How many of you are media educators How many of you know about comm media Introducing CEMCA
Participatory Communication for Social Change
Media Centre for Asia
in Social Change
Dr Ankuran Dutta
CEMCA, New Delhi
“there is possibly a valid reason why we
have two ears, but only one mouth.
Communication between people thrives not
on the ability to talk fast, but the ability to
listen well. People are ‘voiceless’ not
because they have nothing to say, but
because nobody cares to listen to them.
Authentic listening fosters trust much more
than incessant talking.”
- Jan Servaes & Patchanee Malikhao
As Jan and Patchanee mentioned, participation
necessitates listening, and moreover, trust, will
help reduce the social distance between
communicators and receivers, between teachers
and learners, between leaders and followers as
well as facilitate a more equitable exchange of
ideas, knowledge and experiences.
Listen before Communicate
• In participatory communication, before
communicate the communicator should listen to
the target audience.
• The need to listen should not limited to the
audience at the receiving end.
• It must involve the administrators as well as the
citizens, the poor as well as the rich, the
planners as well as their targets.
• Participatory Communication (PC) is an approach based
on dialogue, which allows the sharing of information,
perceptions and opinions among the various
stakeholders and thereby facilitates their empowerment,
especially for those who are most vulnerable and
• Participatory communication is not just the exchange of
information and experiences: it is also the exploration
and generation of new knowledge aimed at addressing
situations that need to be improved.
• Thomas & Paolo
Key Elements of PC
• Identification and prioritization of needs, targets,
outputs and desired outcomes
• Focus on “horizontal” communication
• Focus on collaborative processes
• Focus on identifying solutions and positive models
of change from within the community, rather than
applying examples from outside
• Explicit integration of social empowerment and
• Recurring cycles of reflection and action
Process of PC
• Participatory Communication Assessment
• It assesses and investigates the situation
• Participatory Communication Strategy Design
• Based on PCA, the best way of communication to achieve the intended
change is designed
• Participatory Communication in Action
• It is the implementation phase of the communication activities
• Monitoring and Evaluation
• To assess the impact of the intervention
Methods and Tools of PC
To measure the situation at the beginning of communication intervention
To help at the end of stretagy to evaluate the impact
Also helps in validating and qualifying the extent of the initial findings
Problem Tree goes deeper into problem analysis
Solution Tree uses logical framework to focus on available options and
Methods and Tools of PC
• It helps to investigate the individual issues
on the area
• 8-10 individuals with a common relationship
discuss on the issue
Methods and Tools
Community Resource Mapping
(Occupation and Source of Income)
(Provide understanding on Social Composition)
Methods and Tools
Communication Resource Mapping
(to identify the information flow)
Media Environment Audit
(To know the existing media infrastructure and legislation on Media)
Designing of Communication
based on Action
Monitoring & Evaluation
Evaluation of targeted
Behaviour change communication (BCC) is a research-
based consultative process of addressing knowledge,
attitudes and practices through identifying, analysing and
segmenting audiences and participants in programmes by
providing them with relevant information and motivation
through well defined strategies, using an audience-
appropriate mix of interpersonal, group and mass-media
channels, including participatory methods. (Unicef, 2005)
Social change is most commonly understood as a
process of transformation in the way society is organised,
within institutions and in the distribution of power within
various social and political institutions.
Figueroa & Kincaid (2002)
Communication for social change is a process of public
and private dialogue through which people define who
they are, what they want and how they can get it.
Gray-Felder & Deane (1999)
• Communication, Participation, & Social Change: A review of communication initiatives addressing
gender-based violence, gender norms, and harmful traditional practices in crisis-affected settings.
(2010). USA: USAID, ARC, CfC.
• Figueroa, M. E., Kincaid, D. L., Rani, M., & Lewis, G. (2002) Communication for social change: An
integrated model for measuring the process and its outcomes. New York: The Communication for
Social Change Working Paper Series No. 1, The Rockefeller Foundation.
• Gray-Felder, D., & Deane, J. (1999) Communication for social change: A position paper and
conference report. New York: The Rockefeller Foundation.
• Participatory communication: a key to rural learning systems. (2003). Rome: FAO.
• Participatory Communications for Social Change: A movement-building or organizing approach to
communications. (2007). Retrieved from
• Servaes (ed.), J. (2002). Approaches to Development Communication. Paris: UNESCO.
• Servaes, J., & Malikhao, P. (n.d.). Participatory communication: the new paradigm? Retrieved from
• Strategic Communication- For Behaviour and Social Change in South Asia. (2005). Kathmandu, Nepal:
• Tufte, T., & Mefalopulos, P. (2009). Participatory Communication: A Practical Guide. Washington DC:
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