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Foreign policy


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Foreign policy

  1. 1. 1
  2. 2. CountriesAnkur Kejriwal Akshay Chopra• Bolivia • Chile• The Bahamas • Ecuador 2
  3. 3. Content • Introduction • GDP • Population • Age Structure • Independence • Export & Import (Commodities & Partners) • Military Expenditure • Disputes • Illicit Drugs • Foreign Policy (Today’s Discussion) 3
  4. 4. Ankur KejriwalBolivia The Bahamas 4
  5. 5. • Bolivia, named after independence fighter Simon BOLIVAR, broke away from Spanish rule in 1825; much of its subsequent history has consisted of aIntroduction series of nearly 200 coups and countercoups. Democratic civilian rule was established in 1982,Bolivia but leaders have faced difficult problems of deep- seated poverty, social unrest, and illegal drug production. In December 2005, Bolivians elected Movement Toward Socialism leader Evo MORALES president - by the widest margin of any leader since the restoration of civilian rule in 1982 - after he ran on a promise to change the countrys traditional political class and empower the nations poor, indigenous majority. However, since taking office, his controversial strategies have exacerbated racial and economic tensions between the Amerindian populations of the Andean west and the non-indigenous communities of the eastern lowlands. In December 2009, President MORALES easily won reelection, and his party took control of the legislative branch of the government, which will allow him to continue his process of change. In October 2011, the country held its first judicial elections to appoint judges to the four highest courts. 5
  6. 6. • Lucayan Indians inhabited the islands when Christopher COLUMBUS first set foot in the New World on San Salvador in 1492. British settlementIntroduction of the islands began in 1647; the islands became a colony in 1783. Since attaining independence fromThe Bahamas the UK in 1973, The Bahamas has prospered through tourism and international banking and investment management. Because of its geography, the country is a major transshipment point for illegal drugs, particularly shipments to the US and Europe, and its territory is used for smuggling illegal migrants into the US. 6
  7. 7. GDP(Purchasing Power Parity)Bolivia The Bahamas• 50.94 billion $ (2011) • 10.60 billion $ (2011) 7
  8. 8. PopulationBolivia The Bahamas• 10,290,003(July 2012) • 3,16,182(July 2012) 8
  9. 9. Population Growth RateBolivia The Bahamas• 1.664%(2012) • 0.904%(2012) 9
  10. 10. Age StructureBolivia The Bahamas• 00-14 years(34.2%) • 00-14 years(24.0%)• 15-64 years(61.0%) • 15-64 years(69.5%)• 64-above years(04.7%) • 65-above years(06.5%) 10
  11. 11. IndependenceBolivia The Bahamas• 6th August 1825 • 10th July 1973• (From Spain) • (From UK) 11
  12. 12. Export (Commodities)Bolivia The Bahamas• Natural Gas • Mineral product• Soybeans & Soya • Salt Products • Animal Product• Crude Petroleum • Rum• Zinc Ore • Chemicals• Tin • Fruits • Vegetables 12
  13. 13. Export (Partners)Bolivia The Bahamas• Brazil • Singapore• South Korea • US• Peru • Ecuador• Argentina • Switzerland• Japan • Dominican Republic 13
  14. 14. Import (Commodities)Bolivia The Bahamas• Petroleum Product • Machinery• Plastic • Transport Equipment• Paper • Manufacturers• Aircraft & Aircraft Parts • Chemicals• Prepared Food • Mineral Fuels• Automobiles • Food• Insecticides • Live Animals 14
  15. 15. Import (Partners)Bolivia The Bahamas• Chile • US• Brazil • India• Argentina • South Korea• Peru • Venezuela• China • Singapore • China 15
  16. 16. Military ExpenditureBolivia The Bahamas• 1.3% of GDP (2009) • 0.7% 0f GDP (2009) 16
  17. 17. DisputesBolivia The Bahamas• Chile and Peru rebuff Bolivias • Disagrees with the US on the reactivated claim to restore the alignment of the northern axis of a Atacama corridor, ceded to Chile in potential maritime boundary. 1884, but Chile offers instead unrestricted but not sovereign maritime access through Chile for Bolivian natural gas; contraband smuggling, human trafficking, and illegal narcotic trafficking are problems in the porous areas of the border with Argentina. 17
  18. 18. Illicit DrugsBolivia The Bahamas• Worlds third-largest cultivator of coca • Transshipment point for cocaine and (after Colombia and Peru) with an marijuana bound for US and Europe; estimated 35,000 hectares under offshore financial center. cultivation in 2009, an increase of ten percent over 2008; third largest producer of cocaine, estimated at 195 metric tons potential pure cocaine in 2009, a 70 percent increase over 2006; transit country for Peruvian and Colombian cocaine destined for Brazil, Argentina, Chile, Paraguay, and Europe; weak border controls; some money-laundering activity related to narcotics trade; major cocaine consumption (2008) 18
  19. 19. Foreign Policy • Bolivia’s colonial past and historical ties mean that relations with the continent tend to be led by the Spanish. There are also significant SpanishBolivia interests in Bolivia with investments in areas including hydrocarbons and energy, airports, finance, cinemas, and tourism. The EU is the secondEUROPE largest trading partner for Bolivia after the US and is a leading investor in the region, accounting for a significant share of FDI. Relations are important with Europe’s biggest economies - Germany and France are significant investors (French company Total has major investments in oil and gas), Swiss company Glencore International has interests in the mining sector and several European countries have bilateral aid programmes. • For their part, UK companies participate in Bolivia’s natural gas industry (BG Group operates several gas fields and is a partner in others), as well as in the health services sector (BUPA), energy (Rurelec) and consumer goods (Unilever). The UK’s main exports to Bolivia are beverages, industrial equipment and power generating equipment. British companies in Bolivia sell mining equipment and specialised machinery to the hydrocarbons sector, and provide a range of financial services to the banking and insurance sectors. Official figures put UK exports to Bolivia for 2010 at £15.5 million while UK imports totalled £14.6 million. 19
  20. 20. Foreign Policy • While the UK used to have a bilateral aid programme with Bolivia, this was closed in 2008. UK aid to Bolivia is now channelled through the World Bank,Bolivia Inter-American Development Bank and indirectly through grants to UK NGOs. The UK also contributes to the European Union (EU) aid programmeEUROPE for Bolivia, currently budgeted at €243 million over 6 years. A significant part of this aid programme is directed to supporting the Bolivian government in its fight against cocaine production and trafficking. • As well as aid, relations with the EU are focused on trade and political relations, including election observation and human rights monitoring. Bolivia was engaged in the negotiation of a trade deal with the European Union as part of the Andean Community of Nations (CAN) trade bloc, however, Bolivia’s opposition to conditions of the agreement, on the grounds that it was designed to serve European rather than Bolivian interests (particularly in the area of intellectual property rights), along with objections from Ecuador, meant that negotiations with the CAN were put on hold (the EU has since concluded bilateral negotiations with Peru and Colombia, undermining the principle of negotiating bloc to bloc with developing countries). 20
  21. 21. Foreign Policy • Bolivias relationship with the United States has historicallyBolivia oscillated between mutual hostility /suspicion and accommodation to Washington’s desires. In the years after the 1952 revolution, the US government regarded Bolivia as a potential communist threat inUNITED STATES the Americas. Under the right-wing military governments of the 1960s and 1970s, that threat was assuaged. By the 1980s and 1990s, coca had replaced communism as Washington’s main concern. The bilateral relationship was at its most harmonious under the Banzer government of 1997-2001 with its zero-coca policy. The US embassy in La Paz, one of its largest in the Americas, forged a close working relationship with Banzer and his successors, but was wary of the political clout of the coca farmers of the Chapare. In 2002 Manuel Rocha, then US ambassador in La Paz, warned Bolivians not to vote for Morales. His intervention simply swelled support for Morales, who only narrowly missed topping the poll. 21
  22. 22. Foreign Policy • Relations accordingly became tense with the election of EvoBolivia Morales and the MAS government in 2005. The United States sees Morales as soft on coca. It also dislikes the links that he has developed between Bolivia, Cuba and Venezuela. The MAS victoryUNITED STATES reflected a resurgence in the spirit of Bolivian nationalism, which tends, today as in the past, to rail against perceived US interventionism. The administration has rejected trade liberalisation with the United States. It has also demanded the extradition of former president Gonzalo Sánchez de Lozada (who fled to the United States after his ouster in 2003), on human rights grounds. In December 2006 Morales enacted a policy placing visa requirements on US citizens entering the country, following the principle of reciprocity in diplomatic relations between the two countries. 22
  23. 23. Foreign Policy • In September 2008, following the attempts in the eastern lowlands to bring down the government and the subsequent massacre ofBolivia indigenous campesinos in the northern department of Pando, Evo Morales declared Ambassador Philip Goldbergpersona non grata and expelled himUNITED STATES from Bolivia. Morales accused Goldberg of colluding with the opposition and involvement in the destabilising actions, which he referred to as a “civic coup”. The US immediately responded by asking the Bolivian Ambassador in Washington, Gustavo Guzmán, to leave the country. Bolivia then expelled the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) personnel from Bolivia. The Bush administration “decertified” Bolivia in 2009 for what it said was a failure to meet its “obligations under international counter-narcotics agreements”. This was followed by the cancellation of the Andean Trade Promotion and Drug Eradication Act (ATPDEA) trade preferences for Bolivia. Little progress has been made so far under the Obama administration. Although there were initial signs of good will from both sides - Morales expressed optimism in Obama after they met at the Summit of the Americas in Trinidad and Tobago – there has been no substantive change in relations yet. Bolivia has sought to negotiate a ‘framework agreement’ to govern bilateral relations, but this has yet to be accepted by Washington. 23
  24. 24. Foreign Policy • The United States established diplomatic relations with TheThe Bahamas Bahamas in 1973 following its independence from the United Kingdom. As a neighbor, The Bahamas and its political stability are especially important to the United States. The U.S. and theU.S.-BAHAMASRELATIONS Bahamian Government have worked together on reducing crime and addressing illegal migration issues. With the closest island only 45 miles from the coast of Florida, The Bahamas often is used as a gateway for drugs, weapons and illegal aliens bound for the United States. The United States and The Bahamas cooperate closely to address these threats. U.S. assistance and resources have been essential to Bahamian efforts to mitigate the persistent flow of illegal narcotics, guns, and migrants through the archipelago. The United States and The Bahamas also actively cooperate on law enforcement, civil aviation, marine research, meteorology, and agricultural issues. The U.S. Navy operates an underwater research facility on Andros Island. 24
  25. 25. Foreign Policy • U.S. foreign assistance to The Bahamas supports the key goals ofThe Bahamas bolstering law enforcement and counternarcotics efforts, including demand reduction, strengthening the criminal justice system, and improving interdiction capabilities. Regional security programsU.S. Assistance to TheBahamas complement bilateral aid, providing further assistance for law enforcement, citizen safety, and rule-of-law programs. Additional support provided through the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) funds programs in HIV prevention and awareness and stigma mitigation. 25
  26. 26. Foreign Policy • The Bahamian economy is driven by tourism and financialThe Bahamas services. Most of the U.S.-affiliated businesses operating in The Bahamas are associated with tourism and banking. Historically, a majority of the 4-5 million tourists visiting The Bahamas each yearBilateral EconomicRelations have been from the United States. The Bahamas imports nearly all its food and manufactured goods from the United States, although it is beginning to diversify its supply chain to include Asian and Latin American suppliers. U.S. goods and services tend to be favored by Bahamians due to cultural similarities and exposure to U.S. advertising. Due to its dependence on U.S. tourism and trade, the Bahamian economy is affected by U.S. economic performance. The Bahamas is a beneficiary of the U.S.-Caribbean Basin Trade Partnership Act. The U.S. Department of Homeland Securitys Bureau of Customs and Border Protection maintains "preclearance" facilities at the airports in Nassau and Freeport. Travelers to the U.S., including business people and tourists, are interviewed and inspected before departure, allowing faster connection times in the U.S. 26
  27. 27. Foreign Policy • The Bahamas and the United States belong to a number of theThe Bahamas same international organizations, including the United Nations, Organization of American States, International Monetary Fund, International Maritime Organization, and the World Bank. TheThe BahamasMembership in Bahamas also is an observer to the World Trade Organization.InternationalOrganizations • There is currently no U.S. Ambassador to The Bahamas; the U.S. Charge dAffaires is John Dinkelman. Other principal embassyBilateral officials are listed in the Departments Key Officers List.Representation • The Bahamas maintains an embassy in the United States at 2220 Massachusetts Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20008 (tel: 202-319-2660). 27
  28. 28. Thank you! 28
  29. 29. Akshay ChopraChile Ecuador 29
  30. 30. • Prior to the arrival of the Spanish in the 16th century, the Inca ruled northern Chile while the indigenous Mapuche inhabited central andIntroduction southern Chile. Although Chile declared its independence in 1810, decisive victory over theChile Spanish was not achieved until 1818. In the War of the Pacific (1879-83), Chile defeated Peru and Bolivia and won its present northern regions. It was not until the 1880s that the Mapuche Indians were completely subjugated. After a series of elected governments, the three-year-old Marxist government of Salvador ALLENDE was overthrown in 1973 by a military coup led by Augusto PINOCHET, who ruled until a freely elected president was installed in 1990. Sound economic policies, maintained consistently since the 1980s, have contributed to steady growth, reduced poverty rates by over half, and have helped secure the countrys commitment to democratic and representative government. Chile has increasingly assumed regional and international leadership roles befitting its status as a stable, democratic nation. 30
  31. 31. • What is now Ecuador formed part of the northern Inca Empire until the Spanish conquest in 1533. Quito became a seat of Spanish colonialIntroduction government in 1563 and part of the Viceroyalty of New Granada in 1717. The territories of theEcuador Viceroyalty - New Granada (Colombia), Venezuela, and Quito - gained their independence between 1819 and 1822 and formed a federation known as Gran Colombia. When Quito withdrew in 1830, the traditional name was changed in favor of the "Republic of the Equator." Between 1904 and 1942, Ecuador lost territories in a series of conflicts with its neighbors. A border war with Peru that flared in 1995 was resolved in 1999. Although Ecuador marked 30 years of civilian governance in 2004, the period was marred by political instability. Protests in Quito contributed to the mid-term ouster of three of Ecuadors last four democratically elected Presidents. In late 2008, voters approved a new constitution, Ecuadors 20th since gaining independence. General elections, under the new constitutional framework, were held in April 2009, and voters re-elected President Rafael CORREA. 31
  32. 32. GDP (Purchasing Power Parity)Chile Ecuador• 299.5 billion $ (2011) • 127.4 billion $ (2011) 32
  33. 33. PopulationChile Ecuador• 17,067,369 (July 2012) • 15,223,680 (July 2012) 33
  34. 34. Population Growth RateChile Ecuador• 0.88% (2012) • 1.419% (2012) 34
  35. 35. Age StructureChile Ecuador• 00-14 years(21.4%) • 00-14 years(29.5%)• 15-64 years(69.2%) • 15-64 years(63.9%)• 64-above years(09.4%) • 64-above years(06.6%) 35
  36. 36. IndependenceChile Ecuador• 18th September 1810 • 24th May 1822• (From Spain) • (From Spain) 36
  37. 37. Export (Commodities)Chile Ecuador• Copper • Petroleum• Fruit • Banana• Fish Product • Cut Flower• Paper & Pulp • Coffee• Chemical • Wood• Wine • Fish • Cacao 37
  38. 38. Export (Partners)Chile Ecuador• China • US• US • Panama• Japan • Peru• Brazil • Venezuela• South Korea • Chile• Netherland • Russia 38
  39. 39. Import (Commodities)Chile Ecuador• Petroleum • Industrial Material• Petroleum Product • Fuels & Lubricants• Chemicals • Non Durable Consumer• Electrical & Goods Telecommunication Equipment• Vehicles• Natural Gas• Industrial Machinery 39
  40. 40. Import (Partners)Chile Ecuador• US • US• China • China• Brazil • Columbia• Germany • Panama• Argentina • Peru • Brazil • South Kore 40
  41. 41. Military ExpenditureChile Ecuador• 2.7% of GDP (2009) • 0.9% 0f GDP (2009) 41
  42. 42. DisputesChile Ecuador• Chile and Peru rebuff Bolivias reactivated • Organized illegal narcotics operations claim to restore the Atacama corridor, in Colombia penetrate across ceded to Chile in 1884, but Chile has Ecuadors shared border, which offered instead unrestricted but not sovereign maritime access through Chile to thousands of Colombians also cross to Bolivian natural gas; Chile rejects Perus escape the violence in their home unilateral legislation to change its latitudinal country. maritime boundary with Chile to an equidistance line with a southwestern axis favoring Peru; in October 2007, Peru took its maritime complaint with Chile to the ICJ; territorial claim in Antarctica (Chilean Antarctic Territory) partially overlaps Argentine and British claims; the joint boundary commission, established by Chile and Argentina in 2001, has yet to map and demarcate the delimited boundary in the inhospitable Andean Southern Ice Field (Campo de Hielo Sur). 42
  43. 43. Illicit DrugsChile Ecuador• Transshipment country for cocaine • Significant transit country for cocaine destined for Europe and the region; originating in Colombia and Peru, with some money laundering activity, much of the US-bound cocaine especially through the Iquique Free passing through Ecuadorian Pacific Trade Zone; imported precursors waters; importer of precursor passed on to Bolivia; domestic cocaine chemicals used in production of illicit consumption is rising, making Chile a narcotics; attractive location for cash- significant consumer of cocaine placement by drug traffickers (2008). laundering money because of dollarization and weak anti-money- laundering regime; increased activity on the northern frontier by trafficking groups and Colombian insurgents (2008). 43
  44. 44. Foreign Policy • On November 16, 2008, the Foreign Minister of Ecuador Maria IsabelEcuador Salvador met her counterpart, Pranab Mukherjee , with a close relationship in oil and defence between these geographically distantWith “INDIA” countries high on the agenda. On the oil front, the new government in Ecuador has reversed the earlier revenue-sharing arrangements with western oil companies and is now keen on striking new partnerships with state-owned ONGC Videsh of India. • In the defence sector, Ecuador became the first country to sign a contract for purchasing the Indian made Dhruv helicopters of which one will be for use by its President. The Embassy here has expanded its setup with the appointment of a Military Attache and prospects appear bright for more defence exports as Ecuador has agreed to be the servicing hub in South America for Indian defence equipment 44
  45. 45. Foreign Policy • Formal relations with the Peoples Republic of China started on 1980-Ecuador 01-02. In July 1980, China set up its embassy in Ecuador. In July 1981, Ecuador set up its embassy in China. Since the establishmentWith “CHINA” of diplomatic relations, Sino-Ecuadorian relations have been advancing smoothly. The two sides maintain high level political contacts and exchanges in fields of trade and economy, science and technology, culture and education grow steadily. In international affairs, the two countries understand and support each other. • In September 2012, the two nations signed a Commercial and Security Agreement. It allows Ecuador to easily sell seafood, cocoa and bananas in China, with the Chinese agreeing to ease restrictions on further food items. Additionally, China has established an $80 million line of credit for Ecuador with the EximBank to help Ecuador build a road to the new Quito airport 45
  46. 46. Foreign Policy • Relations between the United Kingdom and Ecuador were traditionally regarded as "low-key but cordial", especially before the election of Rafael Correa; the Prince ofEcuador Wales and Duchess of Cornwall visited the country in 2009, as part of a tour celebrating the bicentenary of Charles Darwin. President Correa visited London in theWith “UK” same year, speaking mostly in English at the London School of Economics about the changes his government was making. • In 2012 relations came under strain when Julian Assange , founder of the Wikileaks website, entered the Ecuadorian embassy in London and sought asylum; Assange had recently lost a legal case against his extradition to Sweden on charges of sexual assault and rape, but when within the embassy he was on diplomatic territory and beyond the reach of the British police. The United Kingdom Foreign and Commonwealth Office delivered a note to the Ecuadorian government in Quito reminding them of the provisions of the Diplomatic and Consular Premises Act 1987 which allow the British government to withdraw recognition of diplomatic protection from embassies; the move was interpreted as a hostile act by Ecuador, with Foreign Minister Ricardo Patiño stating that this "explicit threat" would be met with "appropriate responses in accordance with international law". Assange was granted diplomatic asylum on 16 August 2012, with Foreign Minister Patiño stating that Assanges fears of political persecution were "legitimate" 46
  47. 47. Foreign Policy • The United States and Ecuador have maintained close ties based onEcuador mutual interests in maintaining democratic institutions; combating cannabis and cocaine; building trade, investment, andWith “United States” financial ties; cooperating in fostering Ecuadors economic development; and participating in inter-American organizations. Ties are further strengthened by the presence of an estimated 150,000- 200,000 Ecuadorians living in the United States and by 24,000 U.S. citizens visiting Ecuador annually, and by approximately 15,000 U.S. citizens residing in Ecuador. The United States assists Ecuadors economic development directly through the Agency for International Development (USAID) program in Ecuador and through multilateral organizations such as the Inter-American Development Bank and the World Bank. In addition, the U.S.Peace Corps operates a sizable program in Ecuador. More than 100 U.S. companies are doing business in Ecuador. 47
  48. 48. No Policy ever satisfies its core objective. The Principle of Politicsis not to follow any principle. 48