Climate Change in the Basque Country


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Aniturri BHI shared this information with their Irish Comenius partners. Presentation used to prepare to be used at ECO-SCHOOLS CLIMATE CHANGE SUMMIT, STORMONT 14TH FEBRUARY 2013

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Climate Change in the Basque Country

  1. 1. Information that Basque students shared with partner school Holy Trinity, Cookstown. The Irish students have been learning about the Basque Country to represent us at an Eco-Schools summit to be held at Stormont on 14thFebruary 2013. Good luck! Zorte On!
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION Aniturri BHI is located in the Basque province of Araba. The Basque Country comprises the Basque Autonomous Community and Navarre in Spain and the western part of the French départament of Pyrénées Atlantiques. One nation within two states and three administrations.
  3. 3. Author: eitb infography PREDICTIONS Basque Country data Jon Saenz Aguirre He says that there is not a lot of information abourt the level of impacts in the Basque Autonomous Community, but at least, it is clear that the scenaries which have high concentration of CO2 will increase their temperature (like the A2 zone), comparing with the scenaries of less CO2 concentration (like A1 zone). (Slide 5) We know as well that the area near the coast won’t be so affected as the inner area. Furthermore, we know that there will be a temperature increase of one or two degrees in winter, compared with the current average.. However, rainfalls will not change much.
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  5. 5. The IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change) makes medium and long term impact predictions The Basque Centre for Climate Change is called bc3. It contributes with data and research on scientific, technical and socio-economic aspects of climate change. Author: eitb infography
  6. 6. The areas of research where BC3 is developing research capabilities fall broadly into the following groups: ADAPTATION TO AND THE IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE Health and human related: understanding the impacts of climate change in terms of health and how best to adapt to them. Agriculture and eco-system related: understanding the impacts of climate change on agriculture and forests and how best to respond to them Water related: understanding the implications of climate change for the availability and use of water resources and what changes in water management will be necessary in the future. Infrastructure-related: analysis of how climate change requires changes in the design of infrastructure and in the planning of long-term investments. The bc3 is a Research Centre based in the Basque Country which aims to contribute to long term research on the causes and consequences of climate change in order to foster the creation of knowledge in this multidisciplinary science. The BC3 seeks to prepare a highly-qualified team of researchers with the primary objective of achieving excellence in research, training and dissemination. Source:
  7. 7. MEASURES TO MITIGATE CLIMATE CHANGE  Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and measures to sequester carbon: modelling the inter linkages between the economic and climate sub-systems to better understand how the economy will be affected by climate change; measures to control greenhouse gases that are responsible for climate change. Design of instruments to reduce greenhouse gases at the regional, national and global levels.  Policies to promote carbon-free technology: the role of technology in reducing greenhouse gases and what polices will be needed to best promote the right kinds of technologies.  Uncertainty and climate policy: how best to design policies to address climate change in the face of huge uncertainties and the long time periods over which climate change will impact the economy, ecology and society. INTERNATIONAL DIMENSIONS OF CLIMATE POLICY  International and regional agreements on climate action: understanding how international agreements related to climate control are arrived at and what constitutes a stable and effective agreement. Climate policy and development policy: finding synergies and conflicts between the goals of climate mitigation and development. DEVELOPING AND SUPPORTING RESEARCH THAT INFORMS CLIMATE POLICY IN THE BASQUE COUNTRY  The aim is to act as the benchmark centre for research on all aspects of climate policy in the Basque Country, drawing on the substantial research that is ongoing in the universities and other research centres of the region.  Issues to be addressed will include more precise assessment of impacts, design of optimal adaptation strategies, policies for mitigation, better measurement of emissions from land use and policies to improve IPCC/GHG inventories for agriculture and land use methodologies in the Basque Country through comparison with other countries (e.g. UK).
  8. 8. BC3 Network and International Projects  The BC3 operates under the philosophy that effective research in this area can only be conducted in collaboration with other research groups. It is imperative therefore to be part of a network and to collaborate actively with those members of the climate research network who are undertaking complementary research.  The main objective of this networking is to promote the cooperation on climate change and motivate shared projects. The cooperation in the BC3 Network will mainly be based on:  The exchange of researchers.  The exchange of Ph. D. students.  The conducting of shared research projects.  The transference of the best practices.  The cooperation and participation in conferences and seminars. AGREEMENT WITH THE UNIVERSITY OF THE BASQUE COUNTRY:  The creation of the Basic and Excellence Research Centres (BERC) exemplifies a move to combine the increasingly high standards of scientific research in the Basque Country with the attraction of high level talents. BC3 will provide the University of the Basque Country with high level researchers and also will develop ways to promote their careers. There will be a two-way research interaction to reinforce the Basque university system. BC3 will also conduct joint research projects with the University of the Basque Country to increase research capabilities in the Basque Country. AGREEMENTS WITH OTHER RESEARCH CENTRES:  The BC3 will lead the integration of various agents currently active in the field of climate change in the Basque Country. The BC3 will be an active, dynamic part of the Basque Science, Technology and Innovation Network, promoting and collaborating in research projects with the different members of the network.  BC3 will also promote agreements with other international research centres. The current network will be reinforced to guarantee the continuation of collaboration. To date the following agreement has been reached:
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  15. 15. ANGEL BORJA Fundamentally, the first influence climate change will produce is the increase of the temperature. In the last 30 years the temperature of the sea’s water has increased. The second influence is the increase of the level of the sea. During the last 60 years the level of the sea has increased 10-15 centimeters. In the Bay of Biscay. As a result, a change of the inhabitants and species may happen. Author: eitb infography
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  17. 17. Author: eitb infography Climate change could produce a manifestation of several impacts on natural, social and economic systems. The consequences on the population depend on where the people live. The highest effects would appear in poor countries, where the agriculture would be seriously affected and it would generate a decline of food production. Likewise, global warming would have consequences on the population of places that would be affected by external weather effects. So there may be cases in which the population has more possibilities of suffering bad weather and therefore, it may produce social problems like the migration from Africa to Europe.
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  20. 20. Expected impacts of climate change in the Basque Country SOURCE: ENCORE Climate change, according to the first results of available models, results, in the Basque Country, in a raining estimated reduction of between 15 and 20% per year, with increases in winter and decreases in summer. Extreme maximum temperatures for the end of the century can raise between 1.5 C and 3.5 C; and extreme minimum ones between 1 C and 3 C. This thermal increase causes a higher evapotranspiration and a higher risk for forest fires. Increase in sea level and waves force is significant, since it shall cause a backward movement of coastline in beach areas of between 11 and 13 m about the middle of XXI century and the risk of flood in estuaries. Priority performances have been identified according to expected impacts in natural and economic systems, human health and performance capacity. Although impacts are not well known and started researches must be expanded, also for the development of scenes adapted to the Basque Country dimensions, economic cost-effectiveness to undertake early performances becomes evident.
  21. 21. Physical consequences  Two of the main climate variables which shall be affected because of climate change are temperature and rainfall. Regarding the last one, both global and specific models suggest a decrease of rainfall in the southern region. These models also foresee a yearly reduction in rainfall, particularly during summer months, which in the case of the Basque Country is estimated between 15 and 20%.  The change in distribution of rainfall through the year does not show a clear behaviour pattern, which indicates a quite low reliability of projections, which suggest a increase of it for winter months (December to February) estimated between a 5 and 20% and a decrease for summer months (June to August) estimated between a 30 and 50%. The main pluviometric change might be more conditioned by the seasonal distribution of rains (with a higher space and temporal heterogeneity) than by the very percent diminution in absolute values.  Regarding temperatures, projections for XXI century show an increase of average temperature up to 5–7°C in summer and 3–4°C in winter, which in coast are reduced in 2°C. Predictably, the number of days with extreme maximum temperatures shall increase, and the ones with extreme minimum temperatures shall decrease. In the specific case of the Basque Country, for the last third of XXI century a 1.5°C increase of extreme maximum temperatures in coastline and 3.5°C in the rest of territory is expected. With regard to extreme minimum temperatures (as monthly averages) a increase between 1 and 1.5°C is estimated in the coastline, between 2 and 2.5°C in the rest of the Atlantic basin and middle area and between 2.5 and 3°C in the southern region of the Basque Country. Seasonally, the extreme maximum values present differences between the different climate regions of the Basque Country. These values are shown in the following chart. SOURCE: ENCORE WINTER SUMMER 1.5-2º C 4.5-5.5º C 2-2.5º C 5.5-7º C Bardeak in Navarrre photo: eitb infography
  22. 22. Donostia (San Sebastian)  One of the most significant problems derived from climate change to face in the Basque Country is the increase of the sea level and the energy of the swell (higher waves and longer storms) together with a change of its direction (2° to the west). The most exhaustive report in state referring to affection to the coast estimates an increase of sea level of 0.4 cm/year, which would mean an increase of about 40 cm at the end of XXI century. This increase in sea level shall cause the 11–13 m backward movement of coastline in beach areas about the middle of XXI century, changes in coastal morphology and loss of stability and rebasing of works and coastal infrastructures (worthwhile with an increase of their area between 6 and 20%). In the estuaries, as well as a potential space or temporary regime more irregular, the main danger is the flood risk of coast human settlements (urban, agricultural and industrial) and particularly in estuaries of big cities like Bilbao and Donostia. Pasaia, Gipuzkoa The increase of sea level SOURCE: ENCORE
  23. 23. Impacts on natural, social and economic systems  The Basque Country has a protecting measure in the 22.7% of its territory. However, as a result of climate change, changes in animal and vegetable communities are expected, including an advance or delay in migration or reproduction periods, hormonal changes, changes in the distribution of continental and sea species (in the case of some sea species changes in latitude and depth have been stated), modification of productivity, modifications in invading and parasitic species, increase of vulnerability or population changes (increase or decrease of number of individuals depending on the considered specie). Vulnerability is the maximum for endemic and especially interesting species (amphibian and reptiles). Moreover, the possible loss of organic carbon of ground would reduce its fertility for tree species and brushes. Giant trees in Munain, Araba: 608 trees of over a metre in diameter and between 500 and 800 years old. These trees have been studied both from a dasymetric and associated biodiversity point of view An Oak tour around Agurain
  24. 24. In the north of the Basque Country, pollard beeches are so common that people believe that pollard beeches and wild beeches constitute two different species. Nevertheless, they are actually two ways of handling a single species. Other trees like ash trees, chestnut trees and several species of oak trees have also been pollarded, but as there aren't many oaks in the Basque Country, they don’t have so much relevance on the landscape. In the province of Araba, there exists a special abundance of pollard oaks, especially in the towns of Munain and Okariz in the municipal district of San Millan. The giant oaks of Munain and Okariz are located on the mountainsides of the Entzia Range. It is made up of some 608 trees of over a meter in diameter (some are 4-5 meter), an average of 428 perimeter and between 500 and 800 years old. There could have been more trees, but for a time, people didn't know that those trees were very important and they cut them for firewood. These trees have been studied both from a dasymetric and associated biodiversity point of view, and the results have been surprising. Researchers put in the oaks containers full of water and salt to know what type of insects there were in the area. The containers attracted more animals than expected, like cows, which caused inconveniences. Finally, they discovered a total of 103 beetle species, among which, two of these (Lucanus Cervus and Rosalia Alpina) are a priority in European policies. Nowadays, although the nearest oaks have been fenced in, the most beautiful and spectacular trees are outside the enclose. These outstanding trees are in the forest and they are better than those that are together. In spite of the fact that they haven't fenced all of them together, some residents of Munain are a bit disgusted. A worth mentioning fact could be that the British Royal gardener visited the oaks in Munain. He hugged an oak and he cried. Munain
  25. 25. Impacts on natural, social and economic systems  Water resources have a limited storing capacity (about 60 Hm³) and are very conditioned by rainfall, so a more heterogeneous distribution of rainfall shall cause a higher variability, resulting in temporary situations of water shortage, which, however, might be solved by means of a suitable management system.  In primary sector, the 390,000 Ha exploitation of tree forest surface (54% of the Basque Country total surface) shall have its productive period changed (deciduous leaf species shall be benefited against perennial ones), an aspect which can cause some species not to be profitable and be replaced with imports. Also, a greater difficulty to overcome the summer drought stages has been predicted. This change in productivity can be also applied to ranching sector (likely to be affected in a higher extend by parasitic illnesses) and to the 242,000 hectares devoted to agriculture (it shall particularly benefit corn and beetroot cultivations and damage cereal cultivations), which can has the duration of harvest reduced and sowing and harvest times modified. Araia, Araba Gaubea, Araba Cereal Oceanic or transitional climate SOURCE: ENCORE
  26. 26. Impacts on natural, social and economic systems  In the tourist sector, a change in the demand and an intensification of the interseasonal tourism is expected. It is conditioned by affections likely to be suffered from by the different settlements and coastal infrastructures (35 beaches in the Basque Country) which might result in changes in geographic and tourist space.  Referring to human health, an increase of morbid mortality and of acute respiratory episodes, especially allergies, is expected. These episodes shall intensify as a result of extension of pollination period and the number of hot and dry days which promote environmental charge (southern region being the most affected), which shall mainly affect the sensitive population, like children and old people (in 2020 the 25% of population shall be older than 65). Changes in infectious illnesses passed on by mosquitoes and ticks, and an alteration of comfort and wellbeing conditions are expected. Finally, as a result of the increase of temperature, tropospheric ozone concentration shall also increase, especially during summer, with the subsequent worsening of air quality. This situation shall intensify in anticyclone situations in which high temperatures, scarce cloud coating and not much air predominate (situations which, predictably, due to climate change, shall happen more frequently).  Finally, in transport (15 harbours in constant expansion and reconversion of activities as well as two large sea ports), energy (468 km electrical network, 3,700 km gas distribution, 103 water power stations), town planning/building and services sectors (252 km of coast and 700 km of rivers with different distributions of urban settlements), the main impact is the increase of danger associated to weather phenomena and the increase of risk associated to structural integrity of different infrastructures, increasing the vulnerability of financial sector and insurers. The changes in the energy demand and in the supply sources (promotion of renewable ones) or the changes in the habitability conditions of the buildings are other expected impacts. Bermeo, Bizkaia Wind farm in Langraitz, Araba SOURCE: ENCORE
  27. 27. • Spanish version of the video Author: AZTITV • Basque version of the video Author: AZTITV Climate change and the increasing level of the sea are global problems that we are all facing. The aim of this science project is to study the causes and the consequences of this rise. According to studies of tide gauges, since 1950, the average of the sea level has risen 1,8mm per year. According to the report of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) written on 2007, the impact on the costal area could worsen in the following years 18 or 19cm. The uncertainty of estimates comes from different places and scenes that make increase the greenhouse effect. Some estimates can be false about the cost of the Basque country because the level of the see is usually variable.
  28. 28. WHY DOES SEE LEVEL RISE? 2 FACTORS TERMIC EXPANSION MELTING The video: Anil Markandya (scientific Director of the BC3) says that depending on the area, problems can be bigger like floods, damage to agriculture, in ecosystems… These two factors are consequences of the global warming. According to Ainhoa Caballero (AZTI-Tecnalia’s oceanographer), the thermal expansion will produce more damages than the melting. Anil Markandya says that in many cases they have to protect the coastal areas, but they have to look at the entire coast line to know what actions they are going to take in each area. Urdaibai is the only biosphere reserve in the north of the Spain and the first protected natural area in the Basque Country. Its objective is to be a resting area for the birds which migrate between Africa and Europe. There are 318 types of vertebrates. Javier Franco, an “AZTI-tecnalia” ecologist, says that Urdaibai experimented changes those years because people used this area for agriculture and ranching. But the following years those lands were abandoned and they recovered in a natural way. Angel Borja says that the increase of the sea level won’t affect this area because it has the ability to adapt. But the temperature will affect the area. Species that lived in the Basque Country are now in the south and species that lived in the south are in the coast of the Basque Country. Studies demonstrate since 1943 the sea level in the north has increased 2,1mm per year whereas the global level has increased 1,8mm per year. In 50 years the sea will have increased 10cm. Since 1954 they have studied the coast and they have seen that in the coast of Gipuzkoa the beach size has been reduced. The sea level has increased from 1,8mm to 3mm per year. This increase will be bigger in this century.
  29. 29. A report undertaken by the AZTI-Tecnalia technological centre in cooperation with researchers from the University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Tecnalia Research & Innovation and IMEDEA (CSIC-UIB), is synthesised existing information on climate change observed in and forecast for the Basque Country and the southeast of the Bay of Biscay, in order to better predict the impact of future changes along the coast and in the marine environment. The report, falling within the remit of the Basque Government-financed K-Egokitzen project, points to a gradual increase in the air and water temperatures and in the sea level, as well as to an intensification of strong episodes of precipitation and heat waves. The study was published recently by the Climate Research journal, a publication of international reference in climate matters. READ more Source: AZTI
  30. 30. Eguraldia24 Effects on the sea An interview to Guillem Chust Source: AZTITV Climate change will produce an increase of the sea water level of between 30-50 cm, due to the increase of the temperature of the sea water and the air, and also alterations in precipitation. Guillem Chust (Azti Tecnalia) • The sea level will rise more than 1 km² in Gipuzkoa. In this province, 30% of the urban areas are going to be the most damaged zones. • One of the most susceptible elements are the beaches. They are going to widen between the 25- 40%. • The increase of the sea level will be caused by heating of the sea water, and if this takes place, the sea can expand. The second factor belonging to the climate change is the melting of the glaciers and the continental ice. To resolve this problem, we may strengthen the dikes. Furthermore, we shouldn’t build more near the beaches and the marshlands. The consequence of this matter is that the biodiversity and vegetation will disappear. The immigration of the fowls is going to be harden because of the changes of natural means, the topography and the things that are done by humans (artificial matters).
  31. 31. Alterations in marine flora of Basque coast due to climate change evident VideoResearch undertaken by the University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU) team shows an increase in 1º C in the sea temperature over the past 30 years. The temperature of the water in the Eastern Cantabrian Sea (Bay of Biscay) has risen by 0.24 ºC each decade since the eighties, an increase that rises to 0.33º C in summer. That is to say, over the past 30 years the temperature of the water has risen by almost 1º C above the summer average, which, together with other factors arising from climate change, is causing significant changes in marine vegetation. This is the conclusion of the research study, 'Seaweed assemblage changes in Eastern Cantabrian Sea and their potential relationship to climate change', undertaken on Marine Benthos by the UPV/EHU. The research was published in Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, a multidisciplinary international journal for the study of physical, chemical and distribution processes of species in the marine areas of the coast, estuary and continental platform. SOURCE: Basque Research READ more In Basque language The principal theme of the UPV marine research team are aspects about the influence of the pollution on marine vegetation. In this decade they have been studying how climate influences the change on vegetation. Bizkaia is the place that they chose to do their submarine experiments. They want to explain why there are less red seaweeds. They put an immerse surface to check the changes of the dark red colour of the plants. This decade they have seen that the plants have taken a yellowish colour and the seaweed has lost covering. This plant makes marine meadows in some places they have checked an important set-back. The key is the cantatrice coast because the life of most seaweed can have important consequences there. They investigate it to find the causes of the possible factors. That causes could be the increase of the water level. They have compared 1980 summer with the one in 2010.
  32. 32. KOSTASYSTEM The sustainable management of the coastal erosion problem needs information over a wide range of spatial scales (centimeters to kilometers) and time periods (seconds to years) to characterize the coastal dynamics. Recently, the analyses of coastal environments using video images have proven to be an efficient methodology (autonomous and low cost), offering clear advantages over traditional methods (topography and bathymetry). The “KOSTASystem” project, a littoral monitoring system, comes as a result of a collaboration between AZTI-Tecnalia and LaSAGeC (Anglet, Université de Pau et Pays de l’Adour, France). The two institutes, one in the Basque Country and the other in Aquitaine, agreed on the necessity of dealing with the problem of littoral management in a coordinated way, because of the interdependency of the two frontier coastal systems. Out of the technological developments comes the KOSTASystem,. SOURCE: KOSTASYSTEM There are four station running: In Mundaka In Bakio In Zarautz In Zumaia 0 KOSTASYSTEM video High-precision cartography of sea beds of Bilbao and Donostia Photo: AZTI-Tecnalia
  33. 33. KOSTASYSTEM Pedro Liria, one of the members of AZTI-tecnalia, says that Kostasystem consists of taking pictures of a known shore part with some cameras installed in different parts of the coast to show the changes of the beach and sand banks. He also says that it can be used to create maps of the beaches and maps with the location of every single person on the beach. Koldo Larazabal, the coordinator of the Red Cross, says that they use this system to see the changes of the bulk flows of water near the shore to provide better services. Pedro Liria says that the system can be used to show live information about the world-famous Mundaka left wave. They can see its height and length and can tell the information to the surfers. He also says that they have a new station in Tenerife because they want to recover an area of the shore which was damaged and they want to use this system to provide information about the waves to the surfers and the workers who have to rebuild that part of the coast. An image of the first camera in Zarautz. Photo: AZTI-Tecnalia
  34. 34. MUNDAKA Consequences of estuarine sand dredging and dumping on the Urdaibai Reserve of the Biosphere (Bay of Biscay): the case of the “ Mundaka left wave”
  35. 35. THE CASE OF MUNDAKA LEFT WAVE Authors: M. MONGE-GANUZAS, A. CEARRETA, E. IRIARTE ABSTRACT In the spring of 2003, 240,000 m3 of sand were dredged from the main channel of the lower Oka estuary (Urdaibai Reserve of the Biosphere) and dumped on the southern area of Laida beach located at the estuary mouth. After few months, strong erosion of the deposited sediments occured as a consequence of the northwards migration of the final meander of the main estuarine channel before it reached the estuary inlet. At the same time, the estuarine inlet abandoned its original position near the rocky western margin and migrated eastwards cutting and eroding the sandy ebb delta (Mundaka sand bar). This caused a change in the way the incident wave broke as it reached the shallow water of the ebb tidal delta and beach and made surfing impossible under the same optimal conditions previously enjoyed due to the production of a wave that gradually broke from right to left as it reached shallow water, the so called “ Mundaka left wave” . As a consequence, the Billabong Pro surf championship was cancelled in 2005. This paper describes the results obtained during a study of the outer estuary carried out during the period May 2005-April 2006 to characterize the processes operating on the most dynamic area of the estuary throughout the year and to evaluate the influence that the anthropogenic activities in the estuary had on the wave characteristics. No corrective measures were taken in the outer estuary during the study period and the environment recovered its normal morphological features naturally. This natural restoration it is hoped will be more stable, long lasting and reliable to ensure the continuing future of the “ Mundaka left wave” .
  36. 36. MUNDAKA WAVE The return of a wave called Mundaka, the best European left hand wave? The movie produced by the locals Aritz Aranburu and the Acero brothers makes justice to the surf potential of Mundaka. Among the surfing community, Mundaka, which is between San Sebastian and Bilbao, is worldwide famous for its left hand powerful waves. Mundaka used to be a regular stage on the World Surfing Championship Tour and it is an icon and reference surfing spot in the Basque Country and Spain. It is a left-hand wave that breaks due to a sandbar formed along the river mouth. The video was released in black and white to remind us of the past when the wave almost disappeared. It is said that the cause was the drainage of a channel at a shipyard four kilometers from Mundaka. The sandbank located on the mouth of the river was seriously damaged. As a result, it killed the wave. Fortunately, this sandbank started to form again, and so did the waves you can see in this video. We met Aritz Aranburu on our trip to Germany (Comenius 2010)
  37. 37. Effects on economics Tempranillo, viura (Macabeo) and garnacha (grenache) grapes  Some winemakers are actually rejoicing in the higher temperatures of recent years. “Some of the most expensive wines in Spain come from the Rioja Alta and Rioja Alavesa regions,” Pancho Campo, founder and president of the Wine Academy of Spain, says. “They are getting almost perfect ripeness every year now for Tempranillo. This makes the winemakers say, ‘Who cares about climate change? We are getting perfect vintages.’ The same thing has happened in Bordeaux. It is very difficult to tell someone, ‘This is only going to be the case for another few years.’”  The irony is, the wine business is better situated than most to adapt to global warming. Many of the people in the industry followed in their parents’ footsteps and hope to pass the business on to their kids and grandkids someday. This should lead them to think further ahead than the average corporation, with its obsessive focus on this quarter’s financial results. Source: What Climate Change Means for Wine Industry 0 INTRODUCTION about Basque wines Source: 0 Tempranillo wine Source: Basque Research 0 Rioja and global warming Source: Insiderioja
  38. 38. tempranillo The Alaves Rioja is located in the southern tip of the Basque Country. The Basque Country influenced and even promoted wine production throughout the ages, because religious orders located there promoted the art of wine-making. The primary varieties used in red wines of the area are Tempranillo and Graciano, According to University of Navarra researchers, climate change may alter the composition of the Tempranillo grape. Ms Salazar says that the increase in CO2 in the atmosphere could have positive effects on the vine and combat the negative ones: increases in temperature and drought. The increase in CO2 and higher temperatures and water stress shortens the maturing times for the fruit. The rise in temperature possibly affects the quality of the grapes and that can influence the pH of the wine. Another effect of water stress is oxidative damage. Peaches The climate change doesn’t affect only to the grape production, it affects to other fruits like peaches. The University of Navarra is studying how to adapt plants to the climate change.
  39. 39. What is STOP CO2 Euskadi? DEFINITION OBJECTIVES WHO IS INVOLVED KNOW AND ACT News 0 Ecodesign Centre outstanding project 0 30 ecodesign projects 0 Eco-efficiency programmes investments of 12 million euros in its first year 0 French and German governments outline efficiency of Basque companies 0 Over 400 Basque companies are becoming more competitive through eco-efficient actions 0 The Gamesa eco-designed wind turbine, finalist of the Muy Interesante Innovation Award
  40. 40. SOLUTIONS In 2006, The Basque Country set up the Climate Change Office and a plan in line with the Environmental Framework programme 2007- 2010 following the Kyoto Protocol. In 2009, the Basque Country expressed their intention to lead a new development model - a transversal and integrating pillar of the political action of the Basque Government, gathered in the EcoEuskadi 2020 instrument. EcoEuskadi 2020 is a transversal tool designed to articulate public actions towards the project of a country that is economically competitive, innovative and eco-efficient, social united and jointly responsible, committed to the quality of the assets and resources of its natural heritage. In 2011, the Basque Government approved the first Sustainable Development Strategy, called EcoEuskadi 2020. This milestone has positioned the Basque Country among Europe’s most cutting- edge regions in the field of sustainability. EcoEuskadi 2020 is economy, it is ecology and it is the echo of the voice of society as a whole. It will henceforth be the relevant instrument to prepare all public policies. It is a common project constructed by and for Basque citizens. This plan aims to increase the employment level of people between 20 and 64 to 75%, achieve 3% investment in research, development and innovation; reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 20%; reduce the school dropout rate to under 10% (13% now) and the number of people living under the poverty threshold to under 15%. Source: Infography: eitb 02 Basque Country EcoEuskadi 2020 Society has to contribute to a more sustainable global future and cannot stay out of the fight against climate change. There is not another way. For these reason, the Basque Country has made a policy based in two strategic points. First, to fight against climate change and get ready to face its consequences. Secondly, to promote the culture of innovation that allows us to make progress towards a sustainable Basque economy. The Basque plan to fight against the climate change has some performances to reduce and adapt to it. There are 120 concrete immeasurable actions which will be carried out. The Basque Country is already answering the United Nations call to put words into actions because the Basque Country has already started taking action against the climate change. Esther Larrañaga, Former Consellor of Environment and Regional Planning of the Basque Country Former
  41. 41. Source: Infography: eitb 02 Basque Country
  42. 42. Source: EcoEuskadi 2020
  43. 43. ecoeuskadi2020 Strategies towards Sustainable Development. School contribution. Our school took part in the process in 2011
  44. 44. IHOBE About Ihobe 13 Predictions for 2013 Areas of action: Climate Change The Basque Government in action Video: frenar el cambio clímatico es cosa de todos y todas.  Source: INHOBE25urte Madariaga Dorretxea
  45. 45. IHOBE Ihobe is a public corporation whose aim is to support the Basque Government Department for Environment and Spatial Policy in developing its environmental policy and in spreading the culture of environmental sustainability in the Autonomous Community of the Basque Country. Also, Ihobe is the owner of Laboratorio Oleaz (Oleaz Laboratory), located in Zamudio, which carries out the analytic and administrative control of the oil used in the BAC, and in the Madariaga Tower, the Euskadi Biodiversity Centre in Busturia. Ihobe is a public society that works in the field of environmental protection and management. From its original role as a promoter of environmental infrastructures it has grown into a fundamental player in the Basque Government Department of Environment and Spatial Policy Planning: The organization responsible for implementing environmental policy, in co-ordination with the various directorates answerable to the Vice-ministry of the Environment. Ihobe is a well-established organization, and as such it is trying new ideas and projects capable of catching the interest of people in and outside the society. Challenge for 2020: Ihobe set the challenge to become a valuable team that can provide innovative ideas for the new transformation model of the Basque Autonomous Community, EcoEuskadi 2020. Mission: Supporting the Ministry of Environment, Land Use Planning, Agriculture and Fishing of the Basque Government in enabling the environmental policy and in spreading the green sustainability culture within the Basque Autonomous Community.
  46. 46. IHOBE For that purpose: They encourage the production and spreading of environmental knowledge. They co-operate with companies, public authorities and citizens. They contribute and participate actively in improving the environment. Sharing their knowledge and their resources Striving for excellence and social responsibility View: Ihobe should be able in 2012 to appear as: An efficient partner and acknowledged consultant of the Ministry, that uses its experience to give solutions and services in order to fulfil the environmental aims of the Basque Autonomous Community. A proponent of the environmental knowledge, encouraging its production and its spreading. Values: Credibility and involvement Effective management and teamwork Spreading faith in change From our environment and to our environmet
  47. 47. ARTICLES When we talk about climate change, we must refer to a specific location, and I think that each community has to become involved, because climate change impacts are specific for each place. Therefore, if we are talking about the Basque Country, it is absolutely essential that we calculate the specific impacts of climate change there, which can only be addressed by that community," said Rajendra Pachauri, Chairman of the IPCC and winner of the Nobel Peace Prize 2007, in an interview for ETB (public Basque television). Read more Public Service Review reports on the Basque Country's commitment to fighting climate change, and the planning and management processes in place Online article
  48. 48. bc3 ENCORE Public Service Review eitb eitb CREDITS Lifetrasmocho An Oak tour AZTI Basque Research Stop CO2 Euskadi Urdaibai Grainy Mundaka Aritz Aranburu EcoEuskadi 2020 IHOBE