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EMBRYOLOGY OF BRAIN,NEW

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EMBRYOLOGY OF BRAIN,NEW

  1. 1. DEPT OF NEUROLOGY,<br />KING GEORGE HOSPITAL,<br />VIZAG.<br />EMBRYOLOGY OF THE BRAIN<br />
  2. 2. EMBRYOLOGY OF THE BRAIN<br />The neural tube and its subdivisions<br />The neural crest<br />Histological components of the CNS<br />Development of medulla oblongata<br />Development of pons<br />Development of the midbrain<br />Development of the cerebellum<br />Development of the cerebral hemispheres<br />
  3. 3. THE NEURAL TUBE AND ITS SUBDIVISIONS<br />
  4. 4. FORMATION OF THE NEURAL TUBE<br />
  5. 5. PRIMARY BRAIN VESICLES &THEIR SUB DIVISIONS<br />
  6. 6. FLEXURES OF NEURAL TUBE<br />
  7. 7. DEVELOPMENT OF EXTERNAL FORM OF BRAIN<br />
  8. 8. DEVELOPMENT OF VENTRICLES OF BRAIN<br />
  9. 9. THE NEURAL CREST<br />
  10. 10. DERIVATIVES OF THE NEURAL CREST<br />
  11. 11. HISTOLOGICAL COMPONENTS OF THE CNS<br />
  12. 12. Layers Of Neural Tube Formation Of Neuroblast<br />
  13. 13. DEVELOPMENT OF THE MEDULLA<br />
  14. 14. <ul><li>From Myelencephalon
  15. 15. Roof plate widens
  16. 16. Sulcuslimitansdivides </li></ul> Dorsal(lateral) alar lamina-<br />caudal bulbopontine extension<br />olivary nuclei<br /> Sensory nuclei of cranial n of medulla<br /> Ventral(medial) basal lamina-<br /> Motor nuclei of cranial n of medulla<br />DEVELOPMENT OF MEDULLA OBLONGATA<br />
  17. 17. CRANIAL NERVE NUCLEI OF MEDULLA OBLONGATA<br />
  18. 18. MOTOR & SENSORY NUCLEI OF MEDULLA OBLONGATA<br />
  19. 19. DEVELOPMENT OF THE PONS<br />
  20. 20. <ul><li>From ventral part of Metencephalon
  21. 21. Cranial bulbopontine extensionpontine nuclei
  22. 22. Axons of bulbopontine extensionMiddle cerebellar peduncle
  23. 23. Alar and basal laminacranial n nuclei
  24. 24. Fibres from cortex</li></ul>corticospinal, corticopontine& corticobulbartracts<br /><ul><li>Lateralpart of alar laminarhombic lip (cerebellum)</li></ul>CRANIAL &CAUDAL PARTS OF BULBOPONTINE EXTENSION<br />
  25. 25. DEVELOPMENT OF MEDULLA&PONS<br />
  26. 26. CRANIAL NERVE NUCLEI OF PONS<br />
  27. 27. MOTOR &SENSORY CRANIAL NERVE NUCLEI OF THE PONS<br />
  28. 28. DEVELOPMENT OF THE MIDBRAIN<br />
  29. 29. DEVELOPMENT OF MID BRAIN<br /><ul><li>From mesencephalon
  30. 30. Ventral or Basal lamina</li></ul>oculomotor n nuc<br />trochlear n nuc<br />EdingerWestphalnuc<br /><ul><li>Dorsal or Alar lamina</li></ul> cells of colliculi<br /> red nucleus<br />substantianigra<br /><ul><li>Descending fibres form crus cerebri/basis pedunculi</li></li></ul><li>DEVELOPMENT OF THE CEREBELLUM<br />
  31. 31. DEVELOPMENT OF CEREBELLUM<br /><ul><li>From dorsolateral part of alar lamina of
  32. 32. Metencephalon
  33. 33. Cells migrate from mantle -marginal layerCortex
  34. 34. Cells that do not migrate</li></ul>dentate, emboliform, globose& fastigial nuclei<br /><ul><li>Supr cerebellar peduncle- axons out of dentate nucleus
  35. 35. Middle- axons from pontine nuclei into cerebellum
  36. 36. Inferior- axons from spinal cord & medulla</li></li></ul><li>DEVELOPMENT OF CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES<br />
  37. 37. DEVELOPMENT OF CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE<br />
  38. 38. CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE&LATERAL VENTRICLE<br />
  39. 39. FORMATION OF CHOROID FISSURE<br />
  40. 40. FORMATION OF TELACHOROIDEA &CHOROID PLEXUS<br />
  41. 41. DEVELOPMENT OF THALAMUS &HYPOTHALAMUS<br />
  42. 42. EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF CORPUS STRIATUM<br />
  43. 43. DEVELOPMENT OF CORPUS STRIATUM<br />
  44. 44. DEVELOPMENT OF CEREBRAL CORTEX<br />
  45. 45. FORMATION OF HIPPOCAMPUS<br />
  46. 46. DEVELOPMENT OF COMMISURES<br />
  47. 47. TIME TABLE OF IMPORTANT EVENTS<br />Neural plate is formed at the beginning of the 3rd week.<br />Neural folds begin to fuse in the 4th week.<br />The anterior neuropore closes by 25th day and the posterior neuropore closes by 27th day.<br />By the end of the 4th week, the neural tube is fully closed.<br />In the 5th week, brain vesicles have formed and the flexures of neural tube are in progress.<br />Corpus striatum appears in the 2nd month.<br />Corpus callosum forms in the 10th week.<br />
  48. 48. Myelination begins in the 4th month.<br />Differentiation of cerebellum starts in the 8th week.<br />The cerebellar cortex and Purkinje cells appear by the 12th week.<br />Dentate nucleus is seen in the 15th week.<br />
  49. 49. THANK YOU<br />
  50. 50. The myelogenetic chronology.<br />
  51. 51.
  52. 52.
  53. 53.
  54. 54.
  55. 55. LATERAL VIEWS OF THE FETAL BRAIN, FROM 10 TO 40 WEEKS OF GESTATIONAL AGE.<br />

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