FINAL YEAR PROJECT  PROBLEM REVIEW  -ANKIT DHANANI VRUSHANK AMIN NIMIT KACHHADIA VISHRUT MEHTA
CORROSION IN PIPELINES USED IN OIL AND PETROLEUM TRANSPORTATION   FOR JAIHIND PROJECTS LIMITED
INTRODUCTION <ul><li>Pipeline transport is the transportation of goods through a pipe. </li></ul><ul><li>Pipelines are gen...
CLASSIFICATION <ul><li>Distribution pipelines </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Composed of several interconnected pipelines with ...
OPERATION <ul><li>When a pipeline is built, the construction project not only covers the civil work to lay the pipeline an...
LEAKAGES AND REGULATION <ul><li>Since oil and gas pipelines are an important asset of the economic development of almost a...
CORROSION <ul><li>Corrosion is the disintegration of an engineered material into its constituent atoms due to chemical rea...
CORROSION DAMAGE AND CONTROL  <ul><li>Corrosion damage and failure are always considered in the design and construction of...
CORROSION DAMAGE AND CONTROL <ul><li>Ensuring long-term, cost-effective system integrity requires an integrated approach b...
CORROSION DAMAGE AND CONTROL <ul><li>Since oil and gas pipelines are an important asset of the economic development of alm...
CATHODIC PROTECTION AGAINST CORROSION
CATHODIC PROTECTION <ul><li>Cathodic protection is the utilization of the electrical properties of corrosion of metallic s...
GALVANIZATION <ul><li>It is the process of applying a protective zinc coating to metal, in order to prevent rusting </li><...
GALVANIZATION
IMPRESSED CURRENT <ul><li>For larger structures, galvanic anodes cannot deliver economically enough current to provide com...
IMPRESSED CURRENT <ul><li>The impressed current cathodic protection system usually provides electrodes of a much longer li...
IMPRESSED CURRENT <ul><li>An impressed current system uses a rectifier to convert alternating current to direct current (s...
SYSTEM COMPONENTS <ul><li>The chief components for Impressed Current Cathodic Protection (ICCP) are : </li></ul><ul><li>AC...
SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS <ul><li>For underground structures requiring cathodic protection, the location and nature of the site ...
ADVANTAGES <ul><li>Non destructive installation </li></ul><ul><li>Easy installation </li></ul><ul><li>Maintains structure ...
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Report 909

  1. 1. FINAL YEAR PROJECT PROBLEM REVIEW -ANKIT DHANANI VRUSHANK AMIN NIMIT KACHHADIA VISHRUT MEHTA
  2. 2. CORROSION IN PIPELINES USED IN OIL AND PETROLEUM TRANSPORTATION FOR JAIHIND PROJECTS LIMITED
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION <ul><li>Pipeline transport is the transportation of goods through a pipe. </li></ul><ul><li>Pipelines are generally the most economical way to transport large quantities of oil, refined oil products or natural gas over land. Compared to shipping by railroad, they have lower cost per unit and higher capacity. </li></ul><ul><li>Oil pipelines are made from steel or plastic tubes with inner diameter typically from 4 to 48 inches </li></ul>
  4. 4. CLASSIFICATION <ul><li>Distribution pipelines </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Composed of several interconnected pipelines with small diameters, used to take the products to the final consumer. Feeder lines to distribute gas to homes and businesses downstream. Pipelines at terminals for distributing products to tanks and storage facilities are included in this group. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Transportation pipelines </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mainly long pipes with large diameters, moving products (oil, gas, refined products) between cities, countries and even continents. These transportation networks include several compressor stations in gas lines or pump stations for crude and multi products pipelines </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Gathering pipelines </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Group of smaller interconnected pipelines forming complex networks with the purpose of bringing crude oil or natural gas from several nearby wells to a treatment plant or processing facility. In this group, pipelines are usually short- a couple of hundred meters- and with small diameters. Also sub-sea pipelines for collecting product from deep water production platforms are considered gathering systems. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. OPERATION <ul><li>When a pipeline is built, the construction project not only covers the civil work to lay the pipeline and build the pump/compressor stations, it also has to cover all the work related to the installation of the field devices that will support remote operation. </li></ul><ul><li>Field devices are instrumentation, data gathering units and communication systems. The field Instrumentation includes flow, pressure and temperature gauges/transmitters, and other devices to measure the relevant data required. These instruments are installed along the pipeline on some specific locations, such as injection or delivery stations, pump stations (liquid pipelines) or compressor stations (gas pipelines), and block valve stations </li></ul>
  6. 6. LEAKAGES AND REGULATION <ul><li>Since oil and gas pipelines are an important asset of the economic development of almost any country, it has been required either by government regulations or internal policies to ensure the safety of the assets, and the population and environment where these pipelines run. </li></ul><ul><li>Pipeline companies face government regulation, environmental constraints and social situations. Pipeline companies should comply with government regulations which may define minimum staff to run the operation, operator training requirements, up to specifics including pipeline facilities, technology and applications required to ensure operational safety. </li></ul><ul><li>Regulation requires buried fuel pipelines to be protected from corrosion. It is a major concern for many oil and petroleum companies to get a solution over the problem of corrosion of pipelines over a period of time and prevent losses incurred due to the undesirable effect of corrosion of pipeline material </li></ul>
  7. 7. CORROSION <ul><li>Corrosion is the disintegration of an engineered material into its constituent atoms due to chemical reactions with its surroundings. </li></ul><ul><li>Formation of an oxide of iron due to oxidation of the iron atoms in solid solution is a well-known example of electrochemical corrosion, commonly known as rusting. </li></ul><ul><li>Structural alloys corrode merely from exposure to moisture in the air, but the process can be strongly affected by exposure to certain substances </li></ul>
  8. 8. CORROSION DAMAGE AND CONTROL <ul><li>Corrosion damage and failure are always considered in the design and construction of many engineered systems </li></ul><ul><li>Unanticipated changes in the environment in which the structure operates can result in unexpected corrosion damage. </li></ul><ul><li>Combined effects of corrosion and mechanical damage, and environmentally assisted material damage can result in unexpected failures. </li></ul>
  9. 9. CORROSION DAMAGE AND CONTROL <ul><li>Ensuring long-term, cost-effective system integrity requires an integrated approach based on the use of inspection, monitoring, mitigation, forensic evaluation, and prediction. </li></ul><ul><li>Inspections and monitoring using sensors can provide valuable information regarding past and present exposure conditions but, in general, they do not directly predict remaining life and is indeed not at all cost effective for practical use. </li></ul>
  10. 10. CORROSION DAMAGE AND CONTROL <ul><li>Since oil and gas pipelines are an important asset of the economic development of almost any country, it has been required either by government regulations or internal policies to ensure the safety of the assets, and the population and environment where these pipelines run. </li></ul><ul><li>Regulation requires buried fuel pipelines to be protected from corrosion. It is a major concern for many oil and petroleum companies to get a solution over the problem of corrosion of pipelines over a period of time and prevent losses incurred due to the undesirable effect of corrosion of pipeline material </li></ul>
  11. 11. CATHODIC PROTECTION AGAINST CORROSION
  12. 12. CATHODIC PROTECTION <ul><li>Cathodic protection is the utilization of the electrical properties of corrosion of metallic substances to provide a system for the protection of steel, metallic piping or any other buried metallic structure, to extend their useful life. </li></ul><ul><li>There are two types of cathodic protection, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Galvanic protection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impressed current </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. GALVANIZATION <ul><li>It is the process of applying a protective zinc coating to metal, in order to prevent rusting </li></ul><ul><li>The protection of iron pipes by coating them with zinc, utilizes the high activity of zinc to protect the iron from rusting. </li></ul><ul><li>In moist air the zinc is oxidized to basic zinc carbonate, Zn2CO3(OH)2. The zinc carbonate forms a tough layer on the zinc, protecting the zinc, and by extension the iron underneath the zinc, from further corrosion </li></ul><ul><li>The zinc carbonate and zinc layers are broken, so that the underlying iron is exposed, the zinc will corrode sacrificially, protecting the iron.  </li></ul>
  14. 14. GALVANIZATION
  15. 15. IMPRESSED CURRENT <ul><li>For larger structures, galvanic anodes cannot deliver economically enough current to provide complete protection </li></ul><ul><li>The impressed current cathodic protection has much greater output capacity compared to galvanic anode system </li></ul><ul><li>Also at certain junctions, near welds where coats are insufficient impressed current is useful to provide protection against corrosion </li></ul>
  16. 16. IMPRESSED CURRENT <ul><li>The impressed current cathodic protection system usually provides electrodes of a much longer life span than a sacrificial anode. </li></ul><ul><li>These systems include a rectifier that converts the alternating current power source to a direct current, that is properly calibrated to provide the required protection. </li></ul><ul><li>Since the power source is delivered to the electrode and is not generated by the degradation of the electrode, the power supply to the electrode may be recalibrated to provide additional power, when needed, as long as the electrodes are still functional. </li></ul>
  17. 17. IMPRESSED CURRENT <ul><li>An impressed current system uses a rectifier to convert alternating current to direct current (see the picture). This current is sent through an insulated wire to the &quot;anodes,&quot; which are special metal bars buried in the soil near the structure. The current then flows through the soil to the system, and returns to the rectifier through an insulated wire attached to the structure. The structure is protected because the current going to the structure system overcomes the corrosion-causing current normally flowing away from it. </li></ul>
  18. 18. SYSTEM COMPONENTS <ul><li>The chief components for Impressed Current Cathodic Protection (ICCP) are : </li></ul><ul><li>AC Service </li></ul><ul><li>Rectifiers </li></ul><ul><li>Control electronics </li></ul><ul><li>Pipeline skin attachments </li></ul><ul><li>Anode attachments </li></ul>
  19. 19. SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS <ul><li>For underground structures requiring cathodic protection, the location and nature of the site where the anode is placed needs careful consideration. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Soil resistivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Presence of foreign metallic structures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accessibility and availability of a power source </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>are the deciding factors to the designing the type and location of anodes </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. ADVANTAGES <ul><li>Non destructive installation </li></ul><ul><li>Easy installation </li></ul><ul><li>Maintains structure aesthetics </li></ul><ul><li>Prevention of facades </li></ul><ul><li>Conservation of infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>Minimum disruption while installation </li></ul><ul><li>Long term solution </li></ul>

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