnoticed
• Rapid Response is the buzz word
• Decision Support Systems
• Real Time Merchandising
• Responsive Manufacturing
• Functional Integration
• Time Compression
• Partnership Relationship
Efficiency Vs Effectiveness
Efficiency : Doing the job right
Effectiveness : Doing the right job
Its fundamental prerequisite is that person has a complete understanding
of his job and what he is expected to contribute in an organization
We are what we repeatedly do.
Excellence, then is not an act but a habit
A habit is an intersection of
knowledge, skill & desire.
Knowledge - What and Why to do?
Desire - Want to do?
Skill - How to do?
Roles and Responsibilities
Product Development & Sampling
Fabric & Trim Sourcing
Costing & Negotiation
Fits & Pre-Production Approvals
Plan Factory Capacity & Allocations
Color / Fabric approval
Production & Line Planning
Production Follow up
Quality Audits & Shipment Status
Quota / Embargo Movements
Vessel / Flight Planning
• Time Management
• Planning and Organizing
“If you can not manage yourself, you can not manage anyone else”
A disorganized person does not know where the problem lies. You miss deadlines,
however fast you work, you seem to be running behind your schedule.
Time is Money
Spend time in important goals & tasks.
Plan your results
Stay in control
Utilize your available time effectively.
Clear, specific goals
Key area is a main area on which to concentrate your
time and effort in order to achieve the overall purpose.
Tasks should form the basis of your action of what to
do, when to do and how to do.
Proactive tasks – Active positive tasks you must do to
achieve the objective. It is taking initiative by not being
pushy, obnoxious or aggressive but by being affirmative and
Reactive tasks – Day to day tasks that land on your desk
everyday and has to dealt with to keep things running
Manages current tasks well.
Allocates time for the projects.
Completes small part of huge goals everyday.
Is guided by the goal set for future.
Translates desires into results.
Gets bogged down by the external environment – emails,
Uses time to get by.
Has no time for development projects.
Works to find a short term solution.
Importance vs. Urgency
These are not the same things. Something urgent is not necessarily important.
Urgent tasks should be dealt with straight way taking out the minimum time.
Positive tasks are always the important ones and reactive tasks are rarely
The objective here is to :
Maximize return of time.
Planning and Organizing skills
Allows us to effectively utilize resources.
Allows us to anticipate problems.
Enables us to communicate our intentions to others.
Assists us to evaluate how realistic the objectives are.
Assists us to evaluate alternative means of achieving
Assists us to establish priorities.
Helps reduce firefighting.
Helps us track our priorities.
Helps communicate and track programs and results.
Manifests and induces capacity.
Saves time and increases productivity
" If you are not in control of your day, you are not
in control at all. "
Most important self organizing tool ( if used) is a diary.
Maintain a diary.
Allocate time meeting with yourself.
Fill gaps by doing routine work.
Allow time to meet unexpected tasks, unmet deadlines.
Links to long term planning of a month with details of a daily planner ,
reminds you not to lose track formats/time and action calendar/reports
etc can be classified in this category
Likewise are monthly and annual tools.
Analyze crisis by using the following checklist :
How did this happen.
Why am i doing it now.
When did i know about it.
Has it occurred before.
Is there a system we can set up today to avoid this in future.
Overcome obstacles by organizing
Organize your desk
Carefully arranged workplace enables you to work efficiently, feel good and save
" Messy desks reflect messy brain "
Do now Do it today
Do soon Within a week
Read magazines/journals etc.
pass on pass/delegate.
file info that needs to be preserved.
misc. vouchers/invoices etc.
Throw away Interruptions
Unwelcome, that disrupt and frustrate you.
If there are too many interruptions, something is drastically wrong.
Why do they happen ?
Lack of information
Commitments not met
Being aware of the problem is more than 90% of the solution.
Have clear objective and an agenda.
Have correct choice of participants.
Have clear idea.
Need sound leadership.
Avoid unnecessary interruptions.
Proper Filing & Record Maintenance
What to file?
The material that has value and relevance and that
needs to be preserved.
Have proper classification correspondence in separate
Special files poplin qualities/ trim file
Should be easily accessible to everybody.
Effective Communication &
"Seek first to understand, then to be understood "
Communication It is the process by which a person, a group or an
organization (sender) transmits some information ( message ) to another
person/group or and organization (receiver)
Channels of communication
Face – to-Face
Need to choose an appropriate channel for maximum effectiveness. It is a
very important tool which is very critical for your success as an individual
as well as a company.
Proper & Effective Communication
You should have proper background.
Current knowledge of the subject.
Right perspective & attitude
It should be precise, clear and to the point.
Good Listening skills.
Access to relevant info.
Should be open minded
Build common ground and similarities at an unconscious level.
Develop respect and trust through authority, credibility and sincerity.
Show respect, kindness and friendliness.
Talk willingly and openly.
Help others achieve goals and develop capacity.
Give constructive feedback.
Learn what they expect from you.
Communicate expectations unambiguously.
Be fair, don't play favorite.
Be honest and ethical.
Know what is expected of you.
Know what info serves his needs.
Give well considered ideas.
Share important suggestions and grievances.
Role of a Merchandiser in a
• Communicating with buyers by mail
(mostly) for new queries as well as
• Meeting with vendors and explaining new
development requirement to vendor team
• Planning for new season sampling and
• Collecting of garment samples, trims and
different types of swatches from the
• Submission of samples to buyer through
• Follow up with vendors for samples
• Follow up with buyers for approvals and
• Giving approval on samples where buyer
intervention is not required
• Updating latest comments on particular
styles or order to vendor representative
• Update the buyers with the order status at
• Execution of running orders (production)
• Visit to vendor site
• Sourcing of materials for new
• Preparation of material requirement
• Selection and finalizing of vendors for the
upcoming orders based on vendor’s
experience of making similar products
• Preparing Purchase order
• Costing and negotiation with trim &
• Handle quality issues for sampling as well
• Preparing inspection schedule for
shipment and notifying to quality
department in the buying house or third
• Maintaining files and Accounts
• Updating Time and Action calendar