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  2. Theme of the year 2023 • According to WHO, the theme for the World TB Day 2023 is "Yes, We can end TB!"
  3. Prevalence rate of TB in India • India and TB: • With 28% cases, India was among the eight countries accounting for more than two-third (68.3%) of the total TB patients' count. • What is the current prevalence of tuberculosis in India? • India's TB incidence for the year 2021 is 210 per 100,000 population – compared to the baseline year of 2015 (incidence was 256 per lakh of population in India); there has been an 18% decline which is 7 percentage points better than the global average of 11%.
  4. What are the current statistics of tuberculosis? • TB burden 2021 In 2021 an estimated 10.6 million people fell ill with TB. This was an increase of 4.5% from 10.1 million in 2020. Globally the number of people newly diagnosed with TB, and reported to national governments, dropped from 7.1 million in 2019 to 5.8 million in 2020.
  5. Present prevalence in india • NEW DELHI: Delhi tops the country in prevalence of tuberculosis with 534 cases per 1 lakh population, the TB prevalence survey reveals. • Rajasthan, with 484 cases per 1 lakh people, had the second highest TB prevalence, followed by Uttar Pradesh (481), cases per 1 lakh people • Haryana (465) and cases per 1 lakh people • Chhattisgarh (454). cases per 1 lakh people • Which state in India has highest TB? • Chandigarh and Haryana followed with relatively lower notification rates with 398 and 213 cases respectively. ... States with highest TB case notifications in India in 2021.
  6. What should the TB prevalence rate in India by the year 2025? • 19% more TB patients in 2021: report On the World Tuberculosis Day on Thursday, Health Minister Mansukh Mandaviya reaffirmed the government's commitment to making India tuberculosis–free by 2025 and said this will be achieved by ensuring access to quality healthcare and advanced treatment.
  7. Problem statement present scenario • 74 million lives saved since 2000 by global efforts to end TB • 10.6 millionpeople fell ill with TB in 2021 • 1.6 millionpeople died of TB in 2021 • Every year, 10 million people fall ill with tuberculosis (TB). Despite being a preventable and curable disease, 1.5 million people die from TB each year – making it the world’s top infectious killer.
  8. Theme of the year 2023 • World TB Day 2023, with the theme 'Yes! We can end TB!', aims to inspire hope and encourage high-level leadership, increased investments, faster uptake of new WHO recommendations, adoption of innovations, accelerated action, and multisectoral collaboration to combat the TB epidemic.
  9. Vision and Goal • Vision : TB - Free India with zero deaths, disease and poverty due to tuberculosis. • Goal : To achieve a rapid decline in burden of TB, morbidity and mortality while working towards elimination of TB in India by 2025. •
  10. Strategic pillars • The requirements for moving towards TB elimination have been integrated into t he four strategic pillars of "Detect - Treat - Prevent - Build" (DTPB). • Detect : Find all DS - TB and DR - TB cases with an emphasis on reaching TB patients seeking care from private providers and undiagnosed TB in high - risk populations. • Treat : Initiate and sustain all patients on appropriate anti - TB treatment wherever they seek care, with patient friendly systems and social support. • Prevent the emergence of TB in susceptible populations • Build and strengthen enabling policies, empowered institutions and human resources with enhanced capacities. •
  11. The End TB Strategy • Ending TB is not just a public health problem, but a development challenge and opportunity. WHO’s post-2015 End TB Strategy, adopted by the World Health Assembly in 2014, aims to end the global TB epidemic as part of the newly adopted Sustainable Development Goals. • It serves as a blueprint for countries to reduce TB incidence by 80%, TB deaths by 90%, and to eliminate catastrophic costs for TB-affected households by 2030. The Strategy is not a “one size fits all” approach and its success depends on adaptation for diverse country settings.
  12. Introduction • TB is caused by bacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) and it most often affects the lungs. TB is spread through the air when people with lung TB cough, sneeze or spit. A person needs to inhale only a few germs to become infected.
  13. TB around the World status • TB is the leading cause of death of people with HIV and also a major contributor to antimicrobial resistance. • Most of the people who fall ill with TB live in low- and middle-income countries, but TB is present all over the world. About half of all people with TB can be found in 8 countries: Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Nigeria, Pakistan, Philippines and South Africa.
  14. • About a quarter of the global population is estimated to have been infected with TB bacteria, but most people will not go on to develop TB disease and some will clear the infection. Those who are infected but not (yet) ill with the disease cannot transmit it. • People infected with TB bacteria have a 5–10% lifetime risk of falling ill with TB. Those with compromised immune systems, such as people living with HIV, malnutrition or diabetes, or people who use tobacco, have a higher risk of falling ill.
  15. TB Sign and Symptom • Common symptoms of TB disease include: • • Prolonged cough • • Chest pain • • Weakness or fatigue • • Weight loss • • Fever • • Night sweats • Often, these symptoms will be mild for many months, thus leading to delays in seeking care and increasing the risk of spreading the infection to others.
  16. Screening for TB • If the healthcare provider suspects a patient to have TB disease, they will send the patient for testing. • In the case of suspected lung TB disease, patients will be asked to give a sputum sample for testing for TB bacteria. • For non-lung TB disease, samples of affected body fluids and tissue can be tested. WHO recommends rapid molecular diagnostic tests as initial tests for people showing signs and symptoms of TB. • Other diagnostic tools can include sputum smear microscopy and chest X-rays. • With TB infection, a person gets infected with TB bacteria that lie inactive in the body. This infection can develop into TB disease if their immune system weakens. • People with TB infection do not show any signs or symptoms of TB. To identify TB infection, healthcare providers will screen at-risk patients to rule out active TB, and they may use a skin or blood test to check for TB infection.
  17. Treatment • TB disease is curable. • It is treated by standard 6 month course of 4 antibiotics. • Common drugs include rifampicin and isoniazid. • In some cases the TB bacteria does not respond to the standard drugs. • In this case, the patient has drug-resistant TB. Treatment for drug-resistant TB is longer and more complex.
  18. Continued • The course of TB drugs is provided to the patient with information, supervision and support by a health worker or trained volunteer. Without such support, treatment adherence can be difficult. If the treatment is not properly completed, the disease can become drug-resistant and can spread. • In the case of TB infection (where the patient is infected with TB bacteria but not ill), TB preventive treatment can be given to stop the onset of disease. This treatment uses the same drugs for a shorter time. Recent treatment options have shortened the duration to treatment to only 1 or 3 months, as compared to 6 months in the past.
  19. National tuberculosis program In india • Introduction • The National TB Control Programme was started in 1962 with the aim to detect cases earliest and treat them. In the district, the programme is implemented through the district Tuberculosis Centre (DTC) and the Primary Health Institutions. • The District Tuberculosis Programme (DTP) is supported by the state level organization for the coordination and supervision of the programme. • The Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP), based on the Directly Observed Treatment, Short Course (DOTS) strategy, began as a pilot project in 1993 and was launched as a national programme in 1997 but rapid RNTCP expansion began in late 1998. • The nation-wide coverage was achieved in 2006. • The Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme has initiated early and firm steps to its declared objective of Universal access to early quality diagnosis and quality TB care for all TB patients'. • RNTCP is being implemented with decentralised services of TB diagnosis through 13,000+ designated microscopy centres and free treatment across the nation through 4 lakh DOT centres. •
  20. Which is the first TB program in India? Healthy India • The National TB Programme (NTP) was launched by the Government of India in 1962 in the form of District TB Centre model involved with BCG vaccination and TB treatment. • In 1978, BCG vaccination was shifted under the Expanded Programme on Immunisation.
  21. What is Nikshay Mitra? • Kargil, Nov 21, 2022: Chairman/CEC, LAHDC, Kargil, Feroz Ahmed Khan today launched Nikshay Mitra, a Community Support initiative for TB Patients under Pradhan Mantri TB Mukt Bharat Abhiyaan at Conference Hall Kargil. • launched Nikshay Poshan Yojana? • The Nikshay Poshan Yojana is a government scheme in India that was announced by Prime Minister Narendra Modi in April of 2018 with the aim of helping tuberculosis patients.
  22. What is Yojna for TB? • It aims to support every Tuberculosis (TB) Patient by providing a Direct Benefit Transfer (DBT) of Rs 500 per month for nutritional needs. Since its inception around Rs 1,488 crore has been paid to 5.73 million notified beneficiaries
  24. Lecture by faculty on TB Day awareness
  26. Health education activities by nursing students
  27. Health education delivery by nursing students to patient and patient attendant in wards
  28. Thank you so much for listening …