We study organic compounds because they are very important to our lives.
<ul><li>Most of the energy to run autos, trains and aircrafts, to heat our homes and offices, and to operate electrical equipment come from organic comp’ds. </li></ul><ul><li>Organic compd’s in naturally occurring and synthetic medicines—aspirin, penicillin, anesthetics etc—relieve pain and illness. </li></ul><ul><li>The active ingredients in soaps, detergents, polishes, cosmetics, deodorants, and shampoos are organic comp’ds. </li></ul><ul><li>Materials for manufacturing artificial body parts, such as hip and knee prostheses, heart valves, and dentures, are organic comp’ds </li></ul><ul><li>Synthetic plastics, textiles, and rubber are organic comp’ds. Our clothing are made from organic compd’s. </li></ul>
C lies at top of Grp 4A and is relatively small element. The Position of Carbon in the Periodic Table
“ I am Carbon and I am Special” 1. I can form strong and short C-C bonds. 2. I gladly form carbon-carbon double bonds (C=C), and I can even form carbon-carbon triple bonds (C ≡C) . 3. I have no problem bonding to other elements (H, O, N, S, etc.–I love them all). Given where I am in the periodic table, I typically form four bonds, except in carbon monoxide (CO). You can spend your whole life learning about me!
I Can Amaze You With Diversity Consider the number of compounds possible ( 23 ) from just 4 single bonded C atoms, one O atom, the required H atoms These are called structural isomers –compounds with the same chemical formulas, but different ways of connecting the atoms together to form different functional groups, or different compounds with completely different chemical and physical properties.
Molecular & Structural Formulas <ul><li>Molecular Formula - formula of the comp’d showing the number of atoms of each element in a molecule of the compound. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: CH 3 COOH, C 2 H 4 , etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Structural Formula -- formula showing how various atoms in molecule are bonded together. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: See previous slide </li></ul>
Certain Parts of Me Make Me Behave in Certain Predictable Ways Functional Groups – atoms or specific groups of atoms in a molecule that impart specific chemical and physical properties to the molecule. The secret to learning organic chemistry. As the periodic table is to inorganic chemistry, functional groups are the easy way to learn organic chemistry.
Four of the Functional Groups C O H Alcohol Alcohol group - Hydroxyl group .. .. Ether group C O C .. .. Ether Carboxylic acid group Ester group .. .. Ester C O C O .. .. .. C O H O Carboxyl .. .. ..
There are four families of hydrocarbons: alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, and aromatics.
Hydrocarbons (HCs) C + H Saturated hydrocarbons Alkanes: general formula is C n H 2 n +2 Cycloalkanes: general formula is C n H 2 n ( n is a positive whole number for all HCs) Unsaturated hydrocarbons Alkenes: general formula is C n H 2 n Alkynes: general formula is C n H 2 n –2 Aromatics: usually contain one or more rings of six C atoms called benzene rings ( n is a positive whole number for all HCs)