A community of persons more or less
numerous, permanently occupying a
definite, portion of territory,
independent of external control, and
possessing an organized government to
which the great body of its inhabitants
render habitual obedience. (De Leon,
• Nation is an ethnic concept while a state is a
• Nation came from the Latin word “nasci”
meaning to be born, indicates a relation of
birth or origin and implies a common race,
usually characterized by community of
language and customs.
• PEOPLE - refers to
the number of
within a state. The
most essential and
element of the
• TERRITORY – where
the people of a
state live; this refers
to the aerial,
domains of the state.
• Discovery – the oldest mode of acquiring territory.
• Prescription – the continued and uninterrupted
occupation of territory for a long period of time by one
• Conquest – the acquisition of a territory by the use of
force, which reduces the vanquished territory into
submission to the conquering State.
• Cession – a bilateral agreement whereby one state
transfer over another State a definite portion of its
• Accretion – acquisition of territory through artificial or
• GOVERNMENT –
refers to the
which rule the
• SOVEREIGNTY –
the power of the
state to command
obedience of its
will from the
power of the
state to rule
the freedom or
of the state
from foreign or
• Legal sovereignty – power of the
state to make and implement laws
within its jurisdiction.
• Political sovereignty – authority of
the people (electorate) to choose
who will be the leaders or officials of
• The power of the state to
enact and enforce laws
and to regulate property
and liberty in the
promotion of the general
welfare of the people.
• It is the power to regulate
the behavior or conduct
of its citizen in the
interest of the common
good within the limits of
the state’s laws.
• Enables the state to take
private property for public
use upon payment of just
• Under the law, the following
may exercise the power of
expropriation: (1) the
Congress; (2) The President;
(3) The local legislative
bodies; (4) Certain public
corporations; (5) Quasi-
1. Necessity – when the power is exercised by
2. Private Property – anything that can come
under the domination of man or can be the
subject of contract is subject to
3. Just Compensation – described as a full and
fair equivalent of property taken from the
private owner by the expropriator.
• The power of the state to impose and collect revenues for the
operation of the government.
• The purpose of taxation is to raise revenues of funds to support the
government and its service.
• The importance of taxation derives from the unavoidable obligation
of the government to protect the people and extend them benefits
in the form of public projects and services.
• The power of taxation proceeds from the theory that without
funds, the government cannot meet the various essential expenses
it has incurred to enable it to exist and function effectively.
• The power of taxation is regarded as supreme, unlimited and
1. Fiscal Adequacy – the sources of revenue should be
efficient to meet the demands of public
2. Equality or theoretical justice – the tax burden
should be proportionate to the tax payer’s ability to
3. Administrative feasibility – the tax laws should be
capable of convenient, just and effective
• Taxation in the Philippines is
controlled by the Bureau of Internal
• Taxes in the Philippines range from
5% to 35%.
• Authority imposing the tax
• Determination of amount
• Who bears the burden
• Graduation rate
• Personal Tax – imposed on individuals residing
within a specified territory, regardless of
property or occupation.
• Property Tax – levied on the property.
• Excise Tax – laid upon goods consumed, sold,
or manufactured within the nation.
• Revenue Tax – imposed to collect revenues for
the general purposes of the government. Ex.
Income tax and sales tax
• Regulatory Tax – imposed for a special
purpose like the protection of local industries
from foreign competition.
• National Tax – imposed by the
• Local Tax – imposed by the
municipal, provincial, or barangay
• Specific Tax – assessed on the basis
of tax per unit.
• Ad Valorem – assessment is based
on a percentage of the value of the
• Direct Tax – when the person on
whom the tax is imposed absorbs the
• Indirect Tax – the amount is paid by
the person other than the one on
whom it is legally imposed.
• Proportional Tax – based on a fixed
percentage of the amount of property, income
or other factors.
• Progressive Tax – the rate increases as the tax
• Regressive Tax – the effective rate decreases
as the tax base increases.
• P25,000-26,500 for individuals
• P30,000 for married couples
• Exceptions for Small and Medium Enterprises
with income of less than P100,000
• They are inherent in the state and may be
exercised by it without the need to express
• They are not only necessary but also
indispensable. The state cannot continue or be
effective unless it is able to exercise them.
• They are methods by which the state interferes
with private rights.
• They all presuppose an equivalent compensation
for the private rights interfered with.
• They are exercised primarily by the legislative.
The word government derived from
the Latin word “gubernaculums”
meaning a rudder and “gubernare”
meaning to steer, direct or control.
• Constituent function – those which constitute
the bond of society, and are therefore,
compulsory in nature.
• Ministrant functions – those under taken by
way of advancing the general interest of
society, and are therefore optional, such as
public works, public education, etc.
monarchy – the
ruler rules by
Limited or Constitutional
monarchy – the rules in
accordance with the limits
set by the constitution.
• the supreme power is
vested upon a few
whose right arises from
the fact of their birth,
wealth or wisdom. It is
known as Oligarchy.
1. Manner of instituting officials and nature of official tenure
a) Elective – the representatives are chosen by the popular will
of the people.
b) Hereditary – the transfer of honor and political title is through
2. Concentration or distribution of governmental powers.
a) Unitary – the powers of the government is concentrated in
one supreme organ from which all governing authorities
derive their power and existence.
b) Federal – the governmental powers are distributed between
the central and local government each being supreme within
its own sphere.
3. Relationship of the Executive and Legislative branches of government.
a) Presidential – the chief executive is the real executive and constitutionally
independent of the legislative; there is no nominal head and there is strict
separation of powers.
b) Parliamentary – the real executive, the cabinet is legally responsible to the
legislature or one branch of it, while the titular or nominal head occupies a
position of irresponsibility.
4. Legality or constitutionally
a) De Jure government – the government of right. It is a government
established according to the constitution of a given state but which actually
cut off from power or control. It is the true, legitimate, rightful and lawful
b) De Facto government – government which unlawfully gets the possession
and control of the rightful and legal government and maintain itself there,
by force, and arms against the will of rightful legal government and claim to
exercise the power thereof. It is the government of fact.
• Composed of villages called “barangay”
consisting of more or less 100 families.
• Each barangay was a state for it possessed the
fourth basic elements of the state.
• Each barangay was ruled by a Datu.
• The government in a barangay is monarchial in
nature with the datu as the monarch.
• Spain’s title to the Philippines was based on the discovery of the
Philippines by Ferdinand Magellan in March 1521 and
consummated by the conquest of Miguel Lopez de Legaspi 45 years
• The Philippines was governed by the King of Spain through Mexico
• The Spanish government was centralized in structure and national
• The powers of the government was exercised by the Governor-
General and ably assisted by the Board of Authorities and the
Council of Administration.
• To strengthen the judicial system, Spain established the Royal
Audiencia in 1583 in Cebu and in Vigan, which exercised appellate
jurisdiction over criminal cases from the surrounding areas.
• Katipunan – a secret society that precipitated
the Philippine revolution against Spain in
August 26, 1896. The katipunan was organized
by Andres Bonifacio.
• The Biak-na-Bato Republic – on November 1,
1897, a republic was established by Gen.
Aguinaldo in Biak-na-Bato, Bulacan. The
republic declared the separation of the
Philippines from Spain.
• The Dictatorial Government – following the outbreak of
the Spanish-American War on April 25, 1989, Gen.
Aguinaldo established the dictatorial government on May
24, 1898. The most important achievements of the
government were the proclamation of Philippine
Independence and the reorganization of the local
• The First Philippine Republic – on September 15, 1898, a
revolutionary congress of Filipino representatives met in
Malolos, Bulacan and framed the so-called Malolos
Constitution. The constitution established a free and
independent Philippine republic which was inaugurated on
January 23, 1899 with Gen. Aguinaldo as President.
• The Military Government – the military rule in
the Philippines started on April 14, 1898, the
day after the capture of Manila.
• The Civil Government – the Spooner
Amendment ended the military regime in the
Philippine. On July 4, 1901 a civil government
was inaugurated headed by a Civil Governor.
• The Commonwealth Government – the next
stage in the political development of the Filipinos
was the establishment of the Commonwealth
government of the Philippines pursuant to an act
of the United States Congress on March 24, 1934,
commonly known as the Tydings-McDuffie Law.
The law provided for a transition period of 10
years during which the Philippine Commonwealth
would operate until July 4, 1946, wherein the
independence of the Philippines would be
proclaimed and established.
• The Japanese military administrator was
established in manila on January 3, 1942, one day
after its occupation.
• A civil government known as the Philippine
Executive Commission was established with Jose
B. Vargas as its chairman.
• On October 14, 1943, the so called Japanese
sponsored Republic of the Philippines was
inaugurated with Jose P. laurel as President. On
August 17, 1945, President laurel dissolved the
• When the Philippines was finally liberated from the hands of the
Japanese, the 3rd Republic was inaugurated on July 4, 1946 with
Manuel Roxas as President and Elpidio Quirino as Vice President.
• Roxas died on April 1, 1948, paving the way for the Quirino
presidency with lasted until 1953.
• Quirino was followed by Ramon Magsyasay, who was not able to
finish his term when he died in a plane crash on March 17, 1957.
• Carlos P. Garcia succeeded Magsaysay.
• Garcia was followed by Diosdado Macapagal who served the
country for only one term.
• Macapagal was defeated by Ferdinand Marcos in the
presidential election of 1965.
• The Marcos Years. Marcos took his oath of office
on December 30, 1965. He was reelected in 1969,
due to his outstanding performance as chief
executive. However, before the end of his second
term (1969-1973), Marcos made serious efforts
to amend the 1935 Constitution which was in
effect at that time. Marcos issued proclamation
no. 1081 which placed the entire archipelago
under martial Law. He virtually controlled all the
aspects of Philippine politics through Presidential
Decrees and through the Batasang Pambansa.
• The Aquino presidency
– On October 7, 1986, Marcos called for a snap
presidential election, which marked by rampant
cheating. This event led to the so-called EDSA People
Power Revolution from February 22-25, 1986, that
paved the way for the downfall of the 20 years of
Marcos presidency. On February 2, 1987, the Filipino
people voted to ratify the Charter, thereby legalizing
the restoration of democratic government and
institutions in the country. On May 11, 1992 the first
post-Marcos presidential election was held and Fidel
Ramos, the former Chief of Staff of the AFP was
• Fidel Ramos Presidency. He used his knowledge
of the Philippine military to reestablish a tradition
of civilian control over the armed forces. Ramos
pursued an ambitious economic reform program
based on privatization and deregulation.
• Joseph E. Estrada Presidency. In 1998 elections,
Estrada won the presidential election. The major
focus of the Estrada administration was food
security, which involved agricultural
modernization and major infrastructure
• The Arroyo Administration. After Estrada’s
resignation, Macapagal-Arrayo was
immediately sworn in as president.
• On 2010 election, the son of former president
Corazon Aquino, Benigno Aquino III won the
• A body of rules and principles in accordance with which the
powers of sovereignty are regularly exercised.
• It is an embodiment of norms that regulate the relations of
the government to its people.
• The foundation of the system of the government of the
Philippines is the constitution.
• It plays a very important role in the life of the Filipino
nation and its polity.
• It serves as the foundation of the government and the
defining structure of the government and demonstrating
certain principles on which the government is and should
be founded, it tells the relationship between the state and
its organs and the citizens, their rights and obligations.
1. To define the organization of government.
2. To determine distribution of government
3. To establish principles governing the
operation of government.
4. To define the rights of individual citizens.
5. To hold the state together.
1. As to their origin and history.
a. Conventional or enacted – enacted by a
constituent assembly or granted by a monarch
to his subjects like the Constitution of Japan in
b. Cumulative or evolved – product of the
development originating in customs, traditions
and judicial decisions, rather than form a
deliberate and formal enactment.
2. As to their form.
a. Written – has been given definite form at a
particular time, usually by a specially constituted
authority called a “Constitutional Convention.”
b. Unwritten – entirely the product of political
evolution, consisting largely of a mass of
customs, usages and judicial decisions together
with a smaller body of statutory enactments of a
fundamental character, usually bearing dates.
3. As to manner of amending them.
a. Rigid or inelastic – regarded as a document of
special sanctity which cannot be amended or
altered except by some special machinery more
cumbrous than the ordinary legislative process.
b. Flexible or elastic – possesses no higher legal
authority than ordinary laws and which may be
altered in the same way as other laws.
1. Constituent Body – the congress upon a vote of
three-fourths of all its members, voting separately
may propose amendments to or revise the
2. Constitutional Convention – a body formed for the
purpose of crafting an entirely new constitution
revising an existing one, or devising amendments to
it. Congress may call a constitutional convention by
two-thirds vote of all its members who may submit
the question of calling a constitutional convention to
the electorate in an election.
3. People’s Initiative – amendments to the
constitution can be introduced directly by the
people through a system of initiative. Under
this system, it is necessary that there is a
petition of at least 12% of the total number
of registered voters in the whole country.
Every legislative or representative district
must be represented by at least 3% of the
registered voters therein.
• Embodied in the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform
Law (R.A. No. 6657)
• An act of constituting a comprehensive agrarian
reform program to promote social justice and
industrialization, providing the mechanisms for
its implementation and for other purposes.
• Acquisition and distribution of all agricultural
lands through a 10-year program from the
affectivity of the law.
• Phase I (1988 – 1992)
– Rice and corn lands covered by P.D No. 27
– All idle or abondoned lands
– All Private lands voluntarily offered by owners for
• Phase II (1988 – 1992)
– All alienable and disposable public agricultural
– All arable public agricultural lands
– All pulic lands which are to be opened for new
development and resettlement
– All private agricultural lands in exces of fifty
• Phase III
– Landholding above twenty four hectares up to 50
hectares (1992 – 1995)
– Landholdings with areas between 5.1 and 24
hectares (1994 -1998)