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Participation of the gabaergic system on the glutamate

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Participation of the gabaergic system on the glutamate

  3. 3. MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS • Multiple sclerosis (MS) known as disseminated sclerosis or encephalomyelitis disseminata) is an autoimmune inflammatory disease in which the fatty myelin sheaths around the axons of the brain and spinal cord are damaged, leading to demyelination and scarring as well as a broad spectrum of signs and symptoms.
  4. 4. MS • Disease onset usually occurs in young adults, and it is more common in women. • It has a prevalence that ranges between 2 and 150 per 100,000.* • MS was first described in 1868 by Jean-Martin Charcot. * Rosati G (April 2001). "The prevalence of multiple sclerosis in the world: an update". Neurol. Sci. 22 (2): 117–39
  5. 5. Classification 1. progressive relapsing, 2. secondary progressive, 3. primary progressive, and 4. relapsing remitting.
  6. 6. Causes • Genetics • Environmental factors 1. Decreased sunlight exposure (decreased vit. D production) 2. severe stress 3. smoking 4. occupational exposure and toxins • Infections
  7. 7. Pathophysiology • Blood-brain barrier breakdown • Autoimmunology  Lesions  Inflammation
  8. 8. Treatment There is no known cure for multiple sclerosis at this time. However, there are therapies that may slow the disease. Medications used to slow the progression of multiple sclerosis are taken on a long-term basis, they include: • Interferons • glatiramer acetate (Copaxone) • mitoxantrone (Novantrone) • natalizumab (Tysabri) • Fingolimod (Gilenya ) • Methotrexate, azathioprine (Imuran), intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) and cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan)
  9. 9. GLUTAMATE • Glutamate is the major excitatory amino acid transmitter within the CNS, with its signaling being mediated by a number of postsynaptic ionotropic and metabotropic receptors. • The central role played by glutamate receptors in mediating excitotoxic neuronal death in stroke, epilepsy, trauma, and MS has been well established.
  10. 10. GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) • GABA is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter balanced with glutamate in the CNS. • GABAA receptors, a large and diverse family of Cl- permeable ion channels, mediate fast transmission at inhibitory GABAergic synapses and are critical for the development and coordination of the neuronal activity underlying the majority of physiological and behavioral processes in the brain.
  11. 11. AIM To investigate the possible impairment of the GABAergic system and whether it regulates the glutamate release and phosphorylation of synapsin I in nerve terminals isolated from the frontal cortex of sick and recovered EAE rats.
  12. 12. MATERIALS • Myelin (purified from bovine spinal cords) • Complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) • GABA • glutamate dehydrogenase (EC • NADP+ • 4-aminopyridine (4AP) • [3H]-flunitrazepam • Percoll • Diazepam • Picrotoxin • Synapsin I-specific antibody (AB1543P) and synapsin phosphorylation state P-site 1 (Ser-9) antibody (AB5881)
  14. 14. Animals and EAE induction Wistar rats intradermal inoculation in both hind feet 0.5 ml of an 0.5 ml of the emulsion same emulsion consisting of 0.25 Without any ml saline solution antigenic and 0.25 ml CFA preparation containing 8 mg (CFA group/ bovine myelin Control group) (EAE group)
  15. 15. • About 85% of the animals from the EAE group developed a monophasic course (acute stage, 11–13 dpi) • Animals were assessed daily for clinical signs of EAE and scored as follows: 0 - no clinical expression of the disease 1 - flaccid tail 2 - hind limb weakness 3 - complete hind leg paralysis accompanied by urinary incontinence 4 - quadriparesis, moribund state, or death.
  16. 16. • Control and sick EAE animals were decapitated at 24–36 h after onset of the disease. • Also, the CFA and EAE rats completely recovered from any clinical signs (EAErec) were sacrificed between 20 and 22 dpi.
  17. 17. Preparation of cerebrocortical synaptosomes • The frontal cortex was isolated • synaptosomes were purified on discontinuous Percoll gradients • Synaptosomes which sedimented between the 10 and 23% Percoll bands were collected • Diluted in a final volume of 30 ml of HEPES buffer medium, pH 7.4. • centrifugation at 27,000 g for 10 min at 4 °C. • pellets thus formed were resuspended in 5 ml of HEPES buffer medium • the protein content was determined by the Bradford assay
  18. 18. Glutamate release assay • Glutamate release from cerebrocortical synaptosomes was monitored online, using an assay employing exogenous glutamate dehydrogenase and NADP+ to couple the oxidative decarboxylation of the released glutamate. • Then, the generated NADPH was detected fluorometrically.
  19. 19. • synaptosomal pellets were resuspended in HEPES buffer medium and incubated in a stirred and thermostated cuvette maintained at 37 °C Spectrofluorimeter . • 1 mM NADP+, 50 units/ml glutamate dehydrogenase, and 1.2 mM CaCl2 were added after 3 min. After 5 min of incubation, 3 mM 4AP was added to stimulate the glutamate release. • Where indicated, synaptosomes were incubated in the presence of GABA (500 μM) for 4 min or GABA (500 μM) plus picrotoxin (100 μM) for 10 min prior to the addition of 4AP. • Data points were obtained at 1-s intervals.
  20. 20. Reduction of glutamate release of frontal cortex synaptosomes in EAE animals 4-aminopyridine (4AP)-evoked glutamate release from rat frontal cortex synaptosomes.
  21. 21. Loss of GABAergic inhibition of the glutamate release of synaptosomes from EAE animals
  22. 22. [3H]-flunitrazepam binding assay • The specific binding of [3H]-flunitrazepam was measured by a filtration technique . • Binding was carried out in the presence of radioligand at final concentrations of 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, and 9 nM, at 4 °C. • Each assay was performed in triplicate using 1-ml aliquots containing 0.3 mg of proteins from the synaptosomal fractions. • After 60 min of incubation, samples were filtered under vacuum through Whatman filters using a Brandel M-24 filtering manifold.
  23. 23. • Samples were washed three times with 4 ml of ice-cold Tris–HCl buffer (50 mM, pH 7.4) and the radioactivity was measured using an LKB-1214-RackBeta counter. • The values Kd and Bmax were obtained by using the following equation: Y = Bmax * X/ (Kd+X), where Bmax = maximal binding, and Kd = concentration of ligand required to reach half-maximal binding.
  24. 24. The flunitrazepam-sensitive GABAA receptor density was decreased in synaptosomes from EAE animals There were lower binding sites for flunitrazepam in the EAE rats
  25. 25. Immunoblot analysis • Synaptosomal samples were resuspended in HEPES buffer medium, 1.2 mM CaCl2 was added, and samples were incubated at 37 °C for 2 min with stirring. • This was followed by a further incubation with 3 mM 4AP for 5 min in order to stimulate Ca2+- dependent synapsin I phosphorylation concomitant to the glutamate release. • Where indicated, synaptosomes were incubated in the presence of GABA (500 M) for 4 min or GABA (500 M) plus picrotoxin (100 M) for 10 min prior to the addition of 4AP.
  26. 26. • Aliquots were rapidly solubilized in sample buffer, and subjected to SDS-PAGE and then electrotransferred onto nitrocellulose membranes. • Immunoblotting was performed at a 1:500 dilution of the synapsin phosphorylation state-specific antibody to P-site 1 and at a 1:1000 dilution of synapsin I-specific antibody for detected total synapsin I. • The immunoreactive bands in the immunoblot were detected by infrared probe-labeled secondary antibodies and the fluorescence was then analyzed by the Odyssey scanner with the fluorescence intensity being quantified by the GelPro analyzer software.
  27. 27. Loss of GABAergic regulation on Ca2+- dependent phosphorylation of synapsin I in nerve terminals from EAE animals CFA EAE EAErec GABA had no effect on the phosphorylation of synapsin I in synaptosomes from EAE and EAErec animals, but induced a decrease in the 4AP-evoked phosphorylation of synapsin I in synaptosomes from CFA rats with respect to control condition.
  28. 28. % activity of control GABA GABA/P CFA 64 ± 11% 80 ± 12% EAE 106 ± 13% 87 ± 10% EAErec 89 ± 19% 90 ± 10%
  29. 29. CONCLUSION • The changes observed in the EAE frontal cortex suggest a role plated by alterations of the GABAergic system in the EAE cortical pathology. • The decrease of the GABAA receptor density in nerve terminals from this cortical region and the failure of GABAergic regulation on glutamate release and synapsin I phosphorylation in synaptosomes from EAE rats may have contributed to clinical symptoms and disease progression.
  30. 30. • These findings could also have implications for the neuronal and synaptic dysfunction in EAE and possibly in MS cortex. • Further studies, however, are needed to determine whether GABAergic transmission modulation could be successful in MS therapy
  31. 31. SUMMARY Neuronal GABA membrane depolarization EAE and Ca2+influx SYNAPTOSOMES Binds to GABAA receptor Ca2+-dependent phosphorylation of synapsin 1 Excitotoxic neuronal damage Glutamate release
  32. 32. References • Bhat R, Axtell R, Mitra A, Miranda M, Lock C, Tsien RW, Steinman L (2010) Inhibitory role for GABA in autoimmune inflammation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:2580–2585. • Bhatt S, Zalcman S, Hassanain M, Siegel A (2005) Cytokine modulation of defensive rage behavior in the cat: role of GABAA and interleukin-2 receptors in the medial hypothalamus. Neuroscience 133:17–28. • Bolton C, Paul C (2006) Glutamate receptors in neuroinflammatory demyelinating disease. Mediators Inflamm 2006:1–12. ID 93684. • Calabrese M, Rinaldi F, Mattisi I, Grossi P, Favaretto A, Atzori M, Bernardi V, Barachino L, Romualdi C, Rinaldi L, Perini P, Gallo P (2010) Widespread cortical thinning characterizes patients with MS with mild cognitive impairment. Neurology 74:321–328.
  33. 33. References • Cesca F, Baldelli P, Valtorta F, Benfenati F (2010) The synapsins: key actors of synapse function and plasticity. Prog Neurobiol 91:313–348. • Chalifoux JR, Carter AG (2011) GABAB receptor modulation of voltage- sensitive calcium channels in spines and dendrites. J Neurosci 31:4221– 4232.
  34. 34. Thank yo