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Background chapter i


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Background chapter i

  1. 1. 1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1.1 The Background of the Study Nowadays, almost all of the countries in in the world are bilingual countries. Indonesia is one of them. Most of the society in Indonesia can understand at least two languages. The first is their regional language, and the second is Indonesian language or their mother shows that language is an important thing in human life. As we know, language as a tool of communication. By using language we can communicate and interact with all the people around the world. We can share our ideas, feeling, when communicating with the others. Even by mastering more than one language we can expand our knowlegle about everything in the world. For example: we want to know more about American culture. It is impossible for us to be easier to understand their culture if we can’t speak and understand their native language. It is the reason why in this globalization era people must be able to master many languages so that they can communicate effectively and survive in this modern era. According to Pardede and Kisno (2012:145), “A person who can speak two languages called bilingual individual.” It means that someone who can use two or more language to communicate in their daily life can be called as a bilingualism. It is very difficult and rarely to find a monolingual country in this world. That’s why 1
  2. 2. 2 now, A bilingualingual person is also necessary to multilingualism themselves. One of the ways is by studying the other language especially foreign languages. English is one of foreign language that becomes an international language. Most of the people around the world have understood English. So, we can chat or communicate with the other people from different countries by using English. Therefore, nowadays English has become the compulsory subjects to be learned by people from various countries, including our country Indonesia. In Indonesia, English has been taught to Indonesian students from kindergarten level up to university level. But in fact, English still a foreign language for Indonesian society until now. It is because we don’t speak English actively in everyday life. Further, it was not surprisingly anymore if most of Indonesian is not able to speak English fluently in their life. People who can speak more than one language encourage them to use code.In foreign language learning, code had become a common phenomenon happened in communication. According to wardaugh (2010: 98) code is define as a way used by people to speak or to communicate a particular language, dialect on different occasion, or register or acent that used by the people to communicate for different purpose. It means that in communication people can choose a particular code or variety to make the easier to discuss a certain topic. In term of bilingualism and multilingualism, code switching and code mixing often occur. Code switching or inter-sentential code-alternation occurs when a
  3. 3. 3 bilingual speaker uses more than one language in a single utterance above the clause level to appropriately convey his/her intents (Claros and Isharyanti, 2009:2). Code switching refers to linguistic behavior of a bilingual speaker who subconsciously switch from speaking one variety to another variety, usually in response to factors associated with the social situation. Code mixing refers to linguistic behavior of a bilingual speaker who imports words or phrases from one of his/her languages into the other one. Further, According to Pardede and Kisno (2012: 126) Code consist of two kinds there are code mixing and code switching “Code mixing is the transfer of linguistic elements from one language into another”. It means that in other words it is only partially transferred that those elements mix together for communication purpose. Example (1) Teacher : How are you this morning anak-anak? Students : Fine, thanks ibu! Based on the example above we can concluded that the teacher and the students use code mixing in their utterances . Code mixing can be happened in wide variety of language. It’s called language components. It means that, mixing of two or more languages can be happened in morpheme/word, phrase, or clause. The example shows that the teacher just mixes an Indonesian phrase “anak-anak” in her utterance. While the students’ just mix an Indonesian word “ibu” in their utterances.
  4. 4. 4 According to Pardede and Kisno ( 2012 : 126) “Code switching is a general term to refer to the changes or transition use two or more languages, multiple variations of a languages or even several styles from as variety it is also mentions what is called the internal code switching that occurs across languages in a mother tongue area”. It is means that if a people switch a code into another code of the same people it is called internal code switching. And when one code in to another external code it can be called external code switching. Example (2) of code switching English-Indonesia A: look at this picture! B: Which picture mam? A: This picture class B: ah, ya ohh gambar yang bagus Bu! Based on the example above we can conclude that the conversation above it shows that the teacher mostly use English language in teaching learning but the students switch the language to Indonesian language. Realize or not code switching and code mixing often used in our daily conversation. Based on the writer experienced while doing teaching practice in SMA NEGERI 1 BANDAR she observed that most of the teachers especially English teacher often used code in explaing the material to the students. The previous research with the same field had been proved that code mixing is helpful for the students to understand the lesson material easily. So the writer interesting to examine how creative the English teacher in using code mixing in her utterances in order to make the students easier to understand the material well. The writer also hopes that
  5. 5. 5 by using code mixing in teaching learning process, he or she can encourage his or her students to speak English even if they have to combine it with Indonesian language. In this research paper the writers focuss to analyze what type of code mixing usually use by the English teacher in teaching learning process. The writers also want to examine the domminat types of code mixing used by engluish teacher in teaching learning process. Based on the background above the writer formulates the research title “CODE MIXING USED BY ENGLISH TEACHER IN TEACHHING LEARNING PROCESS AT GRADE XI OF SMA NEGERI 1 BANDAR PERDAGANGAN”. 1.2 The Problem of Research Based on that background, the problems that is going to be discussed as follows: 1. What are the types of code mixing used by English teacher in teaching learning process at grade XI of SMA NEGERI 1 BANDAR? 2. What dominant of code mixing usually used by English teacher in teaching learning process at grade XI of SMA NEGERI 1 BANDAR?