1.1 The Background of the Study
Nowadays, almost all of the countries in in the world are bilingual countries.
Indonesia is one of them. Most of the society in Indonesia can understand at least two
languages. The first is their regional language, and the second is Indonesian language
or their mother tongue.it shows that language is an important thing in human life. As
we know, language as a tool of communication. By using language we can
communicate and interact with all the people around the world. We can share our
ideas, feeling, when communicating with the others. Even by mastering more than
one language we can expand our knowlegle about everything in the world. For
example: we want to know more about American culture. It is impossible for us to be
easier to understand their culture if we can’t speak and understand their native
language. It is the reason why in this globalization era people must be able to master
many languages so that they can communicate effectively and survive in this modern
According to Pardede and Kisno (2012:145), “A person who can speak two
languages called bilingual individual.” It means that someone who can use two or
more language to communicate in their daily life can be called as a bilingualism. It
is very difficult and rarely to find a monolingual country in this world. That’s why
now, A bilingualingual person is also necessary to multilingualism themselves. One
of the ways is by studying the other language especially foreign languages. English is
one of foreign language that becomes an international language. Most of the people
around the world have understood English. So, we can chat or communicate with the
other people from different countries by using English.
Therefore, nowadays English has become the compulsory subjects to be learned
by people from various countries, including our country Indonesia. In Indonesia,
English has been taught to Indonesian students from kindergarten level up to
university level. But in fact, English still a foreign language for Indonesian society
until now. It is because we don’t speak English actively in everyday life. Further, it
was not surprisingly anymore if most of Indonesian is not able to speak English
fluently in their life.
People who can speak more than one language encourage them to use code.In
foreign language learning, code had become a common phenomenon happened in
communication. According to wardaugh (2010: 98) code is define as a way used by
people to speak or to communicate a particular language, dialect on different
occasion, or register or acent that used by the people to communicate for different
purpose. It means that in communication people can choose a particular code or
variety to make the easier to discuss a certain topic.
In term of bilingualism and multilingualism, code switching and code
mixing often occur. Code switching or inter-sentential code-alternation occurs when a
bilingual speaker uses more than one language in a single utterance above the clause
level to appropriately convey his/her intents (Claros and Isharyanti, 2009:2). Code
switching refers to linguistic behavior of a bilingual speaker who subconsciously
switch from speaking one variety to another variety, usually in response to factors
associated with the social situation. Code mixing refers to linguistic behavior of a
bilingual speaker who imports words or phrases from one of his/her languages into
the other one. Further, According to Pardede and Kisno (2012: 126) Code consist of
two kinds there are code mixing and code switching “Code mixing is the transfer of
linguistic elements from one language into another”. It means that in other words it is
only partially transferred that those elements mix together for communication
Teacher : How are you this morning anak-anak?
Students : Fine, thanks ibu!
Based on the example above we can concluded that the teacher and the students use
code mixing in their utterances . Code mixing can be happened in wide variety of
language. It’s called language components. It means that, mixing of two or more
languages can be happened in morpheme/word, phrase, or clause. The example shows
that the teacher just mixes an Indonesian phrase “anak-anak” in her utterance. While
the students’ just mix an Indonesian word “ibu” in their utterances.
According to Pardede and Kisno ( 2012 : 126) “Code switching is a general
term to refer to the changes or transition use two or more languages, multiple
variations of a languages or even several styles from as variety it is also mentions
what is called the internal code switching that occurs across languages in a mother
tongue area”. It is means that if a people switch a code into another code of the same
people it is called internal code switching. And when one code in to another external
code it can be called external code switching.
Example (2) of code switching English-Indonesia
A: look at this picture!
B: Which picture mam?
A: This picture class
B: ah, ya ohh gambar yang bagus Bu!
Based on the example above we can conclude that the conversation above it shows
that the teacher mostly use English language in teaching learning but the students
switch the language to Indonesian language.
Realize or not code switching and code mixing often used in our daily
conversation. Based on the writer experienced while doing teaching practice in SMA
NEGERI 1 BANDAR she observed that most of the teachers especially English
teacher often used code in explaing the material to the students. The previous
research with the same field had been proved that code mixing is helpful for the
students to understand the lesson material easily. So the writer interesting to examine
how creative the English teacher in using code mixing in her utterances in order to
make the students easier to understand the material well. The writer also hopes that
by using code mixing in teaching learning process, he or she can encourage his or her
students to speak English even if they have to combine it with Indonesian language.
In this research paper the writers focuss to analyze what type of code mixing usually
use by the English teacher in teaching learning process. The writers also want to
examine the domminat types of code mixing used by engluish teacher in teaching
learning process. Based on the background above the writer formulates the research
title “CODE MIXING USED BY ENGLISH TEACHER IN TEACHHING
LEARNING PROCESS AT GRADE XI OF SMA NEGERI 1 BANDAR
1.2 The Problem of Research
Based on that background, the problems that is going to be discussed as
1. What are the types of code mixing used by English teacher in teaching
learning process at grade XI of SMA NEGERI 1 BANDAR?
2. What dominant of code mixing usually used by English teacher in
teaching learning process at grade XI of SMA NEGERI 1 BANDAR?