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  • 4. What is Research Design? What are the different types of Research Designs?
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  1. 1. Ques 1-Define Research. What are the features and types of Research?Ans : The general perspective of research is that some scientists taking part in laboratory testing or presentingthe results in scientific discovery to the world-actually this was my view of research when I was young.Simply speaking the purpose of research is to find a solution to a particular type of problem or showing theproblem a direction towards solution or putting some light in the unknown areas of knowledge for yourenlightenment to that particular area of knowledge-thus research actually help us to understand our reality moreclearly as well as help us to enjoy better living standard. So, research is kind of a project to find out someanswers or solutions for a particular area-research is kind of project because every project has its scope of work,time-line and resources, that’s why you may easily interrelate research work with a project-in fact everyresearch work works on based on a well-devised project plan.Every Research needs lots of dedication from the researcher’s part-the amount of dedication mainly depends onthe subject matter of the research. Before undertaking any research in any subject areas one must be sure aboutthe intended purpose of the research-this purpose determines what type of research one is going to undertake.Any scientific research may fall into the following three broadly categories:Exploratory research-This type of research may generate any novel idea in the domain of knowledge. It isprimarily done for the purpose of finding anything new in any subject arena and always tries to shed some lightin the unknown domain of knowledge. This kind of research alsoHelp us to generate new discipline in sciences and help us to identify problems of those particular researchareas.Constructive research- This is mainly done by many technological corporates in order to find new/alternativesolutions to any particular crisis or problems. For example-renewable energy research or development of thecapacity of optical fiber may fall into this category of research.Empirical research-This is very impressive observational type of research, where one observes or test on real-life data or analysis the pattern of some specific events in order to identify the nature or the class of trend thatspecific phenomenon maintains. Based on the test result, researchers try to draw lines in order to predict theresult of that type of incidents with certain level of confidence. Ques 2- How is a research problem formulated? What are the sources from which one may be able to identify research problems? Ans -Formulating the research problem and hypothesis acts as a major step or phase in the research methodology. In research, the foremost step that comes into play is that of defining the research problem and it becomes almost a necessity to have the basic knowledge and understanding of most of its elements as this would help a lot in making a correct decision. The research problem can be said to be complete only if it is able to specify about the unit of analysis, time and space boundaries, features that are under study, specific environmental conditions that are present in addition to prerequisite of the research process. The selection of a problem is the first s tep in research. The term problem means a question or issue to be examined. The selection of a problem for research is not an eas y task; itself is a problem. It is least amenable to formal methodological treatment. Vision, an imaginative insight, plays
  2. 2. an important role in this process. One with a critical, curious and imaginative mind and is sensitive to practical problems could easily identify problems for study. The sources from which one may be able to identify research problems or develop problems awareness are: • Review of literature • Academic experience • Daily experience • Exposure to field situations • Consultations • Brain storming • Research • Intuition b. literature survey is important in research: An exploratory study is concerned with an area of subject matter in which explicit hypothesis have not yet been formulated. The researcher’s task then is to review the available material with an eye on the possibilities of developing hypothes is from it. In some areas of the subject matter, hypothesis may have been stated by previous res earch workers. The researcher has to tak e stock of these various hypotheses with a view to evaluating their usefulness for further research and to consider whether they suggest any new hypothesis. Sociological journals, economic reviews, the bulletin of abstracts of current social sciences research, directory of doctoral dissertation accepted by universities etc afford a rich store of valuable clues. In addition to these general sources, some governmental agencies and voluntary organizations publish listings of summaries of research in their special fields of service. Professional organizations, research groups and voluntary organizations are a constant s ource of information about unpublished works in their special fields. The survey of concerning literature happens to be the most simple and fruitful method of formulating precisely the research problem or developing hypothesis.Hypothesis stated by earlier workers may be reviewed and their usefulness be evaluated as a basis for further research. It may also be considered whether the already stated hypothesis suggests new hypothesis. In this way the researcher should review and build upon the work already done by others, but in cases where hypothesis have not yet been formulated, his task is to review the available material for deriving the relevant hypothesis from it. Besides, the bibliographical survey of studies, already made in one area of interest may as well as made by the researcher for precisely formulating the problem. He should also make an attempt to apply concepts and theories developed in different research contexts to the area in which he is himself working. Sometimes the works of creative writers also provide a fertile ground for hypothes is formulation as such may be look ed into by the researcher. 3. What are the types of Observations? What is the utility of Observation in Business Research?Ans – the types of Observations are following…. • Casual and Scientific observation • Natural Observation • Subjective and Objective observation
  3. 3. • Direct and Indirect observation • Participant and Non Participant observation • Structured and Unstructured observation • Controlled and Non Controlled observationObservation means viewing or seeing. Observation may be defined as a systematic viewing of a specificphenomenon in its proper setting for the specific purpose of gathering data for a particular study. Observation isclassical method of scientific study.General Characteristics of Observation MethodObservation as a method of data collection has certain characteristics.1. It is both a physical and a mental activity: The observing eye catches many things that are present. Butattention is focused on data that are pertinent to the given study.2. Observation is selective: A researcher does not observe anything and everything, but selects the range ofthings to be observed on the basis of the nature, scope and objectives of his study. For example, suppose aresearcher desires to study the causes of city road accidents and also formulated a tentative hypothesis thataccidents are caused by violation of traffic rules and over speeding. When he observed the movements ofvehicles on the road, many things are before his eyes; the type, make, size and colour of the vehicles, the personssitting in them, their hair style, etc. All such things which are not relevant to his study are ignored and only overspeeding and traffic violations are keenly observed by him.3. Observation is purposive and not casual: It is made for the specific purpose of noting things relevant to thestudy. It captures the natural social context in which persons behaviour occur. It grasps the significant events andoccurrences that affect social relations of the participants.4. Observation should be exact and be based on standardized tools of research and such as observation schedule,social metric scale etc., and precision instruments, if any.Use of Observation in Business ResearchObservation is suitable for a variety of research purposes. It may be used for studying (a) The behaviour ofhuman beings in purchasing goods and services.: life style, customs, and manner, interpersonal relations, groupdynamics, crowd behaviour, leadership styles, managerial style, other behaviours and actions; (b) The behaviourof other living creatures like birds, animals etc. (c) Physical characteristics of inanimate things like stores,factories, residences etc. (d) Flow of traffic and parking problemsQues- 4. What is Research Design? What are the different types of Research Designs?Ans- A detailed outline of how an investigation will take place. A research design will typically include howdata is to be collected, what instruments will be employed, how the instruments will be used and the intendedmeans for analyzing data collected.Types of Research Design1 Philosophical/discursiveThis may cover a variety of approaches, but will draw primarily on existing literature, rather than new empiricaldata. A discursive study could examine a particular issue, perhaps from an alternative perspective (eg feminist).Alternatively, it might put forward a particular argument or examine a methodological issue.2 Literature reviewThis may be an attempt to summarise or comment on what is already known about a particular topic. Bycollecting different sources together, synthesising and analysing critically, it essentially creates new knowledge
  4. 4. or perspectives. There are a number of different forms a literature review might take.3 Case studyThis will involve collecting empirical data, generally from only one or a small number of cases. It usuallyprovides rich detail about those cases, of a predominantly qualitative nature. There are a number of differentapproaches to case study work (eg ethnographic, hermeneutic, ethogenic, etc) and the principles and methodsfollowed should be made clear.4 SurveyWhere an empirical study involves collecting information from a larger number of cases, perhaps usingquestionnaires, it is usually described as a survey. Alternatively, a survey might make use of already availabledata, collected for another purpose. A survey may be cross-sectional (data collected at one time) or longitudinal(collected over a period). Because of the larger number of cases, a survey will generally involve somequantitative analysis.5 EvaluationThis might be an evaluation of a curriculum innovation or organisational change. An evaluation can beformative (designed to inform the process of development) or summative (to judge the effects). Often anevaluation will have elements of both. If an evaluation relates to a situation in which the researcher is also aparticipant it may be described as ‘action research’. Evaluations will often make use of case study and survey methodsand a summative evaluation will ideally also use experimental methods.6 ExperimentThis involves the deliberate manipulation of an intervention in order to determine its effects. The interventionmight involve individual pupils, teachers, schools or some other unit. Again, if the researcher is also aparticipant (eg a teacher) this could be described as ‘action research’. An experiment may compare a number ofinterventions with each other, or may compare one (or more) to a control group. If allocation to these different‘treatment groups’ is decided at randomit may be called a true experiment; if allocation is on any other basis (eg using naturally arising or self-selectedgroups) it is usually called a ‘quasi-experiment’.Ques- 5. Explain the Sampling Process and briefly describe the methods of Sampling.Ans: In statistics and survey methodology, sampling is concerned with the selection of a subset of individualsfrom within a statistical population to estimate characteristics of the whole population. Two advantages ofsampling are that the cost is lower and data collection is faster.Each observation measures one or more properties (such as weight, location, color) of observable bodiesdistinguished as independent objects or individuals. In survey sampling, weights can be applied to the data toadjust for the sample design, particularly stratified sampling (blocking). Results from probability theory andstatistical theory are employed to guide practice. In business and medical research, sampling is widely used forgathering information about a population.The sampling process comprises several stages: • Defining the population of concern • Specifying a sampling frame, a set of items or events possible to measure • Specifying a sampling method for selecting items or events from the frame • Determining the sample size
  5. 5. • Implementing the sampling plan • Sampling and data collectingSampling methodsThe sampling techniques may be broadly classified into 1. Probability sampling 2. Non-probability samplingProbability Sampling:Probability sampling provides a scientific technique of drawing samples from the population. The technique ofdrawing samples is according to the law in which each unit has a probability of being included in the sample. • Simple random samplingUnder this technique, sample units are drawn in such a way each and every unit in the population has an equaland independent chance of being included in the sample. If a sample unit is replaced before drawing the nextunit, then it is known as simple Random Sampling with Replacement. If the sample unit is not replaced beforedrawing the next unit, then it is case, probability ofdrawing a unit is 1/N, where N is the population size. In thecase probability of drawing a unit is 1/Nn. • Stratified random samplingThis sampling design is most appropriate if the population is heterogeneous with respect to characteristic understudy or the population distribution is highly skewed. Table: Merits and demerits of stratified random sampling Merits Demerits 1. Sample is more representative 1. Many times the stratification is not effective 2. Provides more efficient estimate 2. Appropriate sample sizes are not drawn from each of the stratum 3. Administratively more convenient 4. Can be applied in situation where different degrees of accuracy is desired for different segments of population • Systematic samplingThis design is recommended if we have a complete list of sampling units arranged in some systematic ordersuch as geographical, chronological or alphabetical order. Table: Merits and demerits of systematic sampling Merits Demerits1. Very easy to operate and easy to check. 1. Many case we do not get up-to-date list.2. It saves time and labour. 2. It gives biased results if periodic feature
  6. 6. exist in the data.3. More efficient than simple randomsampling if we have up-to-date frame. • Cluster samplingThe total population is divided into recognizable sub-divisions, known as clusters such that within each clusterthey are homogenous. The units are selected from each cluster by suitable sampling techniques. • Multi-stage samplingThe total population is divided into several stages. The sampling process is carried out through several stages. Figure: Multistage samplingNon-probability sampling:Depending upon the object of inquiry and other considerations a predetermined number of sampling units isselected purposely so that they represent the true characteristics of the population. • Judgment samplingThe choice of sampling items depends exclusively on the judgment of the investigator. The investigator’sexperience and knowledge about the population will help to select the sample units. It is the most suitablemethod if the population size is less. Table: Merits and demerits of judgment sampling Merits Demerits1. Most useful for small population 1. It is not a scientific method.2. Most useful to study some unknown traits of a 2. It has a risk of investigator’s bias beingpopulation some of whose characteristics are introduced.known.3. Helpful in solving day-to-day problems. • Convenience samplingThe sampling units are selected according to convenience of the investigator. It is also called “chunk” whichrefer to the fraction of the population being investigated which is selected neither by probability nor byjudgment. • Quota sampling
  7. 7. It is a type of judgment sampling. Under this design, quotas are set up according to some specified characteristicsuch as age groups or income groups. From each group a specified number of units are sampled according to thequota allotted to the group. Within the group the selection of sampling units depends on personal judgment. Ithas a risk of personal prejudice and bias entering the process. This method is often used in public opinionstudies. 6. What is a Research Report? What are the contents of Research Report?Ans: Definition of Research ReportA document prepared by an analyst or strategist who is a part of the investment research team in a stockbrokerage or investment bank. A research report may focus on a specific stock or industry sector, a currency,commodity or fixed-income instrument, or even on a geographic region or country. Research reports generally,but not always, have "actionable" recommendations (i.e. investment ideas that investors can act upon). CONTENTS OF A RESEARCH REPORTThe information in the first part of this section, Journal Articles, Books, Chapters in Books, Peer ReviewedPublished Conference Proceedings, Non-peer Reviewed Published Conference Proceedings is filtered andextracted to formulate the Preliminary Publication Count for the Department of Education. This is a crucial stepin the subsidy calculation process and it is of the utmost importance that this information must be ascomprehensive accurate as possible. All research publications, which appeared in 2004, must be included, evenif they are "in press". There will be an opportunity early in February to submit volume and page numbers ofpapers, which have appeared in the interim. Publications should be listed using the Harvard referencing system,without using italics or bold. Journal names must appear in full. Abbreviations will be returned to departmentsfor expansion. (Theses passed for higher degrees are subsidy earning but this information is not included in thePreliminary Publication Count.)The second part of this section, Published Conference Abstracts, Patents, Theses & Dissertations passed forHigher Degrees, University Publications & Publications of a Popular Nature - Unrefereed Journal Articles,Newspaper Articles, CDs, Online Works, Extension and Development Work, Creative Work, Consultancy andOther Activities based on Expertise Developed in Research (gives departments the opportunity to demonstratethe extent and nature of their extension and development work), Motivation for the addition of a South AfricanJournal to the list of South African approved journals. The work included here is not subsidy earning butnevertheless is an important aspect of scholarly activity at UCT.