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unit -IV ANP M.Sc I Year Nursing Informatic.pptx

  1. UNIT-IV ANP CONTENT TRENDS IN NURSING INFORMATICS AND NURSING INFORMATICS Dr. Anjalatchi Muthukumaran Vice Principal Era College Of Nursing, Era University
  2. TRENDS IN NURSING INFORMATIC  INTRODUCTION  The information revolution has changed the health care system to an unbelievable extent. Integration of informatics in nursing is going beyond data processing functions such as payroll, to an important role in patient care by: interpreting ECG, entering orders, reporting results, and preventing drug interactions (by cross referencing drug compatibilities and warning the appropriate staff). Nurses are using information systems in clinical practice, administration, research and education.
  3. HISTORY OF HEALTH INFORMATICS  Initially, the term medical informatics was used to describe” those collected informational technologies which concern themselves with the patient care, medical, decision making process” (Greenburg 1975).  Greenes and Shortliffe (1990) redefined medical informatics as “the field that concerns itself with the cognitive, information processing and communication tasks of medical practice, education and research, including the information science and the technology to support these tasks, an intrinsically interdisciplinary field with an applied focus addressing a number of fundamental research problems as well as planning and policy issues"  Reston 1984, gave a parallel definition of medical informatics. Since nurses are health care practitioners who are involved in patient care decision- making process that uses information technologies, there clearly was a place for nursing in medical informatics.
  4.  Mandil (1991), coined the phrase “health informatics” which he defined as the use of information technology( including both hardware and software) with information management concepts and methods to support the delivery of health care.  Health informatics encompasses medical, nursing, dental, and pharmacy informatics. Health informatics focuses attention on the recipient of care rather than on the discipline of the care giver.
  5. DEFINITION  Nursing informatics, as originally defined, refers to the use of information technologies in relation those functions within the purview of nursing, and that are carried out by nurses when performing their duties.  Nursing informatics is “a combination of computer science, information science, and nursing science designed to assist in the management and processing of nursing data, information and knowledge to support the practice of nursing and the delivery of nursing care. ( Graves and Corcoran, 1989).
  6. CURRENT TRENDS AND ISSUES  As nurses have been practicing in the automation of healthcare data and the integration of nursing data within information systems, a realization of the need for agreed-on definitions of the appropriate elements describing clients and their care came to light. (Grier, 1984; Mortiz, 1990).  Werely and Lang 1998, have identified and described the need for a standardized data set in nursing, the Nursing Minimum Data Set in Nursing, the Nursing Minimum Data Set( NMDS). Adoption of the NMDS would allow for an ongoing collection of data that can be compared across setting and client populations for clinical and administrative decision making.
  7.  According to the study groups on Nursing Information Systems (1983), computerizing the data facilitates the management and use of the information by standardization, organization and automation to produce timely and comprehensive information. The NMDS provides structure for electronic storage of nursing data, and the unified nursing language provides the substantive data definition to be stored in that structure (Hannah& Shaniman, 1992).
  8. GENERAL PURPOSES  Nursing’s data needs fall into four domains:Nurse need data about client care, provider staffing, administration of care and the organization, and knowledge based research. The first three are distinct areas, whereas research interacts with all of the other three. The four areas and the source for the data are:  Client: client care/ clinical care and its evaluation, clinical data, and client outcomes. Source: the client record.  Provider: professional data, caregiver outcomes, and decision maker variables. Source: personnel records, national data banks, and links to client records. 
  9.  Administrative: management and resource oversight, administrative data, system outcomes, and contextual variables. Source: executive/ managerial data and fiscal and regulatory data.  Research: knowledge base development. Source: existing and newly gathered data and relational data bases.  Eg: outcome and variables in three domains of nursing data needs.
  10. DOMAIN Outcomes Client  Client satisfaction  Achieved care outcomes  Costs  Access to health care Provider  Job enrichment  Job/work satisfaction  Physician satisfaction  Job stress  Intent to leave Administrative  Costs  Productivity  Turn over  Income
  11. VARIABLES Client  Attitudes/ beliefs  Diagnosis, gender, age  Marital status  Support systems  Satisfaction  Level of dependency  Severity of illness  Intensity of nursing care Provider  Attitudes, beliefs  Education  Years of experience  Age  Work excitement Administrative  Agency philosophy  Priorities  Organizational structure  Climate  Policy and procedures  Conflict
  12. CONCLUSION  As almost all care settings are moving towards the use of computers for all health care information, nurses are challenged to explore new ways of working and documenting their practice.  Computer is making it possible to audit records on an ongoing basis and provide feedback to care providers on the completeness of their documentation.  Information retrieval may become easier and individual segments of data may be pooled to enable statistical analysis of the effectiveness of various practices in achieving desired patient outcomes.  As nurses participate in these changes, it is imperative that there may be thoughtful evaluation of how computer systems can contribute to quality of care rather than the computer system being the controlling force for practice.
  13. REFERENCES  Huber D. Leadership and nursing care management. ( 1 st edn). Philadelphia: W.B Saunders company; 1996.  Ellis R E, Hartely C L. Managing and coordinating nursing care.( 3 rd edn). Philadelphia: Lippincott; 1995.  Hannah K J, Ball M J& Edwards. Introduction to nursing informatics. Newyork: Springer- Verlag, 1994.  Cashen M S, Bradley V, Farrel A, Murphy J, Schleyer R, Sensmeir J, Dykes PC. Exploring the impact of health information technology on communication and collaboration in acute care nursing. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2006; 122:575-9.  Lee TT.Nurses' experiences using a nursing information system: early stage of technology implementation. Comput Inform Nurs. 2007 Sep-Oct; 25(5):294-300  Van de Castle B.The perfect role for nursing informatics: Nursing staff development. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2006;122:241-3
  14. Nursing informatics
  15. INTRODUCTION Nursing informatic  The implementation of information technologies in nursing care settings is on the rise. Informatics competencies are increasingly considered a basic skill for every nurse(Yoon et al, 2009).
  16. DEFINITIONS  Health care informatics has been defined as, ‘‘the integration of health sciences, computer science, information science, and cognitive science to assist in the management of health care information’’. (Saba & Mccormick, (2001)  Health care informatics may be decided in to specialties like: (Guenther, 2006) -  medical informatics,  health informatics,  dental informatics, and  nursing informatics  Medical informatics, refers to information technologies that concern patient care and the medical decision-making process.  Health informatics refers to educational technology for health care clients or the general public (Young, 2000).  Nursing informatics refers to electronic information combined with nursing and any aspect of clinical practice, administration, research, or education (Guenther, 2006).
  17. JOURNALS ON INFORMATICS NURSING  CIN: Computers Informatics Nursing (formerly, Computers in Nursing)  Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association (JAMIA)  International Journal of Medical Informatics (IJMI)  International Journal of Bio-Medical Computing (IJBC)  Online Journal of Nursing Informatics (OJNI)
  18. CONCLUSION  Nursing informatics is a developing field of study that is highly interdisciplinary. It is strongly connected to education, business, and computer science. (Guenther, 2006)
  19. REFERENCES  Yoon S. Yun PY, Bakken S. Psychometric Properties of the Self-Assessment of Nursing Informatics Competencies Scale. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2009 ; 146: 546–550  Saba VK, Mccormick KA. Essentials of computers for nursing: informatics for the new millennium. 3rd ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. 2001.  Young KM. Informatics for health professionals. Philadelphia, PA: F. A. Davis, 2000.  Guenther JT. Mapping the literature of nursing informatics. J Med Libr Assoc 94(2) Supplement 2006.