A Bidding System In Football "Football Fantasy"

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Document Include the comparative study over the various factors in the football bidding culture and its fantasy.

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A Bidding System In Football "Football Fantasy"

  1. 1. Table of Contents Chapter 1: Introduction........................................................................................................ 1 1.1 Motivational Factors ........................................................................................................ 2 1.2 Aim & Objectives: ........................................................................................................... 3 1.2.1 Project Objectives:.................................................................................................. 3 1.3 Scope of the Project.......................................................................................................... 4 1.4 Project Deliverables ......................................................................................................... 5 1.5 Outline of proposed system.............................................................................................. 5 1.6 Project Plan ...................................................................................................................... 6 1.7 Summary of the chapter ................................................................................................... 6 Chapter 2: Literature Review.......................................................................................................... 6 2.1 Objectives of this chapter...................................................................................................... 6 2.2 Introduction........................................................................................................................... 6 2.3 Background & Research........................................................................................................ 6 FOOTBALL IN NEPAL ......................................................................................................... 7 2.3.1 Prediction ...................................................................................................................... 8 2.3.2 English Premier League............................................................................................... 8 2.3.3 The Prediction Football Phenomenon ...................................................................... 13 2.3.4 Fan Loyalty ................................................................................................................. 13 2.3.5 The Television Audience ............................................................................................ 14 2.3.6 Stadium Attendance ................................................................................................... 14 2.3.7 Premier League Fan ......................................................................................................... 14 2.4 Socio Economic Groups in Football (SEG)........................................................................ 14 2.5 Impact of television and internet on the match attendance ................................................. 15 2.6 Analysis of Premier League Fans........................................................................................ 15 2.6.1 www.predictfootballscore.com: ....................................................................................... 18 2.7 Online Football Portal in Nepal .......................................................................................... 22 2.7.1 www.goalnepal.com (Domestic)................................................................................. 22 2.8 Football and Internet ........................................................................................................... 23 2.9 Chapter Summary................................................................................................................ 24
  2. 2. B Chapter 3: Development/Methodology......................................................................................... 24 3.1 Objective of this Chapter..................................................................................................... 24 3.2 Introduction......................................................................................................................... 24 3.3 Available Methodology....................................................................................................... 24 3.3.1 Waterfall model .......................................................................................................... 25 3.3.2 Spiral methodology..................................................................................................... 26 3.3.3 Prototyping.................................................................................................................. 27 3.3.4 Incremental Model ..................................................................................................... 28 3.3.5 Rapid Application Development (RAD) Model....................................................... 30 3.3.6 Hybrid Paradigm........................................................................................................ 31 3.4 Chosen Methodology .......................................................................................................... 31 3.5 Justification of Chosen Methodology ................................................................................. 31 3.5.1 Waterfall Model.......................................................................................................... 31 3.5.2 Prototyping.................................................................................................................. 31 3.5.3 Spiral Model................................................................................................................ 32 3.5.4 Incremental Model ..................................................................................................... 32 3.5.5 Rapid Application Development ............................................................................... 32 Chapter 4: Requirements Gathering.............................................................................................. 34 4.1. Objectives of this chapter................................................................................................... 34 4.2. Introduction........................................................................................................................ 34 4.3 Intended Audience......................................................................................................... 34 4.3. Plan of action for requirement analysis.............................................................................. 35 4.4. Fact finding techniques followed in requirement analysis................................................. 36 4.4.1 Background Study...................................................................................................... 36 4.4.2 Discussion/Virtual Interview ..................................................................................... 36 4.4.2.1 Objectives of Social Media Survey......................................................................... 36 4.4.3 Questionnaire/Online Survey........................................................................................... 37 4.4.3.1 Obstacles Occurred ................................................................................................. 37 4.5. Outcome of Fact finding techniques .................................................................................. 37 4.6. Hawk Eye description of the proposed system .................................................................. 37 4.8. Users in the proposed system............................................................................................. 38
  3. 3. C 4.9 Functional Requirements................................................................................................ 39 4.9.1 User Registration ........................................................................................................ 39 4.9.2 Login & Authentication ............................................................................................. 39 4.9.3 Make Prediction.......................................................................................................... 40 4.9.4 Point Calculation ........................................................................................................ 41 4.10 Non-Functional Requirements .......................................................................................... 42 4.11 Summary of this chapter ................................................................................................... 44 Chapter 5: System Design............................................................................................................. 45 5.1 Introduction.................................................................................................................... 45 5.2 Purposes .............................................................................................................................. 45 5.3 Intended Audience and Reading Suggestion:...................................................................... 45 5.4 Use Case Diagrams ............................................................................................................. 46 5.5 Activity Diagrams ............................................................................................................... 55 5.6 Sequence Diagram............................................................................................................... 61 5.7 ER Diagram......................................................................................................................... 75 5.8 Data Flow Diagram............................................................................................................. 76 5.9 Wire Framing (Interface Design)........................................................................................ 78 5.10 Website Architecture......................................................................................................... 79 5.11 Summary of this chapter ................................................................................................... 79 Chapter 6: System Testing and Implementation........................................................................... 80 6.1. Objectives of this chapter................................................................................................... 80 6.2. Testing overview................................................................................................................ 80 6.3. Testing Strategy.................................................................................................................. 80 6.4. Test Plan............................................................................................................................. 80 6.4.1. Use case Test Plan...................................................................................................... 81 6.4.2 Validation Test Plan................................................................................................... 82 6.5. Test Log.............................................................................................................................. 83 6.5.1. Use Case test Log ....................................................................................................... 83 6.5.2. Validation test Log ...................................................................................................... 95 6.5.3 Black Box Testing For Insert, Update & Delete Fixtures By Admin..................... 96 6.7. Implementation Plan .......................................................................................................... 97
  4. 4. D 6.7.1. Processes in Implementation plan............................................................................ 97 6.7.2. Identification of tools................................................................................................. 97 6.7.3. Installation of the system .......................................................................................... 98 6.8. User Training...................................................................................................................... 99 6.9 Summary of this chapter ..................................................................................................... 99 Chapter 7: System Evaluation..................................................................................................... 100 7.1 Objectives of this chapter.................................................................................................. 100 7.2 Overview on system evaluation ........................................................................................ 100 7.3 System evaluation techniques ........................................................................................... 100 7.4 System Evaluation Form Sample...................................................................................... 101 7.5 User requirement checklist................................................................................................ 102 7.6 Evaluation of the Prototype............................................................................................... 102 7.7 Evaluation of the whole system ........................................................................................ 102 7.8 Findings of the evaluation................................................................................................. 102 7.9 Summary of this chapter ................................................................................................... 102 Chapter 8: Conclusion................................................................................................................. 103 8.1. Objectives of this chapter................................................................................................. 103 8.2. Introduction...................................................................................................................... 103 8.3. Project Achievements....................................................................................................... 103 8.4. Future Escalations ............................................................................................................ 104 8.5. Problems encountered ...................................................................................................... 105 8.6 Social Issues & Ethical Issues........................................................................................... 106 8.6.2 Legal Issues ............................................................................................................... 107 8.8. Summary of this chapter .................................................................................................. 107 References................................................................................................................................... 108 LIST OF TABLES Table 1 Scope of Bhakundo.com.................................................................................................. 5 Table 2 List of EPL Clubs 2013................................................................................................. 12 Table 3 Advantages & Disadvantages of Waterfall Model..................................................... 25 Table 4 Advantages & Disadvantage of Spiral Model............................................................. 27 Table 5 Advantages & Disadvantage of Prototyping Model................................................... 28 Table 6 Advantages & Disadvantage of Incremental Model .................................................. 29
  5. 5. E Table 7 Advantages & Disadvantage of RAD Model .............................................................. 30 Table 8 Academic Considerations............................................................................................. 31 Table 9 Requirement Gathering Plan....................................................................................... 35 Table 10 Users in the System ..................................................................................................... 39 Table 11 Test Plan ........................................................................................................................ 82 Table 12 Unit Testing ................................................................................................................... 88 Table 13 Validation Testing.......................................................................................................... 95 Table 14 Black Box Testing ......................................................................................................... 97 Table 15 Evaluation Process....................................................................................................... 100 Table 16 Evaluation Form Examples.......................................................................................... 101 Table 17 List of Achievements from the Project........................................................................ 104 Table 18 Extra Features for the Future ....................................................................................... 105 LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1 Working Mechanism..................................................................................................... 5 Figure 2 Officials Premier League Logo (Hammam, 2013).................................................... 10 Figure 3 An early game of football............................................................................................ 13 Figure 4 Average audiences on television & internet .............................................................. 15 Figure 5 Analysis of Football Fans............................................................................................ 16 Figure 6 Fans based on clubs..................................................................................................... 16 Figure 7: Survey on Football Fans (Centre, 2008)................................................................... 17 Figure 8: Survey on Football fan using websites (Nagle, Dodd, & Ellis, 2010)..................... 18 Figure 9: Interface of www.predicfootballscore.com (Game, 2007) ...................................... 19 Figure 10: Interface of www.totalfootballpredict.com ............................................................ 20 Figure 11 Interface of www.playfantacy.com (Services, playfantacy, 2011) .............................. 21 Figure 12: Interface of www.goal.com (Goal, 2012) ................................................................ 22 Figure 13 GoalNepal.com Interface .......................................................................................... 23 Figure 14 Best Football Website (edailylife, 2013)................................................................... 23 Figure 15: Figure showing Waterfall model............................................................................. 25 Figure 16 Figure showing Spiral Model (Purcell, 2008).......................................................... 27 Figure 17 Figure showing prototyping (istqbexamcertification)............................................ 28 Figure 18 Incremental Model (istqbexamcertification)........................................................... 29 Figure 19 RAD Figure (24point0).............................................................................................. 30 Figure 20 Obstacles Occurred....................................................................................................... 37 Figure 21 Overview of the System............................................................................................. 38 Figure 22 Use Case Hawk Eye ..................................................................................................... 46 Figure 23 Use Case Login Process ............................................................................................... 47 Figure 24 Use Case Password Change.......................................................................................... 48 Figure 25 Use Case Password Change.......................................................................................... 49
  6. 6. F Figure 26 Use Case Insert, Update & Delete Fixtures.................................................................. 50 Figure 27 Use Case Make Prediction............................................................................................ 51 Figure 28 Use Case Insert Result.................................................................................................. 52 Figure 29 Use Case Point Calculation .......................................................................................... 53 Figure 30Use Case Sign Up Process............................................................................................. 54 Figure 31 Activity Diagram New User Creation .......................................................................... 55 Figure 32 Activity Diagram Login Process .................................................................................. 56 Figure 33 Activity Diagram (Insert Update & Delete Fixture)..................................................... 57 Figure 34 Activity Diagram (Insert, Update & Delete Result)..................................................... 58 Figure 35 Activity Diagram Manage Fixture................................................................................ 59 Figure 36 Activity Diagram Make Prediction .............................................................................. 60 Figure 37 Sequence Diagram SingUP Process ............................................................................. 61 Figure 38 Sequence Diagram Login Process................................................................................ 62 Figure 39 Sequence Diagram Key Use Case ................................................................................ 63 Figure 40 Sequence Insert Fixtures............................................................................................... 64 Figure 41 Sequence Diagram Update Fixtures ............................................................................. 65 Figure 42 Sequence Delete Fixtures ............................................................................................. 66 Figure 43 Sequence Diagram get fixtures..................................................................................... 67 Figure 44 Sequence Diagram Make Prediction ............................................................................ 68 Figure 45Sequence Diagram Insert result..................................................................................... 69 Figure 46 Sequence Diagram Calculate Point .............................................................................. 70 Figure 47 Sequence Diagram........................................................................................................ 71 Figure 48 Sequence Diagram User Prediction Hawk Eye............................................................ 72 Figure 49 Sequence Diagram User Prediction Details ................................................................. 73 Figure 50 Sequence Diagram Rank Report .................................................................................. 74 Figure 51 Entity Relationship Diagram.................................................................................... 75 Figure 52 Context Level DFD ...................................................................................................... 76 Figure 53 Level 1 DFD................................................................................................................. 77 Figure 54 Wire Frame Design of Home Page............................................................................... 78 Figure 55 Website Architecture.................................................................................................... 79
  7. 7. G
  8. 8. Keyword Description EPL English Premier League FIFA Federation of International Football Association Fixtures Represent the football match between teams Admin Special user who control the entire website Unregistered User Guest User refers to those users who are not registered in the system. Registered Users Normal user who was already registered into the system Prediction An act of making decision before the actual event occurs. Bhakundo “An online portal football score prediction” Prediction An act of guessing the result before the event takes place. Website A place on world wide web Predictor The user who predict the result
  9. 9. 1 Chapter 1: Introduction The game of football in not a modern sport it has been played in one form or another for at least 2500 years. The Chinese game of cuju, involving the attempts to kick a leather ball through a hole in a large cloth, was played during the Han dynasty. The Roman plays ‘Harpastum’ a team game adapted from Greek version ‘pheninda’ and the development of ball skills became an essential part in the Roman Empire. This timelessness and universality of football suggests that it may somehow be ingrained in what we take to be human nature. Association football, soccer, or simply football is a team sport played between two teams each consisting of eleven players. It is a ball game played on a rectangular grass (sometimes of the artificial turf grass) ground with a goal post at each end. The solo objective of the game is to score by maneuvering the spheroid ball into the opponent. Others than the goalkeepers no any players can touch the ball with the hand during the game. This sport is known as many name in the different countries the world such as soccer in the native Latin countries, association football in some American countries and ‘Bhakundo’ in Nepal. The recognized international body of football (and associated games like futsal and beach soccer) is the Federation International de Football Association (FIFA). The FIFA headquarters is located in Zurich, Switzerland. And for the regional level there are six confederations that are associated with FIFA. They are AFC (Asia) CAF (Africa), UEFA (Europe), OFC (Oceania), CONMEBOL (South Africa) & CONCACAF (North America) (Williams, 1994). Football has been the world’s most popular sport, at least since the late nine-tenth century and its international diffusion by the British. The global game spans culturally diverse societies in all continents; an estimated 250 million people are direct participants, around 1.4 billion have an interest and football flagship tournament, FIFA World Cup Finals attracts a cumulative global television audience of 33.4 billion. Football, just a word that describes the interrelated passion, emotion, dedication and also nationality in a boundary across the world. Football provides many fans to an opportunity to let them go emotionally to release the frustration of everyday life. Football fan finds themselves as the twelfth man in the game of the eleven one. The way that the football fans cry, songs and wave their country/club banner all play an important role for the players to discover their qualities and performed their best in the match (Centre, 2008). Bhakundo.com has emerged as a male-bonding experience for our online prediction society (Christ, 2010). Nowadays online markets impact each and every sector of the human life that’s the reason why people are very much interested in the online gaming. Apart from this online gaming football has its own identity and nature to which it became so popular in the world. These concepts of prediction also very much related just like online bidding but not at all. Not only football fan but also the other sport fans are interested in predicting the results of the matches. Predicting nature in sports is interesting as research problems because a sport result are dependent on the many factors such as skills, morale of the player, team current score etc. Due to
  10. 10. 2 which football developed itself as the world popular sports activities that’s why its research area contains a big problems domain. Among the different sports prediction football prediction is one of the most widely used researched area. Football score prediction is very easy and similar to the online casino but it accepts the zero investment from the user. There we find the source of entertainment and reward as well if we make the correct prediction. Prediction system work as a rating system with a quantitative measure of the superiority of one football team over their opposition team in a football match. Such quality is considered by comparing and analyzing the different aspects of the historical performance. Prediction is popular online computer game, business model and soccer club that has attracted extensive media and supporter interest. Through 2007 and 2008, headlines from around the world announcing prediction spread beyond sports stories to current affairs, business and technology news, so indicating its novelty and news value. Elaborating the story of prediction culture in football is helpful in understanding both the markets aspect as well as popularity aspects. Actually this prediction system differs from the rating system because it more focus on the goal point not in the league ranking. Simply, in this system we predict the score between any two teams playing in the English Premier League. Here the users predict his prediction over the different matches from the EPL and the database administrator insert the real match results to the database. Then the system calculates the match point gain by the different user based on the prediction made earlier. When the predictions is 100% correct then 3 points added to the users account or user profile and in case of one side correct prediction then 1 points is added (Services, PlayFantacy, 2011). Finally no point is provided for the wrong prediction made. There are no rules for point deduction in case of wrong prediction. Besides this attributes this online portal contains the user login section from the verification of the different user as well as commenting section for user refreshment. Finally at the end of every month one winner is declared from the users based the total no of points gain to that month and there is special rewards for the monthly winners. 1.1 Motivational Factors The last couple of years have been a long bumpy ride for me, as they have for everyone my age. As a personal participant in this “game” we call life, I would say clearly that without football it can’t be great. As a student, I am an active participant in my academic and extracurricular activities. Taking an account of consideration with extracurricular activities I am an amateur football player from my childhood. I used to watch football matches regularly after the 2002 FIFA World Cup Final between Brazil vs. Germany. Meanwhile, during the 2002 world cup Raul Gonzalez Striker of Spanish team impressed me a lot. As a result I was drag into Spanish Football and Real Madrid. These passions of football drag me into the situation that I cannot even stay quiet for the weekend if there is no football matches. Now, I am an active football fans
  11. 11. 3 playing football in the local level and enjoying the different fantasy in the internet about the football. For this online prediction portal, during the second year of my computing degree at Islington College, Lecturer Sanjib Udas (2nd Year “Professional Development for Computing” Module Leader) asked to submit the project title with scope for the final year project for the 3rd year. In the other hand, I was enjoying the football fantasy through (fantasy.premierleague.com) in a group of my classmate from Islington College. Normally, in our group one winner is declared by the fantasy premier league as the weekly winner for the specific game week, and remaining looser need to pay him certain amount as mentioned before joining the group. So the concept is that I decide to develop a portal (for final year project next year) for early prediction of the football matches but due to technical, knowledgably skills, time frame I left the fantasy part and concern more about the match score prediction. At the very moment, I presented my concept to my module leader through presentation (see appendix for presentation). 1.2 Aim & Objectives: The main aim of this proposal is to develop an online prediction system for the football fan around the world where user can prediction the different football match of different categories. During the development of any project there must be some sorts of objectives. The objectives are the realistic target of the project. “The goal (aim) is where we want to be & the objectives are the steps to get there” (University, 2007). Thus this project also contains some SMART objectives as well as long term objectives. 1.2.1 Project Objectives: The smart objectives must satisfy all the five different points which are briefly describe here (University, 2007): 1.2.1.1 S: S means how specific the project is in addition to the terms like systematic, shifting can also apply. 1.2.1.2 M:M means measurable but also in addition to the magical, motivational, meaningful 1.2.1.3 A: A means achievable goal and It specifies that the objectives are achievable or not. 1.2.1.4 R: R means realistic and it describes that the objectives can be gain within the resources available. 1.2.1.5 T: It talks about the time frame of the project to gain those objectives The project objectives (including smart) satisfying the different above mentioned goal are given below:
  12. 12. 4 1.2.1.6 To make system that evokes user to contribute to the portal about the prediction culture 1.2.1.7 The decrease the gap of communication between the football fan & the football information. 1.2.1.8 To enable user to the regular football update on the recent football information. 1.2.1.9 To make user to share the culture of football fantasy as well as prediction that they are supporting and watching the club result. 1.2.1.10 To enhance the interaction between the project sponsor and the system in order to increase the sponsor satisfaction by the end of the project submission deadline (SMART). 1.2.1.11 To develop the scope of the ultimate football possibilities in the developing country like Nepal (Long Term Objectives after project launched) 1.2.1.12 To use online as well as offline communication to attract user to the online system and deliver the effective message to them. (Long Term Objectives) 1.3 Scope of the Project Normally the scope of any project refers the operating boundary of the system. Scope of the project is required to limit the boundless requirements of the system. The scope of the project is given below under following components. Components Scope Guest Registration & Authentication Here new user to the system get registered by using the personal information required by the system. Fixtures View Here a logged in user can view the different match day fixtures of the EPL. User Prediction Here a user can predict the score for the desire match available in the fixtures. Control Panel For this component a system admin can manage the fixture (insert fixture, update & delete fixtures), manage the results (insert,
  13. 13. 5 update & delete results) and generate the rank based on the user correct prediction points. Table 1 Scope of Bhakundo.com 1.4 Project Deliverables The project deliverables at the various stage of development are mentioned below: 1.4.1 Project Document such as Project Plan, SRS (Software Requirement Specification), Design Specification, Test Plan, Project Evaluation Documents etc. 1.4.2 Administrative Control Panel for the Admin. 1.4.3 The interactive web portal for the football fans. 1.5 Outline of proposed system This online portal is intended to focus the prediction culture in today’s football community. This online portal will contain information about football match including the recent news, transfer gossips, rumour etc. This project doesn’t only focus on the English premier league but also the Spanish, Champions, French, Germany, Italian, and as well as Nepali Football League fixtures can be predicted. But in the initial phase, this project is only focus on the English football league. Database Web Services User Login/Register Get Fixtures Get Predictions Get Results Proceed Presentation Layer Service Level Storage Level Figure 1 Working Mechanism
  14. 14. 6 1.6 Project Plan Project Plan is placed in the appendix section 1.7 Summary of the chapter This chapter provides the overview of the portal by describing the introduction of the project topic, motivations behind the project, aims and objectives of the project, scope of the project, information about problem domain and finally the project plan. Chapter 2: Literature Review 2.1 Objectives of this chapter The objective of this chapter is to give detail overview on the study of the scope that we deal on this project. This chapter gives detail background about existing movie communities around the globe. 2.2 Introduction Literature review section defines the critical and deep evaluation of the various researches done about the project topics. It reflects the brief description of the analysis or the research done. Literature review section is also identified as the background to the study and helps us to get detail idea about particular field of research. (Martyn Shuttleworth, 2009) 2.3 Background & Research Football normally refers the sports, where a ball is kicked by the player foot to score a goal in order to win the match. It is also commonly known as “soccer” or “football” or “association football” (Williams, 1994). Football, the act of playing ball with feet with in the given boundary and to put the ball into oppositions net which is called scoring a goal. The team that manages to score most goals in the given time is declared the winner. The size of a football ground must be (90 meter minimum - 120 meter maximum )long and (45 meter minimum - 90 meter maximum )wide It has to be one of the oldest and certainly the most popular sports to mankind. The rules of play have changed as it keeps evolving. The word "football" has been used to refer other sports too in different parts of the world such as rugby/handball in the USA. Various forms of football are found in the history of football, it was made popular by the British Empire in the 18th century. The British private schools are credited for the start of modern era of football during the 16th century, it was their teachers and students who decided how football was played and by turning it to a organized sports they made the kicking and running part of football clear. Books were written after that describing how football is played. In early days football was played with hands too. Richard Mulcastar is known as the greatest sixteenth century advocate of football who was a student at Elton college in early 16th century.
  15. 15. 7 There have been many attempts to ban football due to its boisterous nature but that didn't go through. Sports clubs started playing dedicated football since the 18th century. According to Wikipedia, two of the oldest clubs that started playing football were the Barnes Club, founded in 1839, and Guy's Hospital Football Club which was founded in 1843. Dublin University Football Club founded in 1854 is the world's oldest documented football club. The FIFA states that three boys were tasked at Rugby school with codifying the rules to be used at the school in 1985. These were the first set of written rules (or code) for any form of football. Cordner-Eggleston Cup, which started since 1858 is one of the longest running football fixture contested every year between Melbourne Grammar School and Scotch College, Melbourne. Football started getting its popularity and become more global game after they started playing it on national levels and international competition started. FIFA was founded in 1904; it tried to arrange an international football tournament between nations outside the Olympic framework in Switzerland in 1906. These were very early days for international football, and the official history of FIFA describes the competition as having been a failure. FOOTBALL IN NEPAL Football is the most popular sports in Nepal with a shadow of doubt. Although Nepal hasn’t had success on international level everyone loves the game in Nepal. People started playing football in the Rana regime in early ages of the 19th century (Wikipedia). Football was introduced in Nepal by some young players who went abroad and learned how to play. Huge mass of people gathered to watch football and it became an instant hit. Kids started playing football using homemade ball in every town. According to ta ANFA (All Nepal Football Association) the teams like Mahabir-11, N R T-11, Jawalakhel-11, and Public Institute-11 were established in 1934. The football tournament was organized for the first time in institutional way in 1934. In which 12 teams had participated. In that tournament, the team of Jawalakhel club led by Nar Shumsher had secured first position (Wikipedia). At that time, the chief of Public team Mr. Najarman Singh told that his team had got support and encouragement from Trichandra campus and audience (Wikipedia). The tournament was a huge success, attendance was very huge but due to political reasons the government banned football in Nepal. Later on a football committee was formed to keep an eye on game and ban was lifted. In 1947, Tribhuvan Challenge Shield was introduced by late King Tribhuvan for the development of this football game which was organized at Tudikhel in front of Haribhavan. In that tournament Naresh-11team led by Nar Shumsher secured first position and N. R. T. team secured second position. In the same year Shree 3 Padma Shumsher introduced "Ramjanaki cup" which was continuously won thrice by Police Force team. The same cup was again introduced
  16. 16. 8 but was renamed as Marty's Memorial League football and hence League matches were introduced in Nepal. For the further growth and management of football league ANFA was founded in 1951 and got the affiliation to FIFA in 1970. Current president of ANFA is Mr. Ganesh Thapa (Wikipedia). 2.3.1 Prediction Prediction is a statement about the way things will happen in the future, often but not always based on experience or knowledge. Predicting the outcome of sporting event is a business which has grown popularity in recent years. Recent times have changed the way sports are predicted. Predictions now typically consist of two distinct approaches; situational plays and statistical approach. The widespread of the information system in the 21st century had changed the prediction system completely. Nowadays more often online prediction takes place in markets. These online prediction systems have their own business value and the business algorithm (Burke, 2008). 2.3.2 English Premier League The premier league is an annual league football competition running from August through May. It involves 20 professional football clubs and represents the top division of the English football league structure. The English Premier League is an English professional league for men's association football clubs. At the top of the English football league system, it is the country's primary football competition. Contested by 20 clubs, it operates on a system of promotion and relegation within the Football League. Besides English clubs, some of the Welsh clubs can also qualify to play, and participation by some Scottish or Irish clubs has also been mooted (Hammam, 2013). The English premier league started from 20th February 1992. It is known as Barclay’s premier league as the sponsor is Barclays bank. Barclay’s premier league is the most watched football league in the world viewed in more than 200 countries believed to watch in more than 643 million homes and expected viewers of 4.7 billion people. It stands on second position on the highest earning sports organization after Bundesliga. 45 clubs have participated on the English premiere league since its formation and only 5 have won the title, Manchester united being the most successful, arsenal and Chelsea have won it 3 times each and Manchester city and Blackburn rovers have won it once each. Manchester united is the current champion. The 19th century marked the golden period of English football, despite that success in the late 80's English football was on demise compared to the European standard. They were banned from European football for 5 years after the Hansel stadium disaster in 1985. Football hooliganism was on rise, English league was well behind the likes of Italian league and laliga from Spain which resulted on English players going abroad to play football. However 90's started pretty well
  17. 17. 9 for England, after the establishment of new English premiere league normal services were resumed, English football was on rise. 20 clubs compete on each premiere league season playing a double round system where every team meets another team twice, once in home stadium and once away stadium. Each club play 38 games making 380 games in total each premiere league season. Every team receives 3 points for a game won, 1 point for draw. Teams are ranked by total points, then goal difference, and then goals scored. At the end of every season the club with most points is crowned the champions. If points are equal, the goal difference and then goals scored determine the winner. The top four teams qualify for the UEFA champion’s league from English premiere league. Top 3 qualifying directly to group stages and the fourth placed team qualifies for the champion’s league playoff round. The team placed fifth in the Premier League automatically qualifies for the UEFA Europa League, and the sixth and seventh-place teams can also qualify, depending on the winners and runners-up of the two domestic cup competitions. The Premier League is a corporation in which the 20 member clubs act as shareholders. Seasons run from August to May, with teams playing 38 matches each, totalling 380 matches in the season. Most games are played in the afternoons of Saturdays and Sundays, the other games during weekday evenings. It is currently sponsored by Barclays Bank and thus officially known as the Barclays Premier League. Outside of England it is commonly referred to as the English Premier League (EPL) (Premier League, 1992). The competition formed as the FA Premier League on 20 February 1992 following the decision of clubs in the Football League First Division to break away from the football league, which was originally founded in 1888, and take advantage of a lucrative television rights deal. This deal is worth £1 billion a year as of 2013–14, with BSkyB and BT Group securing the rights to broadcast 116 and 38 games respectively (Hammam, 2013). The Premier League is the most- watched football league in the world, broadcast in 212 territories to 643 million homes and a potential TV audience of 4.7 billion people. In the 2010–11 season the average Premier League attendance was 35,363, the second highest of any professional football league behind the German Bundesliga, and stadium occupancy was 92.2% capacity. The Premier League ranked second in the Union of European Football Associations (UEFA) coefficients of leagues based on performances in European competitions over the last five years. Since 1888, a total of 23 clubs have been crowned champions of the English football system. Of the 46 clubs to have competed since the inception of the Premier League in 1992, five have won the title: Manchester United (13), Arsenal (3), Chelsea (3), Blackburn Rovers (1) and Manchester City (1). The current champions are Manchester United, who won the title in the 2012– 13 seasons (Hammam, 2013). English Premier League Big Matches
  18. 18. 10 Defined as the league matches between the premier league clubs challenge on their title, derby matches, title deciders, relegation deciders and matches that determine who will qualify for the Champion league. Figure 2 Officials Premier League Logo (Hammam, 2013) Clubs Playing Premier League this seasons (2013/14) Arsenal Arsenal Football Club is an English Premier League football club based in Holloway, London. One of the most successful clubs in English football, it has won 13 First Division and Premier League titles and 10 FA Cups. Arsenal holds the record for the longest uninterrupted period in the English top flight and would be placed first in an aggregated league of the entire 20th century. It is the second side to complete an English top flight season unbeaten (in the 2003–04 seasons) and the only one to do so across 38 matches. Arsenal was founded in 1886 in Woolwich and in 1893 became the first club from the south of England to join the Football League. In 1913, it moved north across the city to Arsenal Stadium in Highbury. In the 1930s the club won five League Championship titles and two FA Cups. After a lean period in the post-war years it won the League and FA Cup Double, in the 1970–71 season, and in the 1990s and first decade of the 21st century won two more Doubles and reached the 2006 UEFA Champions League Final. Chelsea
  19. 19. 11 Chelsea Football Club is an English football club based in Fulham, London. Founded in 1905, they play in the Premier League and have spent most of their history in the top tier of English football. Their home ground is the 41,837-seat Stamford Bridge stadium, where they have played since their establishment (Batty, 2004). Chelsea had their first major success in 1955, when they won the league championship, and won various cup competitions during the 1960s, 1970s, 1990s and 2000s. The club has enjoyed its greatest period of success in the past two decades, winning 15 major trophies since 1997. Domestically, Chelsea have won four league titles, seven FA Cups, four League Cups and four FA Community Shields, while in continental competitions they have won two UEFA Cup Winners' Cups, one UEFA Super Cup, one UEFA Europa League and one UEFA Champions League. Chelsea are the only London club to win the UEFA Champions League one of four clubs, and the only British club, to have won all three main UEFA club competitions, and also the first club to hold two major European titles simultaneously (Batty, 2004). Liverpool Liverpool Football Club is an English professional football club, based in Liverpool City that plays the Premier League. Liverpool is one of the successful clubs in England which has won the more European trophies than any other team in England. Liverpool was founded in 1892 and joined the football league the following year. The cub has played at the home ground at Anfield since its formation (Cox, Russell, & Vamplew, 2002). Manchester United Manchester United Football Club is an English professional football club, based in Old Trafford, Greater Manchester, that play Premier League. Founded as Newton Heath LYR Football Club in 1878, the club changed its name to Manchester United in 1902 and moved to Old Trafford in 1910. Manchester United have won many trophies in English football, including a record 20 League titles, a record 11 FA Cups, four League Cups and a record 20 FA Community Shields. The club has also won three European Cups, one UEFA Cup Winners' Cup, one UEFA Super Cup, one Intercontinental Cup and one FIFA Club World Cup. In 1998–99, the club won a continental treble of the Premier League, the FA Cup and the UEFA Champions League, an unprecedented feat for an English club. Manchester City Manchester City Football Club is an English professional football club based in Manchester. Founded in 1880 as St. Mark's (West Gorton), they became Ardwick Association Football
  20. 20. 12 Club in 1887 and Manchester City in 1894. The club has played at the City of Manchester Stadium since 2003, having played at Maine Road from 1923. The club's most successful period was in the late 1960s and early 1970s when they won the League Championship, FA Cup, League Cup and European Cup Winners' Cup. Other’s Clubs (Premier League) Aston Villa Cardiff City Crystal Palace Everton Fulham Hull City Newcastle United Norwich City Stoke City Sunderland Swansea City Southampton Tottenham Hotspur West Bromwich Westham United Table 2 List of EPL Clubs 2013 Football is played at a professional level all over the world, and millions of people regularly go to football stadium to follow their favorite team, while billions of people watch their favorite team match through live streaming site as well as television. In world, a large fraction of people play football in amateur level. According to the survey conducted by the FIFA published in 2001, more than 240 million people from the globe enjoy football regularly in more than 200 countries. In other word, football evokes great passions and provide and important role in the life
  21. 21. 13 of their loyal fans, local communities, and even the nation like Brazil; it is hence the most popular sport in the world. Because of this it is often dubbed the World’s Favorite Pastime. Figure 3 An early game of football 2.3.3 The Prediction Football Phenomenon The premise of prediction in football allows individual participants to act as general managers or owners of their own sports team. Typically, participants compete weekly against other participant in the league style format. This competition usually last throughout the regular seasons and is directly associated with real world professional football in England. The game primarily an online service that is completely customizable, interactive, and involves nearly every major professional football from Europe (Dwyer, 2011). 2.3.4 Fan Loyalty A loyal consumer displays intense recurring behavior and a strong, positive attitude toward a product (Dwyer, 2011). Early research into the consumer loyalty paradigm, however, focused primarily on behavioral responses for measuring loyalty, and failed to explain why individuals repeatedly purchase particular brand. Stemming from this research football fan loyalty is viewed as two dimensional paradigm involving both fan’s attitude and behaviors. Nevertheless, for decade’s football management, football sociology, and football psychology researchers have focused primarily on behavioral indicators of fan loyalty. Such as spectator attendance figures and football merchandise purchases (Dwyer, 2011). However similar to traditional consumer loyalty football fan loyalty requires an investigation beyond the behavioral characteristics. That is football fans can also be segmented by the degree of attachment to a team or vent which is conceptualized as an individual’s highly developed attitude toward the football features.
  22. 22. 14 With the development in the internet technology the football promotion in the world is enhanced in the terrific way. The day to day news on the purchase and sales of players, team selection, match results, fixtures schedules, and injury of players all play important role for the football fan to encourage visiting football site to update them. 2.3.5 The Television Audience The number of live matches broadcast since the premier leagues since the premier league’s first season in 1992/93 has increased significantly from 60 (during 1992/97) to the 138 currently broadcast. In addition, since 2004/05 season, BSkyB broadcast all Saturday Premier League matches not televised live on a near-live basis that evening (Sky Sports Football First program). Total viewing of premier league content has increased, average audiences per match has remained largely constant while the number of games broadcast has increased indicating that total viewing of game over course of the season also increased. Viewers appear to be tuning in to watch more live match program. In 2002/03 the average number of live match programs watched was about 10 matches. By 2004/05 this has raised about 12 to 13 games (Capita, 2005). 2.3.6 Stadium Attendance Stadium attendance has also increased. In last five seasons, average Premier League match attendances have increased (from 31,180 per match in 1999/2000 to 33,899 in 2004/05). For the same period overall stadium utilization in the league also increased from 91% to just over 94% (Capita, 2005). 2.3.7 Premier League Fan Adults who identify themselves as having some level of interest in the premier league by agreeing with one of the following statements: “I follow the premier league, but I am not a very active fan”; “I have strong interest in the premier league”; “The premier league is one of the passions in my life”. 2.4 Socio Economic Groups in Football (SEG) A social classification, classifying the population into social grades, usually on the basis of the market research society occupational groupings (MRS, 1991). The groups are defined as follows: Professionals such as doctors, solicitors or dentist, chartered people such as architects; fully qualified people with large degree of responsibility such as senior civil servants, senior business executives and high ranking grades within the armed police force (Capita, 2005). People with very senior jobs such as university lectures, government heads, bankers, police inspectors etc. All others doing non manual jobs including the nurses, technicians, salesman, workers, students etc.
  23. 23. 15 Almost 2000 fans were interviewed between November 2004 to April 2005 as a part of research conducted by the authorities of the league that result a quarter of the UK population say they are fans of the league with the majority of the youth age 25-34 years old. And half of the fans say they support the top five clubs in the league. And around the third fans view football through the internet live telecast (Capita, 2005). Figure 4 Average audiences on television & internet 2.5 Impact of television and internet on the match attendance Ticket cost and availability are the most commonly mentioned reasons given by premier league fans that attend matches for not attending more matches. The ability to watch the same match live on internet was mentioned by a smaller portion of respondent. 2.6 Analysis of Premier League Fans Over half of fans say they follow the league on the social media but they are partly not active, about a third say they have strong interest in the match but a tenth of them say they have passions on the football matches (Capita, 2005).
  24. 24. 16 Figure 5 Analysis of Football Fans Usually the numbers of fans based on the clubs are highly directed towards the top five biggest clubs in England. The following graph show the percentage of the fans based on the clubs (Capita, 2005). Figure 6 Fans based on clubs Among 60% of the all European believe football as a religion to themselves (Centre, 2008).The main sources of information is the websites for the sports fan to find about latest news update. In 2008 among 68% of the football fan update themselves from the club official’s websites whereas 15% fan uses unofficial websites and 3% of football fan update with the help of other sports site. But this ratio slightly decreases in 2010 AD where the percentage of fan using the official’s site
  25. 25. 17 decrease to 55%, the unofficial website visitors increased to 21% and other sports site visitors increased to 7%. This ratio shows the number of football fan using website to update them. The following diagram shows the football fan believing football as a religion and the different percentage of fan using website to update them. Thus Bhakundo.com tries to emerge as a dynamic site to cover all this emotion of the football fans. For the development of the Bhakundo.com the following website working on the field of football in the globe plays a very wonderful role. Hence in the literature review section these website are most likely compare to the purposed site. The different sites working on the prediction culture of the football are http://www.predictfootballscore.com, http://www.totalfootballpredict.com/, http://www.playfantacy.com/ etc. Figure 7: Survey on Football Fans (Centre, 2008)
  26. 26. 18 Figure 8: Survey on Football fan using websites (Nagle, Dodd, & Ellis, 2010) 2.6.1 www.predictfootballscore.com: This website works very much similar to the Bhakundo.com & predicts football score. Fan can enjoy the alternative football here as this site includes the different nation football leagues at once. Talking about the prediction culture with www.predictfootballscore.com the calculation methods quite differ than that of the purposed site. This site calculates points based on the different rules implanted by the authorities. Some of the rule matched with the purposed system such as 3 point awarded to the correct prediction and no point for the incorrect prediction. But the site also deals with the goal differences. The point is also awarded if the goal difference is correct but this rule doesn’t imply in the purposed system. Here within this system point is even awarded to the incorrect prediction with match draw. Apart from the calculation methods this site includes the current news center including the news from the www.bbc.co.uk/sport and www.yahoo.com/sport. This news mostly covers the current football news such as transfer news, fixtures details etc (Game, 2007). Likewise this site also deals with the online ticketing of the different football matches. But these sorts of features aren’t purposed for the purposed system.
  27. 27. 19 Figure 9: Interface of www.predicfootballscore.com (Game, 2007) 2.6.2 www.totalfootballpredict.com: The “total football predict” is another website for user to predict their football score normally. This websites act somehow as an online casino for the predictors. As well as this site include some privileges for the fan to promote their site by adding their advertisement on the different section of this website. Normally the main focused of this website is to promote others link as an advertisement because we can see different sectors allocated for the advertisement which the purposed system may not implement. Besides this, this site also focused on the live streaming of the different matches. But in the prediction this site includes different other site as a partner to promote the prediction of football match as an online casino (Predict, 2005). This site basically introduced as the information center for the football fan where he can get the different football news such as transfer, football politics, fixtures, standing as well as the different pre & post matched preview of different derby matches.
  28. 28. 20 Figure 10: Interface of www.totalfootballpredict.com 2.6.3 www.playfantacy.com: As compare to other site taking the account of the football score prediction this website is of low quantitative in terms of others two above mention websites. Though being low quantitative website (www.playfantacy.com) is able to handle all the user prediction from English premier leagues. This website specially based on the English premier leagues. Others leagues match are not predicted here initially as to the current date of this proposal submission. But this site sometimes provides the interface to predict the different special football tournaments just like SAF Games, Euro Cup etc. this features makes the stability of the site stronger as others. Also this site includes an advertisement section where user can upload their business link to for its promotion. Likewise some basic concepts can be dragged from this site to the purposed site such as the provision of the regular news update, leagues points table display, individuals user profile etc (Services, PlayFantacy, 2011). This will help to manage the new system to achieve the long term objectives of the website after it completion. The unique user profile is special features that the other two above mention site does not include & only user account is activated from where user can predict the score. Finally for this site no ticketing facilities is available here that’s why it is consider as a serious matter of problems because match ticketing also play important role for user to surf the different website.
  29. 29. 21 Figure 11 Interface of www.playfantacy.com (Services, playfantacy, 2011) Apart from these there we can find some more website working under the consideration of the football prediction such as www.goal.com which is also one of the most popular dynamic sites allowing the user to predict the score but not the reward. The sites also include the overall football news but the system login is not necessary in order to predict the score (Goal, 2012). Here the commenting section also implemented which is also purposed to design in the new system (Bhakundo.com).
  30. 30. 22 Figure 12: Interface of www.goal.com (Goal, 2012) 2.7 Online Football Portal in Nepal Although having some interaction website providing the useful soccer updates. In Nepal, there we cannot find any kind of prediction system in the internet. Not only the prediction system but also the betting or bidding system is not available in Nepalese online community. People have bid, bet directly on matches. There are some website working in the fields of football like GoalNepal, FootballSansar, SoccerNepal etc. are famous but they lack the prediction culture. 2.7.1 www.goalnepal.com (Domestic) Goal Nepal is one of the most popular and successful football website based in Nepal. Being launched in the 2009 it had been one of the best website for the Nepalese football fan in the countries. Having more than one lakh and sixty thousands like in Facebook it represents the building block for the Nepalese football development. Taking the mission to build strong and entertaining Nepalese football this sites include all the Nepalese football news, transfer news, Red Bull A division League updates, live score, Ncell Cup Football updates etc. Apart from this, Goal Nepal tries to complete the website with all the regional football as well as the different district based football tournament updates and live score. But the site lacks the proper prediction culture just like in the Bhakundo.com.
  31. 31. 23 Figure 13 GoalNepal.com Interface 2.8 Football and Internet According to the official FIFA research, every soccer website publish more or less latest and most popular list of top ten highest transfer rumor. There are many websites in the world where news and article publish in a methodological way so that visitors can easily get the information about their favorite teams, payers etc. (edailylife, 2013). Figure 14 Best Football Website (edailylife, 2013) Apart from the above mention website, there are huge number of others site that drag a recorded able number of visitors daily regarding the football information.
  32. 32. 24 2.9 Chapter Summary In this 21st century, we can find the different sort of bidding culture, betting culture and also the prediction culture in the sports games. Recently, during the 2010 FIFA World Cup in South Africa, an Octopus was used in order to prediction the football match result. So as a result, there are different prediction portals in the world with different prediction culture. But in Nepal, even a single portal is not available. Hence, a new system like Bhakundo.com warmly welcomes in the markets. Based on Nepal, this project flew away to EPL because the data collection in Nepalese football league is quite difficult because of no regular matches, no stable sportsman authorities and as well as government. Hence, this sort of portals lacks its functionalities when integrated with the local behaviour i.e. Nepalese Football League. Chapter 3: Development/Methodology 3.1 Objective of this Chapter The objective of this chapter is to describe the different methodologies available in software engineering to develop the software system. This chapter also gives overview on clarification on the methodology chosen for the Bhakundo.com project development process. 3.2 Introduction The purpose of this document is to provide an understanding of the software development methodologies available to the software developers. The methodologies is a predefined framework for the developers which is normally used to plan, control and monitoring the development process (Jurgen, 2008). This framework is also consider as a platform for the developers where different activities like requirement gathering, system design, analyzing, testing, implementation and maintain ace are carried out. Software development methodologies normally help developers to complete the project in time with the attributes such as quality etc. Most common methodology includes waterfall, prototyping, iterative and incremental development, spiral development, rapid application development & extreme programming. 3.3 Available Methodology There are various types of software development methodologies.
  33. 33. 25 3.3.1 Waterfall model The waterfall model is a sequential software development model. In other word it is defined as a process for the creation of software in which development is seen as flowing steadily downwards like a waterfall in the nature. The origin of the term “waterfall” is cited to be an article by Winston W. Royce. (Rouse, 2007). The unmodified waterfall model progress flows from top to the bottom just like a normal waterfall. The model starts with requirements specification, when the requirement are fully complete then proceeds to design. This section of design must be the plan for the implementation of that design by the programmers. Likewise after the implementation and integration the testing phase is carried out. The error introducted in the earlier pahse are carried out in the testing phase. Finally the software system is installed and later maintained to introduce the modification (Sky, 2007). Figure 15: Figure showing Waterfall model Advantage Disadvantage Very easy to implement (Linear) Only able to use when requirement are fixed Required minimum resource Unable to move back to the previous stage Documentation is produced at every stages If mistake happen on middle, should start from the scratch Testing is done to check code is running correct or not Tester role only happen in the test phase Table 3 Advantages & Disadvantages of Waterfall Model
  34. 34. 26 3.3.2 Spiral methodology The spiral model, also known as the spiral lifecycle model, is a systems development lifecycle (SDLC) model used in information technology. This model of development combines the features of the prototyping model and the waterfall model. The spiral model is favoured for large, expensive, and complicated projects. The Spiral Model is an evolutionary software process model that couples the iterative nature of prototyping with the controlled and systematic aspects of the Linear Sequential Model. In response to the weakness and failure of the waterfall model many new models were developed that add some form of iteration to the software development process. In spiral model, the development team starts with a tiny set of requirements and goes through each development phase (excluding the installation and maintenance phase) for those set of requirements. Based on the lesson learned through risk analysis process, the development team adds functionality for additional requirements in every increasing spiral until system gets ready for installation (Purcell, 2008). Each iteration is prior to the production of version is a prototype of the application. Hence, it is more recommended to use spiral model when the cost and risk evaluation is important and the project is complex (better for high risk project).
  35. 35. 27 Figure 16 Figure showing Spiral Model (Purcell, 2008) Advantage Disadvantage Avoidance of risk is enhanced Can be a costly model to use Good for large and critical projects Risk analysis require highly expertise personal Strong approval & document control Project success is dependent on the risk analysis phase Additional function can be added at the end Not feasible for small projects Table 4 Advantages & Disadvantage of Spiral Model 3.3.3 Prototyping Prototyping is the rapid development of a system. Prototyping can be considered as a risk reduction activity which reduces requirements risks to help the costumer and the developer understand the requirement for the system. Prototyping can be part of requirement analysis or part of the design as well. Prototyping is essential for parts of the system such as the user
  36. 36. 28 interface which cannot be effectively pre-specified. Users must be involved in prototype evaluation. By using prototyping model the customer can get an actual view of the system that the developers are developing. Using the develop prototype can enable a client/customer to get better understanding of the system. Prototyping model is an effective idea for the development of the complicated and large systems for which there is no predefined process or the existing system to help determining the requirements. Figure 17 Figure showing prototyping (istqbexamcertification) Advantage Disadvantage Users are involved in the development process Leads to implementing and then repairing way of development Errors can be detected initially Incomplete application may cause application not to be used as the full system Missing functionalities can be identified easily Lack adequate problems analysis Table 5 Advantages & Disadvantage of Prototyping Model 3.3.4 Incremental Model The incremental model the complete requirement into the different builds, multiple development cycles take place. A project using incremental model may start with the simple objectives. Then
  37. 37. 29 some portion of these objectives is defined as requirement and implemented. Meanwhile, using the objectives rather than the requirement can be uncomfortable for management. A working version of the software is produce during the initial modules which have to pass through the requirement, design, implementation & testing phase. Each subsequent release of the module adds function to the initial release. The process continues till the complete system is formed. Figure 18 Incremental Model (istqbexamcertification) Advantage Disadvantage More Flexible –less costly to change the requirement Needs good planning and design Generate software quickly Total cost is higher than waterfall Easy to test and debug Needs a clear definition of the system Easy to manage risk Requirement must be clear and well defined Table 6 Advantages & Disadvantage of Incremental Model
  38. 38. 30 3.3.5 Rapid Application Development (RAD) Model Rapid model is rapid application development. It is also called as a type of the incremental model. In RAD, functions are developed in parallel. The development processes are bound with the time boxed, delivered and then assembled into a running prototype. This can be very useful to deliver the project progress to the customer for feedback regarding their requirements. Figure 19 RAD Figure (24point0) Advantage Disadvantage Reduce development time Needs highly skilled manpower Increase reusability of components Modularized system can only be built using RAD Increase client feedback High dependency on modeling skills Table 7 Advantages & Disadvantage of RAD Model
  39. 39. 31 3.3.6 Hybrid Paradigm Hybrid Paradigm normally used to those project where a single methodologies doesn’t meet the requirement of the development process of any software system. Basically, in hybrid paradigm more than one software development methodology is used in order to develop a software system. 3.4 Chosen Methodology Based on the detail study about the background of the project and matching the requirement to the different available methodologies in the software markets, I came to the point of conclusion that not a single methodology is suitable for the development of the project. As the project is academic, so it is better to use a combination of the different methodology. That is to say, hybrid paradigm is the best methodology to be used in the project because of the following consideration for the academic project. Academic Project Regular Consideration Time Frame (Academic Project always contains the certain time frame) Regular Progress Report (Regular Progress report must be submitted to the academic institutions) Table 8 Academic Considerations 3.5 Justification of Chosen Methodology Apart from the above mention different software development methodology, Hybrid Paradigm is used in order to develop the new system. Here the comparison is given with its own advantages and disadvantages. 3.5.1 Waterfall Model For using the most traditional and oldest model of software development methodology i.e. Waterfall, the phase must be in the linear sequential. If the requirements change after completing the phase developer cannot turn back to the previous phase. Meanwhile, in the academic or the business purpose software development we have to accept the change in the process or the requirement and must roll back to the earlier phase. Hence, Single waterfall model is not usefull for the development of the new system. 3.5.2 Prototyping The prototyping model is developed to improve on some key shortfalls of the linear sequential model (Sullivan & Fitzpatrick, 2002). Requirement change is easily handled in this methodology which is the best part of this model including the fractional distribution of huge module into
  40. 40. 32 smaller module. But this model is not sufficient for the development of the academic project because the smaller module (segregated from big module) require the waterfall model. 3.5.3 Spiral Model The spiral model is used to develop in a series of incremental releases. It is evolutionary in nature and implies an iterative approach to the creation of the software system. Spiral model also allows for reductions in systems development time, quality engineering, resources count, and cost and so on. Similarly it is more suitable for the project having higher risk management procedure. In context to this project, I cannot allocate the resources for the risk management. Hence the spiral model is not suitable alone for the development of the new system. 3.5.4 Incremental Model Incremental model combine elements of the linear sequential model with the iterative nature of prototyping. In general the different increments of incremental model aims to make a solution to meet the requirements of the project. But for this academic project regular assessment I need to develop a small prototype. Hence working in the small increment is good but not sufficient for the project. 3.5.5 Rapid Application Development Rapid application development evolved as a solution to the problems caused when issues are discovered late in the development cycle. But is also contains some drawbacks like it require more human resources to create right number of team whereas this project is an individual’s project. Secondly it requires more knowledge for the developers in team but we don’t have team. Hence, alone a RAD model is not good for the development of the project. Apart from this above mention problems, a solution is provided by the hybrid paradigm model (a combination of waterfall, prototyping and incremental model). Adopting the hybrid model approach may also offer significant advantages where the project elements and its dependencies are well known. For examples, the hybrid model facilitates requirements gathering efforts in an incremental and interactive way. Likewise, the design and implementation of the underlying model could follow the waterfall model and the interface design could follow the prototyping model in order to complete the project with high speed. For the academic project this hybrid paradigm is suitable because the student cannot leave the most popular and understandable waterfall model. But is cannot be used alone for the development of the system. Similarly, developing a small fraction of module form the big fraction and implementing the waterfall concepts for prototyping the small fraction is suitable for
  41. 41. 33 the system. However, adopting hybrid paradigm perspective requires a fundamental competence in terms of understanding the architectural relationships between each of the projects functional and non-functional components as well as profound the various integration points and integration challenges. Incremental model concepts used in order to track the project progress that the project supervisors review on the continuous basis.
  42. 42. 34 Chapter 4: Requirements Gathering 4.1. Objectives of this chapter The main objective of this requirement gathering chapter is to collect a rigid set of requirements of the system. These chapters basically conceptualize on requirement gathering and listing for the development of this project. The gathered requirements will be formulated in the form software requirement specification document. For requirement gathering, various types of requirement gathering techniques are used which are discussed in this chapter. This chapter also contain SRS document that consists of functional and non-functional requirements for the commencement of the project. 4.2. Introduction A requirements gathering activities conducted to determine the needs or conditions for a new or altered product. It commonly takes place after a request is received. It is the process of gathering information about business and technical requirements supporting a request, consolidating this information into a cohesive document, and assisting stakeholders in prioritizing these needs and conditions. A requirement gathering process is critical to the success of a project and can serve as a contractual basis between a customer and a vendor. Requirements must be documented, actionable, measurable, testable, related to identified business needs or opportunities, and defined to a level of detail sufficient for the design of a project. The requirements management plan, a separate document, is used to document the necessary information required to effectively manage project requirements from definition, through traceability, to delivery and represents a subsequent document to the requirement gathering. Requirement analysis is also called requirements engineering that helps determining the user expectations or user requirements for the new system. (Margaret Rouse, 2007) They are: Requirement Capture (with different fact finding techniques), Requirement Analysis and documenting requirement (preparation of SRS document). (fdsc, n.d.) Gathering of proper requirement helps in increasing team’s productivity, saves cost effectively, shortens software development life cycle and helps in completing project on proper time, budget and resources. 4.3 Intended Audience The audience for this requirement gathering includes [i.e.: the users, project management, system analysts (i.e., developers who may participate in the requirements), and system designers (i.e., developers who may participate in the system design)].
  43. 43. 35 4.3. Plan of action for requirement analysis The requirement gathering part is the most important aspect of the development process. Hence being the individual’s project I developed the following plans for the effective and desirable gathering of the requirements. Objective Fact finding technique Resources Duration Result Level Research the structure and overview of the prediction culture in the sports Background study Different website working in the fields of prediction and fantasy. 10 days Medium Find the probable use to the portal Background study Different website working in the fields of prediction and fantasy. 5 days Medium Determine the understanding level of the people about football prediction Survey Online Survey through SurveyMoney.com 8 days High What feature and categories is required for the new and dynamic football prediction website Discussion on Social Media Facebook Group like PHP Developers Nepal, Real Madrid Nepal, Chelsea Nepal etc. 15 days High Determine what user expecting the new system Questionaries’ Survey Questionaries’’’ based survey conducted in Rotaract Club of Pashupati-Ktm & Islington College (Britt House) 5 days Medium Table 9 Requirement Gathering Plan
  44. 44. 36 4.4. Fact finding techniques followed in requirement analysis Fact finding technique is the general technique that implements the project scope research, questionnaires, interviews and other online as well as real time survey in order to gather information about system. Fact finding technique is also called information gathering or data collection technique. (Quadari, 2005) Following are the fact finding techniques is conducted in requirement analysis step of this project. 4.4.1 Background Study This technique is conducted to collect the details information about the structure, various data needed for the online prediction system in football based categories. The fundamental boundry of this technique is to gain knowledge about the exiting the prediction culture in the football website. 4.4.2 Discussion/Virtual Interview Virtual discussion is conducted in the various page of the social networking sites such as Facebook etc. A basic discussion post is posted on the various pages like www.facebook.com/groups/phpdevelopersnepal, www.facebook.com/groups/realmadridnepal, www.facebook.com/groups/groups/chelseafcnepal, etc. in order to find out the basic requirement for the football website regarding the prediction. As a results, various members from the group suggest to implement the Nepalese football prediction, an interaction portal for all over football news as well as some developers suggest to add extra interesting features in order to reduce the boringness of the portal. Likewise some football fans suggestion to use dropdown menu system for prediction the score along with the proper squad for the game week which helps the user to predict the score in the advance way gaining some profit from that squad. Reasons behind the Facebook Football Group & PHP Developers Survey After all this a portal for the football fan, so the different active football fans in the Facebook groups in the better way to collect the data for the development of the project. Because what the system require is the expectation of the football fan and the system is going to be develop from them as well. The members in the Facebook are regular active of the EPL as well as Nepali football, football fantasy, somehow active to the European football prediction websites. Hence, a quantitative requirement was capture during the survey based on the social networking sites. 4.4.2.1 Objectives of Social Media Survey 4.4.2.1.1 To collect the required information about the project 4.4.2.1.2 To know the fans expectation from the portal
  45. 45. 37 4.4.2.1.3 To know how and what football fan uses online website to gain the football related information. 4.4.3 Questionnaire/Online Survey Questionnaire is done as a part of fact finding technique in collect the real time data for the project. During the questionnaire survey done at the Rotaract Club of Pashupati-Ktm (a social organization having the different educational faculty youth of age group 18-30) targeting the different class of educational background people from different age group. The main aims of the questionnaire are to generate a average expectation of the people from the site along with the remarkable suggestion and extra feature for the system. A sample of the questionnaire is placed in the appendix section of the document. Online survey is conducted in the website called SurveyMonkey in order to sort out the fan behaviour of the different parts of the country and world. In this online survey, a total of 70 users participated from the different parts of the world. The outcome of the survey graphs is placed at the appendix section of the document. 4.4.3.1 Obstacles Occurred S.N Obstacles 1 No accuracy of data validity 2 Laziness of the people to fill the form 3 Minimum Participation 4 Unwanted Suggestion or Laughing Issue (People consider the question as a jokes apart) Figure 20 Obstacles Occurred 4.5. Outcome of Fact finding techniques The outcomes of the fact finding technique are placed in the appendix section of this document. 4.6. Hawk Eye description of the proposed system The proposed system will completely run as a web based system. MySQL database is there in order to hold the data from the user prediction and others data from the admin etc. Normally the system quires the latest web browser in order to run the function smoothly. Two tired application is suitable for the proposed system.
  46. 46. 38 Figure 21 Overview of the System 4.7. Components in the proposed system There are six different components are identified which should be included in the system. Those components are as given below:  User registration and authorization  Make Prediction  Point Calculation  Rank Generation  Make friend Circle  Comment & Discussion Forum 4.8. Users in the proposed system Normally four types of users are involved in this system which is given below through the table. User Portal Interface System Database
  47. 47. 39 User Roles Admin Admin controls the portal (manage fixtures, manage result, generate rank etc.) Users (Registered) User being authenticated by the system and can predict the match available in the system Guest The un registered user or the new user to the system can view the system surface wise. Table 10 Users in the System 4.9 Functional Requirements 4.9.1 User Registration Create an account Priority: Must Have Actor: Guest Precondition: User not logged in Description: A new user can create an account to use the portal with the full functionality. Path: 4.9.1.1 Select Register Button, 4.9.1.2 Fill the registration form, 4.9.1.3 Submit the form, 4.9.1.4 System verifies if valid information saves on the database, 4.9.1.5 Send the notification to the users. Exception: Username already exists, incomplete form etc. Result: A new account is created for the guest. 4.9.2 Login & Authentication Priority: Must Have Actor: Guest or user Precondition: The user is registered to the portal but not logged in Description: A user is register member to the site but not logged in, users can log into the system for its smooth operation. Path: 4.9.2.1 Select Login Button,
  48. 48. 40 4.9.2.2 Fill the login form, 4.9.2.3 Submit login form, 4.9.2.4 System verifies if valid information provided or not, if yes then logs the user into the system. 4.9.2.5 System redirect to the landing page of the portal after login. Exception: Username/Password Invalid, incomplete form etc. Result: A user is logged in. 4.9.3 Make Prediction User Prediction Priority: Must Have Actor: User Precondition: User at the landing page Description: A user can predict the different fixtures available on the site. Path: 4.9.3.1 Select the recent game week, 4.9.3.2 Fill the fixtures form, 4.9.3.3 Submit fixtures form, 4.9.3.4 System verifies if valid information provided or not, if yes then store it into the database. 4.9.3.5 System redirect to the confirmation page after the prediction. Exception: empty prediction. Result: A page with the user actual prediction. User Prediction Point Priority: Must Have Actor: User Precondition: User at the landing page Description: A user can review the point of different fixtures that he predicted before. Path: 4.9.3.6 Select the special game week that the user want to know about, 4.9.3.7 System provides the result of the user point based on the calculation provided with the system specification document. 4.9.3.8 System redirect to the confirmation page after the prediction. Exception: None. Result: A page with the actual prediction point display. User Logout Priority: Must Have
  49. 49. 41 Actor: User Precondition: The user is logged in portal. Description: A user is logged in can easily log out. Path: 4.9.3.9 Select Log out Button, 4.9.3.10 System logs the user out. 4.9.3.11 System redirect to the home page of the portal after log out. Exception: None. Result: A user is logged out. 4.9.4 Point Calculation 4.9.4.1 Add Teams Priority: Must Have Actor: Admin Precondition: The admin is logged in portal. Description: An admin manage (add/edit/delete) the teams playing the current EPL seasons. Path: 4.9.4.1.1 Select Team from the EPL, 4.9.4.1.2 System verifies the selected teams. 4.9.4.1.3 System redirect to the admin panel. Exception: Double input of the same team. Result: A team is added. 4.9.4.2 Add Fixtures Priority: Must Have Actor: Admin Precondition: The admin is logged in portal. Description: An admin manage (add/edit/delete) the fixtures of the current EPL seasons game week. Path: 4.9.4.2.1 Select real fixtures from the EPL, 4.9.4.2.2 System verifies the selected fixtures. 4.9.4.2.3 System redirect to the admin panel. Exception: Double input of the same fixtures. Result: A fixtures is added.
  50. 50. 42 4.9.4.3 Add Actual Results Priority: Must Have Actor: Admin Precondition: The admin is logged in portal. Description: An admin manage the results playing the current EPL seasons fixtures. Path: 4.9.4.3.1 Select fixtures results from the EPL, 4.9.4.3.2 System verifies the correct input of the fixtures results. 4.9.4.3.3 System redirect to the admin panel. Exception: Mistake in the fixtures result, double input of the same fixtures result. Result: An actual result is stored in the data center. 4.9.4.4 Declare Winner Priority: Must Have Actor: Admin Precondition: The admin is logged in portal. Description: Admin declare the winner for the recent game week of EPL. Path: 4.9.4.4.1 Select user from the list, 4.9.4.4.2 System calculates the points based on the correct prediction with that of the actual EPL results. 4.9.4.4.3 System generates the rank of the user based on the points obtained. Exception: None. Result: A winner is declared. 4.10 Non-Functional Requirements Non-functional requirements describe the different areas of requirements that are required for the smooth and proper functioning of the Bhakundo.com. Among them some are mentioned certain requirements are mentioned below. 4.10.2 Performance Requirements: It specifies the timing features of the system. There are certain features, which are more time-sensitive than others. The non-functional requirements should identify those software functions, which have some constraints on their performance.
  51. 51. 43 4.10.2.1 Response Time: It specify the response time for the transaction in the system. Normally the Bhakundo.com can handle mostly at least 10 transaction with the CPU usage of 60% 4.10.2.2 Notification Time: It defines the time required to notify the user about the completion, error in the transaction. 4.10.2.3 Recovery Time 4.10.2.4 Loading or Run Time (Application Loading should not take long time). 4.10.2 Safety & Security Requirements It describes the ability of the software to remain protected from unauthorized access. This includes both change access and view access. 4.10.2.1 Authentication system will used for the secure password validation 4.10.2.2 Safe Login & Logout will be done by session handling 4.10.3 Other Software Quality Attributes 4.10.3.1 User Friendliness: The system should be ease and simple to use for the end users. It doesn’t require extra training to use the system. 4.10.3.2 Reliability: The online portal should be reliable because it handles the strong username and password authentication mechanism. The system shall provide storage of all databases on redundant computers with automatic switchover and replication of the storage to offsite storage locations. 4.10.3.3 Scalability: The portal should be scalable as the Bhakundo.com should handle the growing amount of work. 4.10.3.4 Fault Tolerant: In case power failure system should able to recover the data using the backup mechanism as well as transaction logs 4.10.3.5 Operating Platform: This online portal should operate of the computer having the Microsoft Windows XP and greater, with minimum 1GHz processor and 256MB RAM. 4.10.3.6 Interface Metaphor: This online portal GUI must include the dialog boxes, menus, buttons and also some screen instructions. And minimize the use of pointer navigation then the keyboard navigation.
  52. 52. 44 4.10.3.7 Ease of Use: The portal must be user friendly in terms with ease menu, instructions etc. 4.10.3 User Characteristics The users of the system will be the different level of technical expertise. Any users from the world with the basic knowledge on internet and football prediction nature should be able to utilize the system smoothly. English will be the only language that this site will be available in, this makes difficult to those user from different part of the world to use the system or the site who do not speak English. Normally there are three types of users: 4.10.3.1 Guests: These are the new users to the system who don’t have user account to log into the system. 4.10.3.2 Users: These are the registered users to the system who have user account. 4.10.3.3 Administrations: These are authorized personnel to the system who is responsible for the portal management. 4.11 Summary of this chapter In this chapter, description of the fact finding techniques used for the system requirement gathering process was mentioned. Outcome of the questionnaire, survey, and interview was also mentioned in this chapter. Ultimately, list of functional and non-functional requirements were also given in this chapter.
  53. 53. 45 Chapter 5: System Design 5.1 Introduction The objectives of this section of the system specification are to model the proposed system. The lists of requirements that are gathered in previous chapter are to be design in this chapter. This section contains different UML diagrams to design the requirements UML stands for Unified modeling language that is used in OOAD approaches in Software Company. UML is treated as a rich language that is used to model any business functions, structures. 5.2 Purposes The main purpose of design specification document is as follows: i) Design specification document is used for various functions from laying out plans for a new space ship to addressing the design concerns of the system. ii) Provide the hawk eye structure of the project through different pictorial representation.. iii) The expectations of user are documented, and are agreed by the users and developer team. 5.3 Intended Audience and Reading Suggestion: The intended audience for this document is most likely the project owner and somehow we can integrate users of the system also. 5.3.1 Project Owner: For any academic project the project owner simply justly the involvement of the academic institutions that’s why Islington College virtually stay as the project owner of this project 5.3.2 Programmer: Programmer refers the students who is undertaking the project and responsible for all the sort s of development process in software engineering. 5.3.3 User: The user will be implementing and bringing the system in use. The User Interface (UI) will be shared among the different users.
  54. 54. 46 5.4 Use Case Diagrams Bankundo.com as Boundary user admin Login Insert Fixtures Make Prediction Insert Result Generate Rank View Rank Logout Figure 22 Use Case Hawk Eye
  55. 55. 47 Bankundo.com as Boundary User/Admin Login username password authenticate login error <<include>> <<include>> <<include>> <<extend>> Figure 23 Use Case Login Process
  56. 56. 48 Password Change Process User/Admin Login check account status authenticate login error <<include>> <<extend>> change password logout Portal System Figure 24 Use Case Password Change
  57. 57. 49 Forgot Password User/Admin Login authentication verify user/admin login error <<include>> <<extend>> click forgot password Login Portal System provide confirmation change password <<include>> update database Figure 25 Use Case Password Change

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