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# Addressing the Network – IPv4

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### Addressing the Network – IPv4

2. 2. Objectives  Identify the structure IP addressing and demonstrate the ability to convert between 8-bit binary and decimal numbers.  Identify an IPv4 address, classify by type and describe how it is used in the network  Identify how addresses are assigned to networks by ISPs and within networks by administrators  Identify the network portion of the host address and explain the role of the subnet mask in dividing networks.  Given IPv4 addressing information and design criteria, calculate the appropriate addressing components.  Identify common testing utilities to verify and test network connectivity and operational status of the IP protocol stack on a host. ITE 1 Chapter 6 © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 2
3. 3. IP Addressing Dotted decimal Structure  An IP address structure in dotted decimal form can be seen by inspecting the TCP/IP properties of a PC as below: ITE 1 Chapter 6 © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 3
4. 4. IP Addressing Dotted Binary Structure  Dotted decimal IP addresses can be expressed in dotted binary form. Each octet is simply converted to its binary equivalent ITE 1 Chapter 6 © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 4
5. 5. 8 bit Binary to decimal conversion  1 Write down the 8 bit binary number  2 Write down the decimal value above each bit  3 Add only decimal values above a 1 bit (Ignore values above 0 bits)  4 The total for all 8 bits is decimal number ITE 1 Chapter 6 © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 5
6. 6. Decimal to Binary (using short division) ITE 1 Chapter 6 © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 6
7. 7. Decimal to Binary (using short division) ITE 1 Chapter 6 © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 7
11. 11. Example  172.16.4.32/28 (28 Network bits 4 Host bits)  Network address is 172.16.4.32  Subnet mask is 255.255.255.240  First Useable host address is 172.16.4.33  Last Useable host address is 172.16.4.46  Broadcast address is 172.16.4.47 i.e. all host bits are set to 1 ITE 1 Chapter 6 © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 11
12. 12. Calculations (Convert both numbers to Binary) ITE 1 Chapter 6 © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 12
13. 13. Calculations (Work out the range of numbers in the host portion) ITE 1 Chapter 6 © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 13
14. 14. Calculation (Add the host values to the complete address) Useable addresses = Total addresses – 2 = 24- 2 (where 4 is the number of bits in host portion) = 16 - 2 = 14 ITE 1 Chapter 6 © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 14
15. 15. Address communication types  Unicast – 1 to 1 communication  Broadcast 1 to all network host communication (Directed or Limited)  Multicast 1 to a group of hosts on the network communication ITE 1 Chapter 6 © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 15
16. 16. IPv4 Addresses usage  Address ranges reserved for special purposes in the IPv4 protocol Legacy Class A,B and C Used for hosts Multicast address used for Routing Protocols Exchange, Software distribution, Audio and Video Broadcasts ITE 1 Chapter 6 © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 16
17. 17. Public and Private addresses  Public addresses can move across the internet in packets  Private address must remain within a network ITE 1 Chapter 6 © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 17
20. 20. Assigning Addresses  Addresses can be public or private and assigned manually, automatically by server or automatically by hosts operating systems in a peer to peer network ITE 1 Chapter 6 © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 20
23. 23. IANA, Regional agencies and ISPs  Internet Assigned Number Authority (IANA), Internet regional agencies and ISPs manage the allocation of IP addresses to organisations IANA manage addresses overall and the registries manage the addresses for particular geographic regions ITE 1 Chapter 6 © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 23
24. 24. ISPs and the Internet Backbone  All ISPs are connected to the internet back. Tier1 directly, Tier 2 through Tier 1 and Tier 3 through Tier 2  The bigger the company the closer it is to the back bone ITE 1 Chapter 6 © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 24
25. 25. The subnet mask can be used to find the network for an IP address To calculate the network address of a given IP address the logic ANDing of any 2 bit values must be understood AND Truth table for two bit values ITE 1 Chapter 6 © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 25
26. 26. Logically AND each bit in the IP address with its subnet mask bit, the result is the network bit ITE 1 Chapter 6 © 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 26