Introduction of Biometrics

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Introduction of Biometrics

  1. 1. Table of Contents 1 Introduction.............................................................................................................................1 History of Biometrics.............................................................................................................3 2 Background.............................................................................................................................4 Advantage & Disadvantage of Biometrics Technology ........................................................5 MindShare Connect Pvt Ltd...................................................................................................6 Comparison of Tradition & Biometrics Systems @ MSC.....................................................7 Working Mechanism of Finger Print System ........................................................................7 Biometrics Technology Overview .........................................................................................7 3 Analysis...................................................................................................................................8 Based on MindShare Connect Pvt Ltd...................................................................................8 Challenges in implementing Biometrics System for MSC....................................................8 MindShare Connect Pvt Ltd Benefits of Biometrics Technology .........................................8 Comparison with the traditional system ................................................................................9 Biometrics Solution Matrix for MSC Pvt Ltd......................................................................10 SWOT Analysis on MSC Biometrics Technology..............................................................13 PEST Analysis on MSC Biometrics Technology................................................................13 Benefits & Disadvantage of Finger Print System (Based on the MSC Staff Review) ........14 4 Conclusion ............................................................................................................................15 Future of Biometrics ............................................................................................................15 References................................................................................................................................17 Appendix Figure 1 Overview of Some Biometrics ....................................................................................1 Figure 2 Basic Criteria for Biometrics Security Systems (Rahultech, 2010) ............................2 Figure 3 Timeline of Biometrics (Shepard, 2007).....................................................................3 Figure 4 Types of Biometrics (Manivannan Padma, 2011).......................................................4 Figure 5 MSC Traditional Attendance System..........................................................................6 Figure 6 MSC Biometrics Attendance System ..........................................................................6 Figure 7 Typical Structure of Finger Print System....................................................................7 Figure 8 MSC Data Accuracy Graph.........................................................................................9 Figure 9 MSC Payroll Process Graph........................................................................................9 Figure 10 Biometrics Solution Matrix Overview ....................................................................11 Figure 11 MSC Biometrics Solution Matrix Result ................................................................12 Figure 12 MSC Finger Print System Benefits .........................................................................14 Figure 13 MSC Finger Print System Disadvantages ...............................................................14
  2. 2. 1 Figure 14 Future in Biometrics Market (Cannon & Cambier, 2011) ......................................16 Table 1 Advantage & Disadvantage of Biometrics Technology ...............................................5 Table 2 Comparison of Traditional & Biometrics System ........................................................7 Table 3 Biometrics Overview ....................................................................................................7 Table 4 Biometrics Comparison Table MSC Pvt Ltd................................................................8 Table 5 Biometrics Comparison MSC.......................................................................................9 Table 6 Swot Analysis MSC....................................................................................................13 Table 7 PEST Analysis MSC...................................................................................................13
  3. 3. 1 1 Introduction From the beginning of the human culture, people are always trying to secure their properties because some people are always eager to snatch others properties. Biometrics is considered as a basic form of identification and access control in today’s 21 century computer science (Bio=Pertaining to biology & Metric’s=Science and art of measurement). In other word, it refers to the identification of human beings by their characteristics (both physical & behavioural). Today’s modern computer society increasingly depends on the systems to provide the secure environment & secure services to its people or the users. It became paramount to ensure the security of a system through means to identify the validity of an individual’s requesting access to it. This process is normally organized by extracting some form of the information from the individual to check against information held by the system about the original users. Biometrics recognition is a key form of authentication which is increasingly used in a wide range of application using advanced pattern recognition algorithms applied through powerful information and communication technologies (ICT). It is also considered as an automated method to accurately recognize individuals based on distinguishing physiological and behavioural traits. It is a subset of the broader field of the science of human identification (ITU, 2009). Technologies used in the biometrics simply include the recognition of the human finger print, faces, eye lens or irises, voices and keystroke patterns as displayed in figure 1. The parts of the human body recognition used even since the dawn of mankind as a means of interpersonal recognition and authentication. Face recognition has been used for a long time since the human started using the passport for unique identification, the person showing the passport and the real owner of the passport is verify by match the face of the person with the photo in the passport. In 19960 the first automated biometrics recognition applications came in effects but the companies did not take off due to its high cost, low accuracy and lack of standards benchmarks for the quality. (1) Fingerprint (2) Iris (3) DNA (4) Keystroke pattern Figure 1 Overview of Some Biometrics
  4. 4. 2 The further the use of biometrics systems, issue of privacy as well as security will need to be carefully addressed as the high levels of expectation in accuracy, reliability, performance, adaptability etc. there are the seven basic criteria for biometrics security such as uniqueness, universality, permanence, collectability, performance, acceptability and circumvention (Schuckers, 2001). Figure 2 Basic Criteria for Biometrics Security Systems (Rahultech, 2010) Nowadays, biometric techniques are used mainly in security operations. For example, they are used in prison visitor system, state benefit payment systems, border control, gold and diamond minds and bank vaults. Clearly these are areas where security is an issue and fraud is a threat. Recent world events have led to an increased interest in security that will propel biometrics into mainstream use. Areas of future use include workstation and network access, Internet transactions, telephone transactions and in travel and tourism (Joseph, 2001). MindShare Pvt Ltd is a professional graphics, web, multimedia and advertising company, launched in the year of 2008 at Kathmandu, the hub of developing Nepal, with innovative visions in the technocratic arena. MSC are leading, next generation Technology Company with strong business interest in web design, graphics design and advertisement. Their spectrum of services includes web design, graphics design, internet marketing, print and online media advertising.
  5. 5. 3 MSC vision and mission is an ambulation of their corporate philosophy and motto of providing the next generation IT services. To envision, design and construct the most magnificent web/graphics to contribute tangibly in overall success of their clients. Quality, customer satisfaction, transparency and corporate business responsibility are the pillars of their vision and mission. At MSC they believe when creativity, technology and marketing combine through strategic planning incredible results are achievable. With the best interests of their clients in mind, their actions are always focused on conversions and business growth. History of Biometrics Authentication is a fundamental component of human interaction with computers. Traditional means of authentication, primarily passwords and personal identification numbers (PINs), have until recently dominated computing, and are likely to remain for years to come. However, stronger degrees of certainty that a user is who he or she claims to be are becoming commonplace. Figure 3 Timeline of Biometrics (Shepard, 2007)
  6. 6. 4 2 Background Biometrics has long being touted as a powerful tool for solving identification and authentication issues for immigration and customs, and computer security. It involves measuring one or more unique physiological human characteristics – the shape of the body, fingerprint, DNA, iris pattern etc. These technologies have enormous promise because they can never be forgotten, lost or copied unlike the current methods of cards and passwords verification. The potential market of biometrics technology grow rapidly in the world after the 9/11attack on (Pentagon) USA by Al Qaeda. Likewise, the several Hollywood/ Bollywood films like (Charlie’s Angels, Total Recall and Mission Istanbul) etc. start using the concept of biometrics. Figure 4 Types of Biometrics (Manivannan Padma, 2011) There are different types of biometrics: Some are ages old; others are new and employ the latest technology. Technological improvement will surely refine older methods and lead to the innovation of new ones. The most popular biometric technologies include fingerprinting, hand geometry, signature verification, voice verification, retinal scanning, iris scanning and facial recognition: Fingerprinting: This is the most well-known non-invasive biometric technique. There are several sub-methods within fingerprinting, with varying degrees of accuracy and precision. Some can even detect when a live finger is present. This method has been refined over the years. Training is an issue with this technique (Joseph, 2001). Hand geometry: This method measures the physical aspects of the hand and fingers. It is easy to use. Voice Verification: A number of such products exist, although flaws exist with regards to local acoustics. This method is still developing and will undoubtedly improve over time. Signature verification: Widely accepted as a means of identification, which is promising in its use as a biometric measure
  7. 7. 5 Retinal scanning: An accurate method, it does require the subject to look into a device and focus on a specific location (Joseph, 2001). This will likely limit consumer acceptance. It is currently considered a marginal biometric technology. Iris scanning: Less intrusive than retinal scanning, this method is easier to use, and has great potential as an identification device. Facial recognition: Unobtrusive detection and verification are the strong points of this technology. Based on the above mentioned technologies we can find much more similar technology working with the basic principal of the biometrics. According to the unfortunate events of 11th September,2001, the pattern of iris scanning is the best one to the recognition process as compare to others because the possibility of having the same iris pattern is 1/1000 million and the population of earth is near 7 million that’s way the probability is at least 1 percentage. No systems can be 100% secure so biometrics can be a very useful for tackling with the security concerns in 21st century. Advantage & Disadvantage of Biometrics Technology Advantage Disadvantage Unique biological features: Biological features like fingerprint, iris etc. is very effective in security. Hence it cannot easily disguise. False reading: A “false acceptance” or “false rejection” kind of technical vulnerability becomes a greatest disadvantage of biometrics. Time saving: Unlike other process biometrics can identified or rejected a user in a couple of second Copying: These system can also scan the duplicate copy of the original hence can be controlled by others. Reduce fraud: It cannot be shared reflects complete security Expensive: Only large business companies can afford these system hence is not economically friendly. Accountability: An individual is responsible to any event in the system and it cannot be forged by others. Unreliable: Technology like voice & iris recognition can be failure in case of sickness like eye problems, throat problems etc. Table 1 Advantage & Disadvantage of Biometrics Technology
  8. 8. 6 MindShare Connect Pvt Ltd Figure 5 MSC Traditional Attendance System Figure 6 MSC Biometrics Attendance System
  9. 9. 7 Comparison of Tradition & Biometrics Systems @ MSC Traditional Paper Based System Advantages Disadvantage MSC don’t have to worry about crashing MSC systems. MSC have to worry about too may paper and staff to compile everything. Biometrics Finger Print System Advantage Disadvantage It helps MSC for payrolls, employees attendance System might crash if not handle properly Table 2 Comparison of Traditional & Biometrics System Working Mechanism of Finger Print System Figure 7 Typical Structure of Finger Print System Biometrics Technology Overview Uses of Biometrics (Main) Error of Biometrics Factors Affecting Biometrics Technology Medical/Forensic False Positive (Innocent people are wrongly identified) Skin Putty/Laser Eye Surgery Business/Educational False Negative (Criminals/Terrorist evade detection) Mirrored Sunglasses/Poor Lighting Security Failure to Enrol (unable to read the characteristic of persons for various reasons) Air & Weather Conditions Table 3 Biometrics Overview
  10. 10. 8 3 Analysis Based on MindShare Connect Pvt Ltd Deploying biometrics to any organization requires a solid understanding of the fundamentals of the technology, including why it is deployed, how it works, and how performance and accuracy are measured. While leading biometrics with MSC Pvt Ltd the following benefits are measured in the time interval of 3 years. MSC implemented the finger print system within the organization to track down the staff evolvement in the organization. Before implementing the finger print system the organization is based on the traditional papers works to hold the record of the staff’s behaviour. Finger Print System (Biometrics System in MSC) Features: 1. Record Staff Attendance 2. Prepare Report Cost: Rs 40,000 Challenges in implementing Biometrics System for MSC First, MSC Pvt Ltd needs the database of the staff including the basic parameters like staff ID, name, classification and address. Then they need to collect the finger print of each of the staff and store them. They need a platform to store them, and then the attendance of the staff like IN o OUT may contain thousands of records each day should store in the centralized repository. They also need an application to read and process the biometrics data to prepare the report. MindShare Connect Pvt Ltd Benefits of Biometrics Technology MSC Traditional Approach (Paper Works) MSC Modern Approach (Biometrics System) Poor Security Security Increased Poor Accountability Accountability Increased Low Convenience Convenience Increased Table 4 Biometrics Comparison Table MSC Pvt Ltd Using Biometrics technology MSC increased the three basic factors for the organizational development. The increased awareness of the security issue in the company has grown more pronounced. Using biometrics finger print to secure the computers provides a high ratio of certainty as what staff accessed what computer at what time. This will directly contribute the company to track the record of each staff and remark their performance. Hence, the efficiency of the company increased. Likewise, traditional methods of authentication like passwords is more likely to forgettable but the biometrics authentication system remains stable with this condition. For any security reasons the newly implemented system stay stronger because biometrics authentication process cannot be copied by others staff or outsider so that the tracking process help in case of the fraud detection process.
  11. 11. 9 Comparison with the traditional system During comparison phase in MSC, I compare the data provide by the company to that of the data with the biometrics finger print system in terms of process effectiveness in preparing the payroll. With the traditional system, it is more difficult to prepare the payroll at the end of every month because the papers based traditional system requires more time and effort. The exiting process doesn’t handle the fraud detection approach. But the biometrics system simplifies the process and the accuracy of the data sectors is improved. Process Effectiveness (For Payroll) Traditional System (Paper Works) Biometrics Finger Print System Data Accuracy Low High Payroll Process Slow Fast (Automated) Fraud Detection Hard to measure Easy to track Table 5 Biometrics Comparison MSC Figure 8 MSC Data Accuracy Graph Figure 9 MSC Payroll Process Graph
  12. 12. 10 From the above, information I conclude that MSC biometrics technology is scalable, cost effective, efficient and easily manageable system. 1. Scalability: MSC can add any new staffs to the system without doing much modification to the system. 2. Cost Effective: The cost is another important factor for the company because calculating the payroll directly includes the time and effort of another staff in the traditional approach but in biometrics system it is managed by the system itself though the system implementation is costly. 3. Efficient: Staffs can view their attendance and the status of their leave. So, MSC can generate the monthly payroll in ease. Also the staff efficiency in the work is strongly increased. Biometrics Solution Matrix for MSC Pvt Ltd The biometrics solution matrix is a guide to deploying biometrics for specific applications, designed to help deployer’s assess the nature of their specific authentication problems. This solution defines the five matrixes such as urgency, scope, exclusivity, effectiveness and receptiveness (Nanavati , Thieme, & Nanavati, 2002). (See Figure Below):
  13. 13. 11 Figure 10 Biometrics Solution Matrix Overview
  14. 14. 12 Figure 11 MSC Biometrics Solution Matrix Result As shown in the figure (Generated accordingly with the help of the interview with Mr Mohan Krishna Maharjan, Managing Director MSC Pvt Ltd) solution matrix, finger print biometrics technology is a moderate solution for the physical access /time and attendance within the company. The limiting factors are described below & they are calculating between (1 to 10 marks): 1. Scope (8/10): The strongest positive factors for finger print system growth are the very broad range of potential use of the technology. The use of biometrics to control movement into areas or to track the attendance is not niche market-there are potentially countless applications for biometrics technology. Not only are the potential locations for this solution innumerable, but the number of staffs who would be enrolled in such systems is also very high.
  15. 15. 13 2. Receptiveness (7/10): These are almost invariably aimed at staffs, who are moderately receptive to the introduction of the technology. Generally speaking this system will view as time & attendance solution which increased the accountability but receptiveness will decreased if solutions do not operate as easily and reliably as the existing authentication methods. 3. Exclusivity (5/10): Biometrics Finger print system might be only solution to an authentication problems or one of many potential solutions. They are stronger solutions in applications in which they are the only viable alternative to an authentication problem. 4. Urgency (6/10): An authentication problem may be deemed urgent as the result of substantial risk to valuable data, assets, revenues or company safety. Less urgent problems may direct less risk to these elements biometrics deployment become more important to a company where the authentication problem they must solve urgent. 5. Effectiveness (6/10): When the biometrics system deployed correctly can solve the problems through the verification and identification or through simple deterrence but the situation in which neither of these approaches is effective. SWOT Analysis on MSC Biometrics Technology SWOT Analysis of MSC Biometrics Finger Print System Strength  Very Secure  Uniqueness  Ease of capture Weakness  Latent prints, cuts and dirt can mar image  Subject to spoofing attempts Opportunities  Law enforcement of company database Threats  Data Accuracy  Validity of machine accuracy Table 6 Swot Analysis MSC PEST Analysis on MSC Biometrics Technology PEST Analysis of MSC Biometrics Finger Print System Political  Bureaucracy Influence  Legal issues & regulations  Philosophy or Ideology of political party & the government in power (Security Standard in Nepal) Economic  Business Confidence  Insurance Claims  Impact of taxation Technology  Ability to provide flexible and robust solution  Enforcing the new technology  Data Transmission  Internet based marketing Social  Society Attitude to privacy & protection (Fear To Use)  Environmental impact of security products  Ageing population Table 7 PEST Analysis MSC
  16. 16. 14 Benefits & Disadvantage of Finger Print System (Based on the MSC Staff Review) Figure 12 MSC Finger Print System Benefits Figure 13 MSC Finger Print System Disadvantages
  17. 17. 15 4 Conclusion In conclusion, biometrics technology is a new technology for most of us because it has only been implemented in public for the short period of time. There we can find much more application working in the fields of biometrics technology which has many advantages that can improve human lives such as improved security and effectiveness, reduced fraud and password administrator costs, ease of use and makes live more comfortable. Though having huge number of problems like information privacy, physical privacy and religious objectives etc. but incorporate some meaningful advantages to the mankind (Nanavati , Thieme, & Nanavati, 2002). Although at present biometrics has limited mainstream usage, biometrics has found a home in popular culture, specifically the movies. Movies have used biometrics in sci-fi or adventure films, including such movies as Total Recall and Charlie’s Angels. Examples of biometrics in movies include forged identities through high tech facemasks, voice disguise, forged hands or fingerprints, even false retinal images through the use of contact lenses. Whether the movies are prophetic in depicting how easily biometrics can be circumnavigated remains to be seen. Without question, as with all security measures, there will always be those who seek to evade detection. Future of Biometrics Criminal Identification (Today’s Trends Finger Print Search in the local, nation & international databases) is the use of biometrics technology to identify the identity of the suspect, detainee, or individuals in a law enforcement application. The primary role is to identify the individuals in order to conduct the law enforcement (Nanavati , Thieme, & Nanavati, 2002). Growth in the criminal identification market will be driven by the advent of inexpensive, functional solution that expands biometrics capabilities into new jurisdictions and environment. Price is a major factor in criminal identification systems, since the live-scan acquisition cost millions of dollars. The advent of automated DNA solutions could have a tremendous impact on the criminal identification market. Databases with criminal DNA sample were already being populated and searched in USA. Not only is the population of these databases a basic precondition for high scale searching based on DNA samples, but the efforts are under way to streamline and automate the matching process. Citizen Identification will be driven by various a situation in which strong authentication of citizen is a necessity. Many countries like Nepal lack of verifying citizens. The use of biometrics to provide government services because it provides benefits to both government and the citizens is accepted to be the biometrics revenue growth. Citizen Identification capable of carrying information such as Voters Registration, Issuance Cards, and emergency medical information will also drive the use of biometrics citizen identification.
  18. 18. 16 Surveillance is the use of biometrics to identify the identity of individuals present in the given space at the point of time. Today’s trends biometrics surveillance system in mainly functional in the casinos, traffic police sectors & as well as organization sectors like education, banks, hotels etc. through the automated surveillance cameras. The two factors may inhibit the surveillance system i.e. performance & privacy. Facial technology of biometrics is not idealized for the use in the surveillance system application. The angle, distance, lighting and temporal change introduced between initial image captured and subsequent identification attempts reduce the accuracy. The following figures clarify the glorious future of biometrics technology. Figure 14 Future in Biometrics Market (Cannon & Cambier, 2011)
  19. 19. 17 References Cannon, G., & Cambier, J. (2011, 9 26). A Future In Biometrics. CroosMatch Technologies. Chien, L. (2011, 11 28). A Survey of Biometrics Security Systems. Retrieved 11 25, 2013, from http://www.cs.wustl.edu/~jain/cse571-11/ftp/biomet.pdf ITU. (2009, 10). Biometrics and Standards. Retrieved 11 05, 2013 Joseph, A. (2001). Biometrics. 2. Manivannan Padma. (2011, May 05). Comparative and Analysis of Biometrics Systems. Retrieved 12 21, 2013, from http://www.enggjournals.com/ijcse/doc/IJCSE11-03-05- 199.pdf Nanavati , S., Thieme, M., & Nanavati, R. (2002). Biometrics. New Delhi: Wiley Dreamtech (P) Ltd. Schuckers, M. E. (2001). Some Statistical Aspects of Biometrics Identification Device Performance. Shepard, K. (2007, August 09). National Sciences and Technology Council. Retrieved December 20, 2013, from www.biometrics.gov Sasankar, A. B., & Chavan, D. V. (2011, 9). SWOT Analysis of Software Development Process Model. Retrieved 1 02, 2013, from www.IJCSI.org SECAS. (2011, Jul 25). SWOT Analysis and Strategy Recommendation. Retrieved from www.secas.eu Industrial Visit Objectives. (n.d.). Retrieved 12 29, 2012, from http://xa.yimg.com/kq/groups/24776922/1859611614/name/Industrial+visit+objectives+_for +students_.pdf Security Magazine | The business magazine for security executives. 2013.Security Magazine | The business magazine for security executives. [ONLINE] Available at:http://www.securitymagazine.com/CDA/Articles/Technologies/c99810eaa34d8010 VgnVCM100000f932a8c0. [Accessed 20 December 2013]. ;login: | USENIX. 2013. ;login: | USENIX. [ONLINE] Available at:http://www.usenix.org/publications/login/1999-8/features/biometrics.html. [Accessed 20 December 2013].

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