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In higher levels layers of wood and stone cage are constructed with rubble in between. It is non rigid and allows the building to flex with seismic waves and quickly dissipate destructive energy of earthquake.To counter the seismic forces, the traditional structures usually stand on a high solid plinth, made up of dry dressed stone masonry. The huge mass serves as a dampener pad to the earthquake forces and the dry construction allows for vibration and hence faster dissipation of the energy.
The structure is a two storey building with an Attic. Low Height of the rooms (2.1 – 2.4 m), keeps interiors warmer from heat released by individuals, also low surface to volume ratio reducing heat loss from surfaces.
Small window size and low ceiling height to prevent heat loss and keep the interiors warmer.
, where it is divided into two sections by a common passage. The basic idea of segregating the service area from the main spaces was to maintain hygiene.
Mud: . Either mud is filled into the wooden forms and rammed into the place slowly building up the wall. Alternatively, sun dried mud blocks are used in the construction of the wall.
D. The AtticAn interesting part of the house is the attic as it acts as a multifunctional space. It is used to store grain which forms the staple diet of the people and is also served as abode of the god. The two windows on the sides ventilate and dry the grain at the same time protecting from the rain. Although the main function of the attic is to insulate the house, it serves as an excellent storage space,
. Himachal Pradesh here reflects sensitivity to local culture mainly by adopting the locally available materials to provide stability to the entire structure.
Reflection of Culture and Climate in the Vernacular Architecture of Himachal Pradesh
REFLECTION OF CULTURE AND CLIMATE IN THE VERNACULAR
ARCHITECTURE OF HIMACHAL PRADESH
Department of Architecture
Gogte Institute of Technology
What is vernacular architecture??
It is based on :
• localized need,
• construction materials, and
• local traditions.
It is an epitome of place to which it belongs. It cannot
be imported from elsewhere.
“The architecture of the people, By the people and for the people.“
ARCHITECTURE OF HIMACHAL PRADESH?
• Seismic tremors are frequent.
• Layout plans and construction of buildings is
complicated in hills than in plains.
• Extreme example of sustained vernacular architecture.
Kath Khuni Style
ADOPTED TO MITIGATE SEISMIC TREMORS
• Cold and cloudy climate
• southern slopes are preferred for orientation of the houses so
as to maximize penetration of the sun rays.
• The height of building varies at different altitudes and are
designed in accordance with the sun path.
• The structure is a two storey building with an Attic.
• Low Height of the rooms (2.1 – 2.4 m)
• low surface to volume ratio reducing heat loss from surfaces.
storey 2.1 to
low ceiling height
slope for efficient
• Small window sizes and low ceiling height
• Roof of buildings possess proper slope for efficient drainage.
• Major Occupation – agriculture
• House with many stores - for storage of grains.
• Service Area forms a separate unit away from the living quarters.
• Baisakh, Poh, Magh and Phalgun are regarded as
auspicious for the start of construction
• House should face east and the rising sun.
• Houses do not have a boundary wall.
• Deodar Wood
– imparts stability to tall structures
– insect and termite resistant
– even when untreated, can
withstand long periods of weather
– It is used in making posts, beams,
window and door frames, shutters,
– good insulator and binder
– Either mud is filled into the
wooden forms and rammed
– Alternatively, sun dried mud blocks
are used for walls
• Hard Stone
- used in building foundation and
walls supporting the roof.
• Slate Tiles
- These have high quartz content, frost
- Low maintenance
- Invulnerable to rot and insects
- provide a moisture barrier to the structure.
• A multifunctional space
• It is used to store grain
• Also served as abode of the god
• Windows on the sides ventilate and dry the grain, also protecting
from the rain.
• Insulate the house, it serves as an excellent storage space
Window on sides
• Vernacular structures - by empirical builders without the
intervention of professional architects
• In vernacular architecture - culture and climate play a vital role
• Principles of vernacular architecture can be applied to modern
architecture and offer improved adaptation to A particular climate.
• Sensitive to social needs of the users - provision of outdoor areas
(verandas and balconies)
• Window hoods provide adequate ventilation and rain protection for
• Buildings provide a good solution by introducing attic – a
• Facilities which are already in use prove their positive qualities on a