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PLANT LAYOUT 
Plant layout refers to the arrangement of physical 
facilities such as machinery, equipment, furniture etc. 
with in the factory building in such a manner so as to 
have quickest flow of material at the lowest cost and 
with the least amount of handling in processing the 
product from the receipt of material to the shipment 
of the finished product.
DEFINITION 
According to Riggs, “the overall objective of plant 
layout is to design a physical arrangement that most 
economically meets the required output – quantity 
and quality.” 
 According to J. L. Zundi, “Plant layout ideally 
involves allocation of space and arrangement of 
equipment in such a manner that overall operating 
costs are minimized.
DETERMINENTS OF PLANT LAYOUT 
1. TYPE OF PRODUCT (size, shape and quality) 
2. TYPE OF PROCESS (technology employed, 
sequencing etc) 
3. VOLUME OF PRODUCTIONS- (INCREASE OR 
DECREASE)
IMPORTANCE OF PLANT LAYOUT 
• It is long-term commitment 
• It facilitates the production process, minimizes material 
handling, time and cost, and allows flexibility of 
operations 
• It facilitates easy production flow, makes economic use of 
the building, promotes effective utilization of manpower, 
and provides for employee’s convenience, safety, comfort 
at work, maximum exposure to natural light and 
ventilation. 
• it affects the flow of material and processes, labour 
efficiency, supervision and control, use of space and 
expansion possibilities .
OBJECTIVES OF PLANT LAYOUT 
• Proper and efficient utilization of available floor space 
• To ensure that work proceeds from one point to another point without any 
delay 
• Provide enough production capacity 
• Reduce material handling costs 
• Reduce hazards to personnel 
• Utilize labour efficiently 
• Increase employee morale 
• Reduce accidents 
• Provide ease of supervision and control 
• Provide employee safety and health 
• Allow ease of maintenance 
• Allow high machine or equipment utilization 
• Improve productivity 
• To minimize cost of productions 
• Better inter department relationship
FACTORS INFLUENCING PLANT 
LAYOUT 
1. Factory building :- The nature and size of the 
building determines the floor space available for 
layout. While designing the special requirements, 
e.g. air conditioning, dust control, humidity control 
etc. must be kept in mind. 
2. Nature of product :- Product layout is suitable for 
uniform products whereas process layout is more 
appropriate for custom-made products.
3. Production process :- In assembly line industries, 
product layout is better. In job order or intermittent 
manufacturing on the other hand, process layout is 
desirable. 
4. Type of machinery: General purpose machines are 
often arranged as per process layout while special 
purpose machines are arranged according to product 
layout. 
5. Repairs and maintenance :- Machines should be so 
arranged that adequate space is available between 
them for movement of equipment and people 
required for repairing the machines.
6. Human needs :- Adequate arrangement should be 
made for cloakroom, washroom, lockers, drinking 
water, toilets and other employee facilities, proper 
provision should be made for disposal of effluents, if 
any. 
7. Plant environment :- Heat, light, noise, ventilation 
and other aspects should be duly considered, e.g. 
paint shops and plating section should be located in 
another hall so that dangerous fumes can be removed 
through proper ventilation etc. Adequate safety 
arrangement should also be made. 
8. Management policies :- management policies 
regarding size, quality, employee facilities and 
delivery schedules should be considered while 
deciding plant layout.
DYNAMICS OF PLANT LAYOUT 
Increase in the output of the existing product 
Introduction of a new product and diversification 
Technological advancements in machinery, material, 
processes, product design, fuel etc. 
Deficiencies in the layout unnoticed by the layout 
engineer in the beginning.
PRINCIPLES OF PLANT LAYOUT 
• PRINCIPLE OF MINIMUM MOVEMENT 
• PRINCIPLE OF FLOW 
• PRINCIPLE OF SPACE 
• PRINCIPLE OF SAFETY 
• PRINCIPLE OF FLEXIBILITY 
• PRINCIPLE OF INTERDEPENDENCE 
• PRINCIPLE OF OVERALL INTEGRATION 
• PRINCIPLE OF MINIMUM INVESTMENT
1. PRINCIPLE OF MINIMUM 
MOVEMENT 
As far as possible materials and labour should be 
moved over minimum distances.
2. PRINCIPLE OF FLOW 
The work areas should be arranged according to the 
sequence of operations so that there is continuous 
flow of materials without congestion. 
The layout should allow for easy movement of 
materials without interruption or delay.
3. PRINCIPLE OF SPACE 
All available cubic space should be effectively used 
both vertically and horizontally.
4. PRINCIPLE OF SAFETY 
There should be consideration for safety and 
convenience of workers. 
There should be built in provision for the safety and 
comfort.
5. PRINCIPLE OF FLEXIBILITY 
Layout should be designed in the manner that 
production facilities can easily be rearranged when it 
becomes necessary in future on account of expansion 
and technological advancement.
6. PRINCIPLE OF 
INTERDEPENDENCE 
Interdependent operations and processes should be 
located in close proximity to each other.
7.PRINCIPLE OF OVERALL 
INTEGRATION 
All the plant facilities and services should be fully 
integrated into a single operating unit so as to 
maximize efficiency and minimize costs of 
production.
8. PRINCIPLE OF MINIMUM 
INVESTMENT 
The layout should yield savings in fixed capital 
investment through optimum utilization of available 
facilities.
TYPES OF LAYOUTS 
1. PRODUCT OR LINE LAYOUT 
2. PROCESS OR FUNCTIONAL LAYOUT 
3. FIXED POSITION OR LOCATION LAYOUT 
4. COMBINED OR GROUP LAYOUT
1.PRODUCT OR LINE LAYOUT 
Under this, machines and equipments are arranged in 
one line depending upon the sequence of operations 
required for the product. The materials move from 
one workstation to another sequentially without any 
backtracking or deviation. Under this, machines are 
grouped in one sequence. Therefore materials are fed 
into the first machine and finished goods travel 
automatically from machine to machine, the output 
of one machine becoming input of the next.
e.g. in a paper mill, bamboos are fed into the 
machine at one end and paper comes out at the other 
end. The raw material moves very fast from one 
workstation to other stations with a minimum work 
in progress storage and material handling. 
The grouping of machines should be done keeping in 
mind the following general principles. 
a)All the machine tools or other items of equipments 
must be placed at the point demanded by the 
sequence of operations. 
b)There should no points where one line crossed 
another line. 
c)All the operations including assembly, testing, 
packing must be included in the line
ADVANTAGES OF PRODUCT 
LAYOUT 
1. Low cost of material handling, due to straight and short 
route and absence of backtracking. 
2. Smooth and uninterrupted operations 
3. Continuous flow of work 
4. Lesser investment in inventory and work in progress 
5. Optimum use of floor space 
6. Shorter processing time or quicker output 
7. Less congestion of work in the process 
8. Simple and effective inspection of work and simplified 
production control 
9. Lower cost of manufacturing per unit
DISADVANTAGES OF PRODUCT 
LAYOUT 
1. High initial capital investment in special purpose 
machine 
2. Heavy overhead charges 
3. Breakdown of one machine will hamper the whole 
production process 
4. Lesser flexibility as specially laid out for particular 
product.
SUITABILITY OF PRODUCT 
LAYOUT 
1. Mass production of standardized products 
2. Simple and repetitive manufacturing process 
3. Operation time for different process is more or less 
equal 
4. Reasonably stable demand for the product 
5. Continuous supply of materials 
Therefore, the manufacturing units involving 
continuous manufacturing process, producing few 
standardized products continuously on the firm’s own 
specifications and in anticipation of sales would prefer 
product layout e.g. chemicals, sugar, paper, rubber, 
refineries, cement, automobiles, food processing 
and electronics etc.
2.PROCESS OR FUNCTIONAL 
LAYOUT 
In this type of layout machines of a similar type are 
arranged together at one place. E.g. Machines performing 
drilling operations are arranged in the drilling 
department, machines performing casting operations be 
grouped in the casting department. Therefore the 
machines are installed in the plants, which follow the 
process layout. 
The work, which has to be done, is allocated to the 
machines according to loading schedules with the object 
of ensuring that each machine is fully loaded. 
Used when the operations system must handle a wide 
variety of products in relatively small volumes (i.e., 
flexibility is necessary)
The grouping of machines according to the process has 
to be done keeping in mind the following principles 
– 
1. The distance between departments should be as short 
as possible for avoiding long distance movement of 
materials. 
2.The departments should be in sequence of operations 
3.The arrangement should be convenient for inspection 
and supervision
ADVANTAGES OF PROCESS 
LAYOUT 
1. Lower initial capital investment in machines and 
equipments. There is high degree of machine 
utilization, as a machine is not blocked for a single 
product 
2. The overhead costs are relatively low 
3. Change in output design and volume can be more 
easily adapted to the output of variety of products 
4. Breakdown of one machine does not result in 
complete work stoppage 
5. Supervision can be more effective and specialized 
6. There is a greater flexibility of scope for expansion
DISADVANTAGES OF PROCESS 
LAYOUT 
Material handling costs are high due to backtracking 
More skilled labour is required resulting in higher 
cost. 
Time gap or lag in production is higher 
Work in progress inventory is high needing greater 
storage space 
More frequent inspection is needed which results in 
costly supervision
SUITABILITY OF PROCESS 
LAYOUT 
Products are not standardized 
Quantity produced is small 
There are frequent changes in design and style of product 
Job shop type of work is done 
Machines are very expensive 
Thus, process layout or functional layout is suitable for job 
order production involving non-repetitive processes and 
customer specifications and non-standardized products, 
e.g. tailoring, light and heavy engineering products, 
made to order furniture industries, jewelry.
3.FIXED POSITION OR 
LOCATION LAYOUT 
In this type of layout, the major product being 
produced is fixed at one location. Equipment labour 
and components are moved to that location. All 
facilities are brought and arranged around one work 
center. This type of layout is not relevant for small 
scale entrepreneur. 
E.g. - shipbuilding
ADAVANTAGES OF FIXED POSITION 
LAYOUT 
1. It saves time and cost involved on the movement of 
work from one workstation to another. 
2. The layout is flexible as change in job design and 
operation sequence can be easily incorporated. 
3. It is more economical when several orders in 
different stages of progress are being executed 
simultaneously. 
4. Adjustments can be made to meet shortage of 
materials or absence of workers by changing the 
sequence of operations.
DISADVANTAGES OF FIXED POSITION 
LAYOUT 
Production period being very long, capital investment 
is very heavy 
Very large space is required for storage of material 
and equipment near the product. 
As several operations are often carried out 
simultaneously, there is possibility of confusion and 
conflicts among different workgroups.
SUITABILITY OF FIXED POSITION LAYOUT 
Manufacture of bulky and heavy products such as 
locomotives, ships, boilers, generators, wagon 
building, aircraft manufacturing, etc. 
Construction of building, flyovers, dams.
4.COMBINED OR GROUP 
LAYOUT 
Certain manufacturing units may require all three 
processes namely intermittent process (job shops), 
the continuous process (mass production shops) and 
the representative process combined process 
In most of industries, only a product layout or 
process layout or fixed location layout does not exist. 
Thus, in manufacturing concerns where several 
products are produced in repeated numbers, 
Generally, a combination of the product and process 
layout or other combination are found in practice.
e.g. for industries involving the fabrication of parts 
and assembly, fabrication tends to employ the process 
layout, while the assembly areas often employ the 
product layout. 
In soap, manufacturing plant, the machinery 
manufacturing soap is arranged on the product line 
principle, but ancillary services such as heating, the 
manufacturing of glycerin, the power house, the water 
treatment plant etc. are arranged on a functional 
basis.
RECENT TRENDS IN PLANT 
LAYOUT 
Plant layout is the art and science of bringing to 
gather men, materials, methods and supporting 
facilities in the form of a given arrangements that 
suits individuals industrial activity to have the 
benefits of profits maximizations through economy, 
efficiency, effectiveness and productivity. The 
designing and instilling a layout is the responsibility 
of Engineering and planning department. The 
process of preparing layout is an art and well as 
science.
The recent trends in layout are as follows – 
1. The use of computerized facilities design: 
The various techniques have been 
developed and used in layout engineering such as 
ALDEP (Automated layout design program), 
CORELAP (Computerized relationship layout 
planning), CRAFT (computerized related allocation of 
facilities technique), CALP (computer Aided layout 
planning) etc. These and other programme can save 
time and effort in large and complex layout problems.
2. The use of various tools and techniques for 
planning the layout – 
Templates: It is a pattern which consists of thin plate 
of wood or metal which serves as gauge or guide in 
mechanical work. A plant layout template is a scaled 
representation of physical object in a layout. 
Model equipment: Model or three dimensional 
models represents machinery installed in a factory. It 
is a replica or a miniature prototype of machine and 
equipment. These show minor details and can be 
mounted on a thick plastic sheet. 
 Layout drawing: Layout drawings are the replica of 
a factory floor plan showing the space management. It 
is blue print which indicates the total square feet 
where all the equipment has to be arranged.
 Plot plan: Is a miniature of the entire factory 
building including the facilities of workers. 
 Line balance: is phase of assembly line study that 
equally divides then works to be done among 
workers so that the total number of employees 
required is minimum. OR concepts like linear 
programming, dynamic programming and optimal 
methods are used to study line balance problem.
FACTORY BUILDING 
A ideal plant building is the one which is built to 
house the most efficient layout that can be provided 
for the process involved, and artificially attractive and 
of such standard shape and design which is flexible 
its use and expansive units construction. The 
building ensures functional smoothness of the 
operation. It should be strong enough to withstand 
damages, vibrations and heavy machines.
FACTORS IN DESIGNING IN 
FACTORY BUILDING 
Adaptability. 
Expandability. 
Product and equipment. 
Employees facilities and services areas. 
Materials handling. 
Lighting, ventilation and air-conditioning. 
Fire protection. 
Security and services and maintenance.
TYPES OF BUILDINGS 
The decision on choosing a suitable type for a 
particular firm depends among other things on the 
manufacturing process, the area of land, and the cost 
of construction. The industrial building can be 
grouped under four types – 
1. Single storey building 
2.High bay and monitor types 
3.Multi-storey building 
4.Special building
Single storey building: The reduced cost of land 
and extensive transport facilities have encouraged 
single storey buildings in sub-urban areas. 
High bay and monitor types: It is a single storey 
structures with roof surrounded by a monitor, giving 
maximum overhead space. The overhead space may 
be used to operate crane and other overhead facilities. 
The monitor provides natural ventilation and side 
walls with glass provide natural lighting. 
Multi-storey building: In big cities costs of land is 
high and has no much scope of horizontal expansion 
which has given ways to multi-storey. 
Special building: these are needed for certain 
manufacturing processes. Eg the aircraft industry 
needs a building with spans 300 to 500 feet in length.
PLANT UTILITIES 
Plant utilities refer to such services as lighting, 
ventilation, air-conditioning etc. All these deserve due 
consideration from operations management as they 
contribute to increased efficiency and greater output. 
The types of plant facilities and services are as follow: 
1. Plant Lighting 
2. Ventilation 
3. Air-conditioning 
4. Industrial Sanitation 
5. Noise control 
6. Industrial safety
A. Plant lighting: Adequate lighting is necessary for a 
worker to perform his job with ease and accuracy. 
According to all India General Standards a minimum 
of 14 to 18 lumens of illuminations is considered 
adequate. 
Importance of Good illumination: 
 Ease of seeing./reduced eye strain, 
 Improved quality of work. 
 Better utilization of floor space. 
 Good housekeeping. 
 Fewer accidents. 
 Improved employee morale/ better supervision. 
 Flexible layout.
There are two major source of lighting – 
1. Day light 
2.Artificial light 
1. Day light - It is natural lighting which is received 
from the sun. 
2. Artificial light – It refers to illumination through 
artificial means as bulbs and tubes. 
Types of artificial lights are – 
a. General lighting - General lighting is provided by 
fixtures, luminaries or grid system placed 10 ft above 
the work area. The light is provided uniformly over 
the whole department in a sufficient intensity to 
satisfy the requirement of the general manufacturing 
conditions within it.
b. Supplementary lighting – 
It involves the provision of intense 
light at the point of work or in adjacent areas to suit 
the worker particular requirement. 
TYPES OF LIGHT SOURCES – 
1. Filament or incandescent lamps. 
2. Discharge lamps or fluorescent lamps. 
3. Electro-luminescent lamps, mercury vapor 
lamps.
B. VENTILATION – 
Ventilation is concerned largely with 
engineering techniques for controlling air currents 
within the plant and for introducing outdoor air in a 
pattern and on a scale that is just adequate to 
maintain satisfactory air purity. 
Importance of ventilation are – 
Protection of the health of workers. 
Preservation of quality of the product 
Meets legal requirement.
TYPES OF VENTILATION 
1. General ventilation – 
To keep the working conditions at acceptable 
comforts level. 
To keep contaminants in the air within safe limits. 
2.General exhaust ventilation – 
It is a system for preventing the 
contamination of factory air by withdrawing the 
contaminant at its source into a duct system for 
discharge to the building exterior.
SOURCES OF VENTILATION 
1. NATURAL VENTILATION 
2. MECHANICAL VENTILATION 
C. AIR CONDITIONING - 
Industrial air-conditioning requires 
control over temperatures, humidity, dust, purity and odors. 
Objectives of air-conditioning 
1. To protect worker’s health. 
2. To improve workers comfort level. 
3. To secure specified temperature conditions. 
4. To improve the quality of products. 
5. Product preservations. 
6. To reduce maintenance charges. 
7. To improve employer-employee relations.
D. INDUSTRIAL SANITATION - 
Sanitation refers to control of the 
spread of infection and other insults to the health of 
the employees. Occupational disease caused by the 
industrial process leads to employee’s dissatisfaction 
and turnover. 
OBJECTIVES – 
Supply of portable water. 
Disposal of waste and effluents. 
Provision of food which is free from contamination. 
Elimination of insects and rodents. 
Provision of personal services. 
Good housekeeping.
E. NOISE CONTROL -Noise is unwanted and 
unpleasant sound. 
Elements – 
Impairs the hearing of employees. 
Results in fatigue and nervousness. 
Vibration causes damage to machinery and 
equipments. 
Bad working environment 
Noise control methods – 
Control by absorption 
Control at source 
Control by ear protection
BREAK EVEN ANALYSIS 
 It is easy to understand that decision of site selection 
is an economic one. The site that offers least cost of 
operations should be the one selected for 
implementation. Total operation cost can be classified 
in two broad categories. 
- Fixed Costs 
- Variable Costs.
Where Total Cost can be split up into Fixed  
Variable Cost ,it is easy to prepare the BEP as it would 
facilitate for optimal decisions by taking into account 
volume of business 
 BEP are drawn for different locations to compare the 
sites. Fixed Costs, Variable Costs  Revenue / Output 
are taken into account to do so. Mathematically, 
 BE Volume: FC /Contribution.
FACTOR RATING METHOD 
Factor-rating systems are perhaps the most widely used of the 
general location techniques because they provide a mechanism to 
combine diverse factors in an easy-to-understand format. 
Popular because a wide variety ooff ffaaccttoorrss ccaann bbee iinncclluuddeedd iinn tthhee 
aannaallyyssiiss 
SSiixx sstteeppss iinn tthhee mmeetthhoodd 
11.. DDeevveelloopp aa lliisstt ooff rreelleevvaanntt ffaaccttoorrss ccaalllleedd ccrriittiiccaall ssuucccceessss ffaaccttoorrss 
22.. AAssssiiggnn aa wweeiigghhtt ttoo eeaacchh ffaaccttoorr 
33.. DDeevveelloopp aa ssccaallee ffoorr eeaacchh ffaaccttoorr 
44.. SSccoorree eeaacchh llooccaattiioonn ffoorr eeaacchh ffaaccttoorr 
55.. MMuullttiippllyy ssccoorree bbyy wweeiigghhttss ffoorr eeaacchh ffaaccttoorr ffoorr eeaacchh llooccaattiioonn 
66.. RReeccoommmmeenndd tthhee llooccaattiioonn wwiitthh tthhee hhiigghheesstt ppooiinntt ssccoorree
CENTER OF GRAVITY METHOD 
Finds location ooff ddiissttrriibbuuttiioonn cceenntteerr tthhaatt 
mmiinniimmiizzeess ddiissttrriibbuuttiioonn ccoossttss 
CCoonnssiiddeerrss 
 LLooccaattiioonn ooff mmaarrkkeettss 
 VVoolluummee ooff ggooooddss sshhiippppeedd ttoo tthhoossee mmaarrkkeettss 
 SShhiippppiinngg ccoosstt ((oorr ddiissttaannccee))
 Place existing locations oonn aa ccoooorrddiinnaattee 
ggrriidd 
 GGrriidd oorriiggiinn aanndd ssccaallee iiss aarrbbiittrraarryy 
 MMaaiinnttaaiinn rreellaattiivvee ddiissttaanncceess 
 CCaallccuullaattee XX aanndd YY ccoooorrddiinnaatteess ffoorr ‘‘cceenntteerr 
ooff ggrraavviittyy’’ 
 AAssssuummeess ccoosstt iiss ddiirreeccttllyy pprrooppoorrttiioonnaall ttoo 
ddiissttaannccee aanndd vvoolluummee sshhiippppeedd 
xx -- ccoooorrddiinnaattee == 
ΣΣddiixxQQii 
ii 
ΣΣQQii 
ii 
ΣΣddiiyyQQii 
ii 
ΣΣQQii 
ii 
yy -- ccoooorrddiinnaattee ==
BROWN  GIBSON METHOD 
The Brown–Gibson model is one of the many 
techniques for multi-attribute decision making. The 
method was developed in 1972 by P. Brown and D. 
Gibson. This is one of the few models which 
integrates both objective and subjective factors in 
decision making. 
The Brown–Gibson model can be mathematically 
represented as follows – 
Mi = Ci X [D X Oi + (1−D) X Si]
Where, 
M = Measure for an alternative 'i' 
C = Critical factor measure which could be either be 0 
or 1 for an alternative 'i' 
O = Objective factor measure which could be 
between 0 and 1 however the sum of all objective 
factor measures for different alternatives should add 
back to 1 
S = Subjective factor measure which could be 
between 0 and 1 however the sum of all subjective 
factor measures for different alternatives should add 
back to 1 
D = Objective factor decision weight and this should 
be between 0 and 1 
We would select the alternative

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Plant layout ppt by me

  • 1.
  • 2. PLANT LAYOUT Plant layout refers to the arrangement of physical facilities such as machinery, equipment, furniture etc. with in the factory building in such a manner so as to have quickest flow of material at the lowest cost and with the least amount of handling in processing the product from the receipt of material to the shipment of the finished product.
  • 3. DEFINITION According to Riggs, “the overall objective of plant layout is to design a physical arrangement that most economically meets the required output – quantity and quality.”  According to J. L. Zundi, “Plant layout ideally involves allocation of space and arrangement of equipment in such a manner that overall operating costs are minimized.
  • 4. DETERMINENTS OF PLANT LAYOUT 1. TYPE OF PRODUCT (size, shape and quality) 2. TYPE OF PROCESS (technology employed, sequencing etc) 3. VOLUME OF PRODUCTIONS- (INCREASE OR DECREASE)
  • 5. IMPORTANCE OF PLANT LAYOUT • It is long-term commitment • It facilitates the production process, minimizes material handling, time and cost, and allows flexibility of operations • It facilitates easy production flow, makes economic use of the building, promotes effective utilization of manpower, and provides for employee’s convenience, safety, comfort at work, maximum exposure to natural light and ventilation. • it affects the flow of material and processes, labour efficiency, supervision and control, use of space and expansion possibilities .
  • 6. OBJECTIVES OF PLANT LAYOUT • Proper and efficient utilization of available floor space • To ensure that work proceeds from one point to another point without any delay • Provide enough production capacity • Reduce material handling costs • Reduce hazards to personnel • Utilize labour efficiently • Increase employee morale • Reduce accidents • Provide ease of supervision and control • Provide employee safety and health • Allow ease of maintenance • Allow high machine or equipment utilization • Improve productivity • To minimize cost of productions • Better inter department relationship
  • 7. FACTORS INFLUENCING PLANT LAYOUT 1. Factory building :- The nature and size of the building determines the floor space available for layout. While designing the special requirements, e.g. air conditioning, dust control, humidity control etc. must be kept in mind. 2. Nature of product :- Product layout is suitable for uniform products whereas process layout is more appropriate for custom-made products.
  • 8. 3. Production process :- In assembly line industries, product layout is better. In job order or intermittent manufacturing on the other hand, process layout is desirable. 4. Type of machinery: General purpose machines are often arranged as per process layout while special purpose machines are arranged according to product layout. 5. Repairs and maintenance :- Machines should be so arranged that adequate space is available between them for movement of equipment and people required for repairing the machines.
  • 9. 6. Human needs :- Adequate arrangement should be made for cloakroom, washroom, lockers, drinking water, toilets and other employee facilities, proper provision should be made for disposal of effluents, if any. 7. Plant environment :- Heat, light, noise, ventilation and other aspects should be duly considered, e.g. paint shops and plating section should be located in another hall so that dangerous fumes can be removed through proper ventilation etc. Adequate safety arrangement should also be made. 8. Management policies :- management policies regarding size, quality, employee facilities and delivery schedules should be considered while deciding plant layout.
  • 10. DYNAMICS OF PLANT LAYOUT Increase in the output of the existing product Introduction of a new product and diversification Technological advancements in machinery, material, processes, product design, fuel etc. Deficiencies in the layout unnoticed by the layout engineer in the beginning.
  • 11. PRINCIPLES OF PLANT LAYOUT • PRINCIPLE OF MINIMUM MOVEMENT • PRINCIPLE OF FLOW • PRINCIPLE OF SPACE • PRINCIPLE OF SAFETY • PRINCIPLE OF FLEXIBILITY • PRINCIPLE OF INTERDEPENDENCE • PRINCIPLE OF OVERALL INTEGRATION • PRINCIPLE OF MINIMUM INVESTMENT
  • 12. 1. PRINCIPLE OF MINIMUM MOVEMENT As far as possible materials and labour should be moved over minimum distances.
  • 13. 2. PRINCIPLE OF FLOW The work areas should be arranged according to the sequence of operations so that there is continuous flow of materials without congestion. The layout should allow for easy movement of materials without interruption or delay.
  • 14. 3. PRINCIPLE OF SPACE All available cubic space should be effectively used both vertically and horizontally.
  • 15. 4. PRINCIPLE OF SAFETY There should be consideration for safety and convenience of workers. There should be built in provision for the safety and comfort.
  • 16. 5. PRINCIPLE OF FLEXIBILITY Layout should be designed in the manner that production facilities can easily be rearranged when it becomes necessary in future on account of expansion and technological advancement.
  • 17. 6. PRINCIPLE OF INTERDEPENDENCE Interdependent operations and processes should be located in close proximity to each other.
  • 18. 7.PRINCIPLE OF OVERALL INTEGRATION All the plant facilities and services should be fully integrated into a single operating unit so as to maximize efficiency and minimize costs of production.
  • 19. 8. PRINCIPLE OF MINIMUM INVESTMENT The layout should yield savings in fixed capital investment through optimum utilization of available facilities.
  • 20. TYPES OF LAYOUTS 1. PRODUCT OR LINE LAYOUT 2. PROCESS OR FUNCTIONAL LAYOUT 3. FIXED POSITION OR LOCATION LAYOUT 4. COMBINED OR GROUP LAYOUT
  • 21. 1.PRODUCT OR LINE LAYOUT Under this, machines and equipments are arranged in one line depending upon the sequence of operations required for the product. The materials move from one workstation to another sequentially without any backtracking or deviation. Under this, machines are grouped in one sequence. Therefore materials are fed into the first machine and finished goods travel automatically from machine to machine, the output of one machine becoming input of the next.
  • 22. e.g. in a paper mill, bamboos are fed into the machine at one end and paper comes out at the other end. The raw material moves very fast from one workstation to other stations with a minimum work in progress storage and material handling. The grouping of machines should be done keeping in mind the following general principles. a)All the machine tools or other items of equipments must be placed at the point demanded by the sequence of operations. b)There should no points where one line crossed another line. c)All the operations including assembly, testing, packing must be included in the line
  • 23.
  • 24.
  • 25. ADVANTAGES OF PRODUCT LAYOUT 1. Low cost of material handling, due to straight and short route and absence of backtracking. 2. Smooth and uninterrupted operations 3. Continuous flow of work 4. Lesser investment in inventory and work in progress 5. Optimum use of floor space 6. Shorter processing time or quicker output 7. Less congestion of work in the process 8. Simple and effective inspection of work and simplified production control 9. Lower cost of manufacturing per unit
  • 26. DISADVANTAGES OF PRODUCT LAYOUT 1. High initial capital investment in special purpose machine 2. Heavy overhead charges 3. Breakdown of one machine will hamper the whole production process 4. Lesser flexibility as specially laid out for particular product.
  • 27. SUITABILITY OF PRODUCT LAYOUT 1. Mass production of standardized products 2. Simple and repetitive manufacturing process 3. Operation time for different process is more or less equal 4. Reasonably stable demand for the product 5. Continuous supply of materials Therefore, the manufacturing units involving continuous manufacturing process, producing few standardized products continuously on the firm’s own specifications and in anticipation of sales would prefer product layout e.g. chemicals, sugar, paper, rubber, refineries, cement, automobiles, food processing and electronics etc.
  • 28. 2.PROCESS OR FUNCTIONAL LAYOUT In this type of layout machines of a similar type are arranged together at one place. E.g. Machines performing drilling operations are arranged in the drilling department, machines performing casting operations be grouped in the casting department. Therefore the machines are installed in the plants, which follow the process layout. The work, which has to be done, is allocated to the machines according to loading schedules with the object of ensuring that each machine is fully loaded. Used when the operations system must handle a wide variety of products in relatively small volumes (i.e., flexibility is necessary)
  • 29. The grouping of machines according to the process has to be done keeping in mind the following principles – 1. The distance between departments should be as short as possible for avoiding long distance movement of materials. 2.The departments should be in sequence of operations 3.The arrangement should be convenient for inspection and supervision
  • 30.
  • 31.
  • 32. ADVANTAGES OF PROCESS LAYOUT 1. Lower initial capital investment in machines and equipments. There is high degree of machine utilization, as a machine is not blocked for a single product 2. The overhead costs are relatively low 3. Change in output design and volume can be more easily adapted to the output of variety of products 4. Breakdown of one machine does not result in complete work stoppage 5. Supervision can be more effective and specialized 6. There is a greater flexibility of scope for expansion
  • 33. DISADVANTAGES OF PROCESS LAYOUT Material handling costs are high due to backtracking More skilled labour is required resulting in higher cost. Time gap or lag in production is higher Work in progress inventory is high needing greater storage space More frequent inspection is needed which results in costly supervision
  • 34. SUITABILITY OF PROCESS LAYOUT Products are not standardized Quantity produced is small There are frequent changes in design and style of product Job shop type of work is done Machines are very expensive Thus, process layout or functional layout is suitable for job order production involving non-repetitive processes and customer specifications and non-standardized products, e.g. tailoring, light and heavy engineering products, made to order furniture industries, jewelry.
  • 35. 3.FIXED POSITION OR LOCATION LAYOUT In this type of layout, the major product being produced is fixed at one location. Equipment labour and components are moved to that location. All facilities are brought and arranged around one work center. This type of layout is not relevant for small scale entrepreneur. E.g. - shipbuilding
  • 36.
  • 37. ADAVANTAGES OF FIXED POSITION LAYOUT 1. It saves time and cost involved on the movement of work from one workstation to another. 2. The layout is flexible as change in job design and operation sequence can be easily incorporated. 3. It is more economical when several orders in different stages of progress are being executed simultaneously. 4. Adjustments can be made to meet shortage of materials or absence of workers by changing the sequence of operations.
  • 38. DISADVANTAGES OF FIXED POSITION LAYOUT Production period being very long, capital investment is very heavy Very large space is required for storage of material and equipment near the product. As several operations are often carried out simultaneously, there is possibility of confusion and conflicts among different workgroups.
  • 39. SUITABILITY OF FIXED POSITION LAYOUT Manufacture of bulky and heavy products such as locomotives, ships, boilers, generators, wagon building, aircraft manufacturing, etc. Construction of building, flyovers, dams.
  • 40. 4.COMBINED OR GROUP LAYOUT Certain manufacturing units may require all three processes namely intermittent process (job shops), the continuous process (mass production shops) and the representative process combined process In most of industries, only a product layout or process layout or fixed location layout does not exist. Thus, in manufacturing concerns where several products are produced in repeated numbers, Generally, a combination of the product and process layout or other combination are found in practice.
  • 41. e.g. for industries involving the fabrication of parts and assembly, fabrication tends to employ the process layout, while the assembly areas often employ the product layout. In soap, manufacturing plant, the machinery manufacturing soap is arranged on the product line principle, but ancillary services such as heating, the manufacturing of glycerin, the power house, the water treatment plant etc. are arranged on a functional basis.
  • 42. RECENT TRENDS IN PLANT LAYOUT Plant layout is the art and science of bringing to gather men, materials, methods and supporting facilities in the form of a given arrangements that suits individuals industrial activity to have the benefits of profits maximizations through economy, efficiency, effectiveness and productivity. The designing and instilling a layout is the responsibility of Engineering and planning department. The process of preparing layout is an art and well as science.
  • 43. The recent trends in layout are as follows – 1. The use of computerized facilities design: The various techniques have been developed and used in layout engineering such as ALDEP (Automated layout design program), CORELAP (Computerized relationship layout planning), CRAFT (computerized related allocation of facilities technique), CALP (computer Aided layout planning) etc. These and other programme can save time and effort in large and complex layout problems.
  • 44. 2. The use of various tools and techniques for planning the layout – Templates: It is a pattern which consists of thin plate of wood or metal which serves as gauge or guide in mechanical work. A plant layout template is a scaled representation of physical object in a layout. Model equipment: Model or three dimensional models represents machinery installed in a factory. It is a replica or a miniature prototype of machine and equipment. These show minor details and can be mounted on a thick plastic sheet.  Layout drawing: Layout drawings are the replica of a factory floor plan showing the space management. It is blue print which indicates the total square feet where all the equipment has to be arranged.
  • 45.  Plot plan: Is a miniature of the entire factory building including the facilities of workers.  Line balance: is phase of assembly line study that equally divides then works to be done among workers so that the total number of employees required is minimum. OR concepts like linear programming, dynamic programming and optimal methods are used to study line balance problem.
  • 46. FACTORY BUILDING A ideal plant building is the one which is built to house the most efficient layout that can be provided for the process involved, and artificially attractive and of such standard shape and design which is flexible its use and expansive units construction. The building ensures functional smoothness of the operation. It should be strong enough to withstand damages, vibrations and heavy machines.
  • 47. FACTORS IN DESIGNING IN FACTORY BUILDING Adaptability. Expandability. Product and equipment. Employees facilities and services areas. Materials handling. Lighting, ventilation and air-conditioning. Fire protection. Security and services and maintenance.
  • 48. TYPES OF BUILDINGS The decision on choosing a suitable type for a particular firm depends among other things on the manufacturing process, the area of land, and the cost of construction. The industrial building can be grouped under four types – 1. Single storey building 2.High bay and monitor types 3.Multi-storey building 4.Special building
  • 49. Single storey building: The reduced cost of land and extensive transport facilities have encouraged single storey buildings in sub-urban areas. High bay and monitor types: It is a single storey structures with roof surrounded by a monitor, giving maximum overhead space. The overhead space may be used to operate crane and other overhead facilities. The monitor provides natural ventilation and side walls with glass provide natural lighting. Multi-storey building: In big cities costs of land is high and has no much scope of horizontal expansion which has given ways to multi-storey. Special building: these are needed for certain manufacturing processes. Eg the aircraft industry needs a building with spans 300 to 500 feet in length.
  • 50. PLANT UTILITIES Plant utilities refer to such services as lighting, ventilation, air-conditioning etc. All these deserve due consideration from operations management as they contribute to increased efficiency and greater output. The types of plant facilities and services are as follow: 1. Plant Lighting 2. Ventilation 3. Air-conditioning 4. Industrial Sanitation 5. Noise control 6. Industrial safety
  • 51. A. Plant lighting: Adequate lighting is necessary for a worker to perform his job with ease and accuracy. According to all India General Standards a minimum of 14 to 18 lumens of illuminations is considered adequate. Importance of Good illumination:  Ease of seeing./reduced eye strain,  Improved quality of work.  Better utilization of floor space.  Good housekeeping.  Fewer accidents.  Improved employee morale/ better supervision.  Flexible layout.
  • 52. There are two major source of lighting – 1. Day light 2.Artificial light 1. Day light - It is natural lighting which is received from the sun. 2. Artificial light – It refers to illumination through artificial means as bulbs and tubes. Types of artificial lights are – a. General lighting - General lighting is provided by fixtures, luminaries or grid system placed 10 ft above the work area. The light is provided uniformly over the whole department in a sufficient intensity to satisfy the requirement of the general manufacturing conditions within it.
  • 53. b. Supplementary lighting – It involves the provision of intense light at the point of work or in adjacent areas to suit the worker particular requirement. TYPES OF LIGHT SOURCES – 1. Filament or incandescent lamps. 2. Discharge lamps or fluorescent lamps. 3. Electro-luminescent lamps, mercury vapor lamps.
  • 54. B. VENTILATION – Ventilation is concerned largely with engineering techniques for controlling air currents within the plant and for introducing outdoor air in a pattern and on a scale that is just adequate to maintain satisfactory air purity. Importance of ventilation are – Protection of the health of workers. Preservation of quality of the product Meets legal requirement.
  • 55. TYPES OF VENTILATION 1. General ventilation – To keep the working conditions at acceptable comforts level. To keep contaminants in the air within safe limits. 2.General exhaust ventilation – It is a system for preventing the contamination of factory air by withdrawing the contaminant at its source into a duct system for discharge to the building exterior.
  • 56. SOURCES OF VENTILATION 1. NATURAL VENTILATION 2. MECHANICAL VENTILATION C. AIR CONDITIONING - Industrial air-conditioning requires control over temperatures, humidity, dust, purity and odors. Objectives of air-conditioning 1. To protect worker’s health. 2. To improve workers comfort level. 3. To secure specified temperature conditions. 4. To improve the quality of products. 5. Product preservations. 6. To reduce maintenance charges. 7. To improve employer-employee relations.
  • 57. D. INDUSTRIAL SANITATION - Sanitation refers to control of the spread of infection and other insults to the health of the employees. Occupational disease caused by the industrial process leads to employee’s dissatisfaction and turnover. OBJECTIVES – Supply of portable water. Disposal of waste and effluents. Provision of food which is free from contamination. Elimination of insects and rodents. Provision of personal services. Good housekeeping.
  • 58. E. NOISE CONTROL -Noise is unwanted and unpleasant sound. Elements – Impairs the hearing of employees. Results in fatigue and nervousness. Vibration causes damage to machinery and equipments. Bad working environment Noise control methods – Control by absorption Control at source Control by ear protection
  • 59.
  • 60. BREAK EVEN ANALYSIS It is easy to understand that decision of site selection is an economic one. The site that offers least cost of operations should be the one selected for implementation. Total operation cost can be classified in two broad categories. - Fixed Costs - Variable Costs.
  • 61. Where Total Cost can be split up into Fixed Variable Cost ,it is easy to prepare the BEP as it would facilitate for optimal decisions by taking into account volume of business BEP are drawn for different locations to compare the sites. Fixed Costs, Variable Costs Revenue / Output are taken into account to do so. Mathematically, BE Volume: FC /Contribution.
  • 62. FACTOR RATING METHOD Factor-rating systems are perhaps the most widely used of the general location techniques because they provide a mechanism to combine diverse factors in an easy-to-understand format. Popular because a wide variety ooff ffaaccttoorrss ccaann bbee iinncclluuddeedd iinn tthhee aannaallyyssiiss SSiixx sstteeppss iinn tthhee mmeetthhoodd 11.. DDeevveelloopp aa lliisstt ooff rreelleevvaanntt ffaaccttoorrss ccaalllleedd ccrriittiiccaall ssuucccceessss ffaaccttoorrss 22.. AAssssiiggnn aa wweeiigghhtt ttoo eeaacchh ffaaccttoorr 33.. DDeevveelloopp aa ssccaallee ffoorr eeaacchh ffaaccttoorr 44.. SSccoorree eeaacchh llooccaattiioonn ffoorr eeaacchh ffaaccttoorr 55.. MMuullttiippllyy ssccoorree bbyy wweeiigghhttss ffoorr eeaacchh ffaaccttoorr ffoorr eeaacchh llooccaattiioonn 66.. RReeccoommmmeenndd tthhee llooccaattiioonn wwiitthh tthhee hhiigghheesstt ppooiinntt ssccoorree
  • 63. CENTER OF GRAVITY METHOD Finds location ooff ddiissttrriibbuuttiioonn cceenntteerr tthhaatt mmiinniimmiizzeess ddiissttrriibbuuttiioonn ccoossttss CCoonnssiiddeerrss  LLooccaattiioonn ooff mmaarrkkeettss  VVoolluummee ooff ggooooddss sshhiippppeedd ttoo tthhoossee mmaarrkkeettss  SShhiippppiinngg ccoosstt ((oorr ddiissttaannccee))
  • 64.  Place existing locations oonn aa ccoooorrddiinnaattee ggrriidd  GGrriidd oorriiggiinn aanndd ssccaallee iiss aarrbbiittrraarryy  MMaaiinnttaaiinn rreellaattiivvee ddiissttaanncceess  CCaallccuullaattee XX aanndd YY ccoooorrddiinnaatteess ffoorr ‘‘cceenntteerr ooff ggrraavviittyy’’  AAssssuummeess ccoosstt iiss ddiirreeccttllyy pprrooppoorrttiioonnaall ttoo ddiissttaannccee aanndd vvoolluummee sshhiippppeedd xx -- ccoooorrddiinnaattee == ΣΣddiixxQQii ii ΣΣQQii ii ΣΣddiiyyQQii ii ΣΣQQii ii yy -- ccoooorrddiinnaattee ==
  • 65. BROWN GIBSON METHOD The Brown–Gibson model is one of the many techniques for multi-attribute decision making. The method was developed in 1972 by P. Brown and D. Gibson. This is one of the few models which integrates both objective and subjective factors in decision making. The Brown–Gibson model can be mathematically represented as follows – Mi = Ci X [D X Oi + (1−D) X Si]
  • 66. Where, M = Measure for an alternative 'i' C = Critical factor measure which could be either be 0 or 1 for an alternative 'i' O = Objective factor measure which could be between 0 and 1 however the sum of all objective factor measures for different alternatives should add back to 1 S = Subjective factor measure which could be between 0 and 1 however the sum of all subjective factor measures for different alternatives should add back to 1 D = Objective factor decision weight and this should be between 0 and 1 We would select the alternative