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Security Operations


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Security Operations

  1. 1. Software Security Initiative James Walden Northern Kentucky University
  2. 2. Topics <ul><li>Security Operations </li></ul><ul><li>Web Application Firewalls </li></ul><ul><li>Build Security In Maturity Model </li></ul>
  3. 3. Software Security Practices <ul><li>Code Reviews </li></ul><ul><li>Risk Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Penetration Testing </li></ul>Security Operations Requirements Design Coding Testing Maintenance Risk Analysis Abuse Cases Code Reviews + Static Analysis Penetration Testing Security Testing <ul><li>Security Testing </li></ul><ul><li>Abuse Cases </li></ul><ul><li>Security Operations </li></ul>
  4. 4. Security Operations <ul><li>User security notes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Software should be secure by default. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enabling certain features/configs may have risks. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>User needs to be informed of security risks. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Incident response </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What happens when a vulnerability is reported? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How do you communicate with users? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How do you send updates to users? </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Code Deployment <ul><li>Manage deployment process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Change management process. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scrub debug/test code from software. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use automated tools for deployment. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Maintain three sets of servers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Staging </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Production </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Web Application Firewalls <ul><li>Analyze + filter HTTP traffic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intrusion Detection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intrusion Prevent </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Open Source WAFs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>AQTronix WebKnight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Breach ModSecurity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Commercial WAFs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Armorlogic Profense </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Breach WebDefend </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Citrix Application Firewall </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fortify Defender </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Modes of Operation <ul><li>Bridge : transparent bridging firewall. </li></ul><ul><li>Router : install at single point of entry. </li></ul><ul><li>Reverse Proxy : traffic redirected to flow through WAF by DNS or routing. </li></ul><ul><li>Embedded : server plugin; no need to configure network but only works with some web servers. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Modes of Operation Bridge or Router Embedded Reverse Proxy
  9. 9. SSL <ul><li>Terminates SSL : Reconfigure network to move SSL operations to WAF itself. WAF to server communication can be plaintext or SSL encrypted. </li></ul><ul><li>Passively decrypts SSL : WAF decrypts SSL traffic using copy of server’s SSL private key. Data travels untouched to web server. </li></ul><ul><li>Occurs after SSL : Embedded WAFs can be posititioned to analyze traffic after server decrypts SSL data. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Traffic Blocking <ul><li>Connection Intermediation : Traffic intercepted by WAF. Attacks blocked by not forwarding packets to destination. </li></ul><ul><li>Connection Reset : Traffic inspected by WAF, which blocks attacks by resetting TCP connections. </li></ul><ul><li>3 rd Party Blocking : Traffic inspected by WAF, which notifies other devices to block. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Traffic Blocking <ul><li>WAFs can block </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IP addresses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TCP connections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HTTP requests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Application sessions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Application users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Too many new requests/sessions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>WAFs can rewrite parts of HTTP request </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Request headers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Response headers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cookies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>URLs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HTTP message bodies </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Canonicalization <ul><li>WAFs convert data to standard form </li></ul><ul><ul><li>URL-decoding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Paths (., .., ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mixed case </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Whitespace condensation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HTML entity decoding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Escaped cahracter decoding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unicode standardization </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Signatures and Rules <ul><li>Signatures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Text strings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regular expressions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rules </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Signatures + </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operators (length, field) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Logical expressions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control flow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Session management </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. BSI Maturity Model <ul><li>Guide for building and improving a SSI. </li></ul><ul><li>Based on survey of top software security programs: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adobe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Depository Trust and Clearing Corporation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EMC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Google </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Microsoft </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>QUALCOMM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wells Fargo </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Software Security Initiative Statistics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2-10 years old (average 4) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>12-100 people (average 41) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Approximate 100:1 developer:security person ratio. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Using the Maturity Model <ul><li>Executive leadership </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accountability and empowerment. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficultieis: Grassroots and network security. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Identify organization security goals. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify which practices fit best with organizational culture. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use all 12 practices. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Better to put some level 1 activities in each practice in place than go to level 3 in one. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not necessary to do all practices in level 1 before moving to level 2. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Software Security Framework <ul><li>Governance : Practices that help manage and measure a software security program. </li></ul><ul><li>Intelligence : Practices producing collection sof corporate knowledge used in swsec. </li></ul><ul><li>SSDL Touchpoints : Practices associated with analysis and assurance of particular software development artifacts & processes. </li></ul><ul><li>Deployment : Practices interfacing with network security and software configuration abd maintenance organizations. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Software Security Framework
  18. 18. Practices and Business Goals
  19. 19. Strategy and Metrics
  20. 20. Compliance and Policy
  21. 21. Training
  22. 22. Attack Models
  23. 23. Security Features and Design
  24. 24. Standards and Requirements
  25. 25. Architecture Analysis
  26. 26. Code Review
  27. 27. Security Testing
  28. 28. Penetration Testing
  29. 29. Software Environment
  30. 30. Configuration Management
  31. 31. Ten Core Activities Everyone Does
  32. 32. References <ul><li>Brian Chess, Gary McGraw, Sammy Migues, Building Security In—Maturity Model, </li></ul><ul><li>CLASP, OWASP CLASP Project, , 2008. </li></ul><ul><li>Noopur Davis et. al., Processes for Producing Secure Software. IEEE Security & Privacy, May 2004. </li></ul><ul><li>Karen Goertzel, Theodore Winograd, et al. for Department of Homeland Security and Department of Defense Data and Analysis Center for Software. Enhancing the Development Life Cycle to Produce Secure Software : A Reference Guidebook on Software Assurance, October 2008. </li></ul><ul><li>Michael Howard and Steve Lipner, The Security Development Lifecycle , Microsoft Press, 2006. </li></ul><ul><li>Gary McGraw, Software Security, Addison-Wesley , 2006. </li></ul><ul><li>Ivan Ristic, Apache Security , O’Reilly, 2005. </li></ul><ul><li>Ofer Shezaf, ModSecurity “The Core Rule Set”: Generation detection of application layer attacks ModSecurity &quot;The Core Rule Set&quot;: Generic detection of application layer attacks, 6th OWASP AppSec Conference, 2007. </li></ul><ul><li>Web Application Security Consortium, “WAFEC, or how to choose WAF technology,” , 2006. </li></ul>