Antimicrobial copper a new hope by Dr Anjum Hashmi MPH
BYDr Anjum HashmiMBBS,CCS(USA),MPHInfection Control DirectorMaternity & Children’sHospital Najran.
• Ancient Indian store water in copper vessels due their knowledge that water remain safe.• In the mid 1800’s, the Cholera epidemic did not affect copper workers in France which reflects preventive role of copper.• Thus we can validate that Copper has played an essential role in humans history.
MRSA – Methecillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus VRE – Vancomycin Resistant Enterococcus FQRP – Fluoroquinolone Resistant Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Infectious Diseases Society of America, as derived from data collected by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Even though hospitals have strict protocols for staff and visitors to wash their hands and to use antimicrobial soaps, sanitizer gels and disinfectants.DRUG RESISTANT HOSPITAL INFECTIONS ARE STEADILY INCREASING.
• When HCWs touch these surfaces, either Bed their hands or gloves may be contaminated Patient’s• In medical history many outbreaks have Clothes been identified as a result this contamination. Non-invasive blood pressure measuring cuffs Bed Sheets Food Table Floor
Even though healthcare surfaces aredesigned to be easily cleaned…. Bacteria Live bacteria in a 5 micron scratch on recently sanitized Stainless…..sanitizing chemicals might not kill allof the bacteria and recontamination canoccur quickly.
• Bacteria can survive in scratches on many surfaces• It is a stainless steel surface that was just thoroughly cleaned...• Photo taken from an electron microscope tells the story
ANTIBIOTICS ARE NOT OUR ONLY ALLIES IN THE WAR AGAINST INFECTIONS.
• The discovery of copper alloy with antimicrobial activity and it has been use as a measure for microbial flora reduction in the environment during recent years.• In addition to killing bacteria, Anti-microbial Copper Touch Surfaces are environmental friendly because these can be completely recyclable.• The Copper Surfaces are inherently anti-microbial so, no chemicals are added, this makes them safe for people and the environment.
• Fixtures and Sinks produced with Antimicrobial Copper are attractive, safe to use and never wear or wash away.• Extensive laboratory testing has shown that when cleaned regularly, sinks and other products made from Antimicrobial Copper:• Kills bacteria more than 99.9% * within 2 hours, and continues to kill 99% of bacteria* even after repeated recontamination.• Delivers continuous and ongoing antibacterial action, killing more than 99.9% of bacteria* within 2 hours. *Testing demonstrates effective antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter aerogenes, Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
• Copper helps inhibit bacterial buildup and growth* within 2 hours of exposure between routine cleaning and sanitizing steps.• Copper kills more than 99.9% of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria* within 2 hours of exposure.• Continuously reduces both types of bacterial* contamination, achieving 99.9% reduction within 2 hours of exposure. *Testing demonstrates effective antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter aerogenes, Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
• In 19th Century tests to control cholera.• In 20th Century early work on the use of copper to combat Legionella• Form 2000 up to now investigations carried out at Southampton University, Aston University, Stellenbosch University which verified the broad spectrum efficacy of copper against micro organisms including E.coli and MRSA.
• More than 350 copper alloys registered by EPA to be marketed with public health claims.• Copper content of antimicrobial alloys ranges from 60% to 100%.
• Copper surfaces affect bacteria in two steps:• The first direct interaction between the surface and the bacterial outer membrane, causing the membrane to rupture.• The second related to causing holes in the outer membrane, thus the cell loses vital nutrients and water, resulting in a general weakening of the cell.
LABORATORY STUDIES Acinetobacter baumannii• Articles published in journals Adenovirus Aspergillus niger around the world confirming the Candida albicans antimicrobial efficacy of copper. Campylobacter jejuni Clostridium difficile• Studies showed Copper has rapid, Enterobacter aerogenes broad spectrum antimicrobial action Escherichia coli O157:H7 Helicobacter Pylori effective against clinical pathogens. Influenza A (H1N1)• Indirect verification of Legionella pneumophila Listeria monocytogenes copper’s efficacy has been MRSA achieved via the US Environmental Mycobacterium tuberculosis Poliovirus Protection Agency registration Pseudomonas aeruginosa of more than 350 copper alloys as Salmonella enteritidis Staphylococcus aureus antimicrobial Tubercle bacillus Vancomycin-resistant enterococcus
For Clinical Studies in • Sanitizer buttons UK, USA & Chile • Light pulls• Push plates • Cistern flush levers• Thumb turns • Dressings trolleys• Cubicle locks • Soap dispensers• Grab rails • Apron dispensers• Hot & cold taps • Towel dispensers• Toilet seats • Commodes• Switches & sockets • Sink traps & wastes• Bed table tops • Call buttons• Drip pole stand • Door handles
• Selly Oak Hospital, UK• All Cu items harbored 90%-100% less microorganisms than control non copper items at both 7am and 5pm (1)• Hospital del Cobre, Chile• Copper was effective in reducing the microbial burden on all surfaces, and average microbial count was significantly lower in rooms with copper (2)• Medical University of South Carolina, USA• Copper significantly reduced the total microbial load in rooms by 87.4% (3)• 1. Casey AL, Lambert PA, Miruszenko L, Elliott TSJ. Copper for preventing microbial environmental contamination. 48th Annual ICAAC/IDSA 46th Annual meeting, Washington DC, 25-28th October 2008.• 2. Casey AL et al., Role of Copper in reducing hospital environment contamination. J of Hospital Infection 2010; 74, 72 -77 2Prado V et al., 2010• 3. Salgado et al. A pilot study to determine effectiveness of Cu in reducing the microbial burden in the ICU.• Poster presentation at the 5th Decennial Int. Conf. Atlanta Georgia 2010
• Three Intensive Care Units are copperised in the main hospitals of Athens.• A large private school of 2500 students has installed antimicrobial copper door handles and staircase hand railings.
Infection Control at your Fingertips• A company has produced the worlds first commercially-available Antimicrobial Copper keyboard, bearing the Cu+ mark that confirms rapid and continuous efficacy against disease-causing pathogens.
Hospital Protects Patients with CopperBed at WSSK Bed at VA MedicalHospital, Wroclaw, Center USAPoland
Catch Planes, Not Diseases• A study in scientific journal PLOS One has ranked Americas 40 largest airports in order of which would play the largest role in the spread of a global disease pandemic.• John F Kennedy Airport top of the super-spreaders so they remodeling with antimicrobial copper.• One of Brazils busiest airports also copperised...
Bio burden trials touch surfaces of key item were change to copper
• Data from international investigations indicate:• Touch surfaces even in regularly cleaned ICU’s may serve as significant microbiological reservoirs that could transfer microbes to patients, health care workers and visitors.• Objects closest to patients had a higher staphylococcal Burden• Bed railings has the highest concentrations.• Other objects had lower total staph and MRSA i.e., ▪ Call button > Chair arms > Over bed tray table >
• Copper reduces microbial burden on common touch surfaces in ICU’s.• Reduction is significant and constant, Microbial reduction in clinical setting matches with reduction observed under ideal laboratory conditions (i.e. 99.9%).• Microbial burden decreases to target levels and cleaning achieved.• Random sampling supports hypothesis that copper surfaces continuously reduce bacterial burdens between cleanings.
In 2012 A historic moment:DNA imaged with electron microscope for the first time corkscrew thread of the DNA double helix
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