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First Aid in emergency 4.4.22 for MBBS batch.pptx

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First Aid in emergency 4.4.22 for MBBS batch.pptx

  1. 1. Dr.Anjalatchi Muthukumaran MD(AM), Ph.D (N) MBA (HA), MA (Soc) Vice Principal Cum Nursing Superintendent Era College Of Nursing , ELMCH,EU First Aid in emergency
  2. 2. About your syllabus  Introduction to several life threatening emergencies  Importance of first aid  Benefit of first aid  First aid basics  Medical emergencies  Injuries emergencies  Environmental emergencies  Dos and donts in each category
  3. 3. LEARNING OBJECTIVES  Introduction  Symbols used in different first aids  Definition of first aid  Who is first aider  Qualities of first aider  Aim of first aid  Principles of first aid  Scopes of first aid  Golden rules of first aid  Importance  Benefits
  4. 4. First Aid  Introduction cum history  First aid to sick and wounded has been practiced since ancient times. But an organized world wide effort for giving first aid came only in the year 1877 with the formation of St. John ambulance association of England after the Great apostle of St. John.  In 1920, Red Cross Society of India was established. With more than 400 branches all over India, great success has been achieved in the improvement of health and prevention of diseases.  Since then the universal need and utility of first aid has been increasing in this modern mechanized civilization.
  5. 5. Definition  First aid sometimes referred to as EMERGENCY AID is the first skilled [acceptable] assistance given to a victim (sick or injured) on the occurrence of accident or sudden illness in order to preserve life, prevent further injury and relive suffering until qualified medical care is available.
  6. 6. Symbol of First Aids
  7. 7. Definition of First aid  First aid is simple medical treatment given the earliest possible to a person who is injured or who suddenly becomes ill.  First aid is the initial assistance or treatment given to a casualty for any injury or sudden illness before the arrival of an ambulance, doctor or other qualified person. First aid is not an end by itself. It indicates that the person is in need of a “Secondary Aid”.
  8. 8. Importance of First Aid
  9. 9. First Aider  The person who is trained to render emergency service on the spot until the medical aid is obtained is called a “First Aider”.
  10. 10. Qualities of a First Aider.  Calm  Confident  Willing to offer assistance whenever necessary  The first actions by First Aiders: DR. CAB  D – Danger assessment for self and victim  R – Responsiveness of the victim  C – Check and assess for pulse  A – Assess and ensure clear airway  B – Check if person is breathing
  11. 11. Aims of first aid:  3Ps  Preserve life  Prevent injuries /condition from worsening  Promote Recovery
  12. 12. Objective of first aid
  13. 13. Principles of First Aid  The key guiding principles and purpose of first aid, is often denoted by 3 Ps.  1. Prevent further injuries  2. Preserve life  3. Promote recovery  Rapid Responses to Disasters and duties of rescuer When disaster strikes, individuals within the affected community and neighbouring communities are the first to respond.  Preparedness can make the difference between life and death.  A damage assessment survey should follow three key principles:  a. Look: Make a thorough visual inspection of the damage-affected area;  b. Listen to all sources of information - the community, government records, and media reports;  c. Understand the gravity of the dangers and the suffering of victims as well as the capacity to respond.
  14. 14. Scope of First Aid  The scope of first aid includes  a) Diagnosis  b) Treatment  c) Disposal of the case.
  15. 15. (a) Diagnosis  Know the possible cause of accident or sudden injury.  Gather information from casualty and bystanders.  Watch for symptoms like faintness, bleeding, thirst, pain or shivering  Watch for abnormal signs like swelling, paleness etc.
  16. 16. Continued  (b) Treatment  Remove the causative agent from the casuality eg. falling machinery, fire, electrical wire, poision etc.  (c) Disposal  Arrange for the safe transportation of the casuality to the care of a doctor or hospital as soon as possible.  Inform the family or relatives at once. 
  17. 17. Important Points to be remembered by First-Aiders  1. First-Aiders must always remain calm and assess the situation first before rushing to help the victim.  2. First Aiders must ensure to remove any dangers from the casualty, or remove the casualty from dangers, and prevent the crowding of casualties by bystanders.  3. It is important that the First-Aiders -call for appropriate help as per the assessment of the situation.  4. As most first aid treatment does involve touching the victim, it is very important that the First-Aider gains their permission, so as to avoid causing offence or distress.  5. It is important to understand that first aid has its limitations and does not take the place of professional medical treatment.  6. First Aiders should also take care to listen to any remarks or requests a casualty makes.  7. The First Aider’s responsibility ends when the casualty is handed over to the care of a competent health provider.
  18. 18. Golden rules of first aid 1. Do first things first, quickly-quietly without fuss or panic. 2. Reassure the casualty through encouraging words. 3. Check ABC Rule. (Airway, breathing, Circulation) 4. Open the airway by tilting the head. 5. Give artificial respiration if breathing has stopped. 6. Perform chest compression if the pulse is not present 7. Stop bleeding if any by direct pressure. 8. Treat for shock. 9. Do not allow people to crowd around. 10. Don’t remove clothes unnecessarily. 11. Arrange for transportation of the casualty. 12. Casualty should be sent to a hospital or doctor by quickest means of transport. Always inform police about serious accidents and the relatives.
  19. 19. Advantages of First Aid Training  First aid training saves lives. ...  Reduces repeat accidents. ...  Increases confidence and safety. ...  People know how to use a first aid kit properly. ...  Keeps employees safe outside of work. ...  It's great for company morale and team-building. ...  It's cost-effective.
  20. 20. First aid kit box
  21. 21. List of life threatening emergencies  Breathing problems, Cardiac arrest ,choking , allergic reactions  Chest pain , abdominal pain etc  Burn,scald, bleeeding  Head and spinal injuries  Lower and upper extremities injuries  Bites and stings are Snake bite  Electrical injuries  heat cramps etc
  22. 22. Triage  Triage is to judge the severity of the victim’s condition, prioritise and decide on best possible approach beneficial to the individual within constrains of time and professional attention at that place.
  23. 23. International guidelines for Triage (colour coded)  RED – Immediate Care: Most urgent and high survival if attended immediately.  YELLOW PRIME – Beyond Care: Regardless of urgency has poor survival rate.  YELLOW – Urgent Not Immediate Care: Can wait 45 to 60 minutes after stabilisation.  GREEN – Minor Care: Can wait until others have been attended.  BLACK – Dead.
  24. 24. Continued the next session List of medical emergency in environmental situation., Thank you .......
  25. 25. ANY Question?