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group11_DNAA:protocol stack and addressing


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group11_DNAA:protocol stack and addressing

  2. 2. TEAM MEMBERS <ul><li>D HANUSHA 1MS07IS025 </li></ul><ul><li>N ISHITA.M 1MS07IS061 </li></ul><ul><li>A RCHANA.H.V 1MS07IS012 </li></ul><ul><li>A NANYA.B.NAIK 1MS07IS007 </li></ul>protocol stack
  3. 3. TABLE OF CONTENTS <ul><li>INTRODUCTION </li></ul><ul><li>OSI MODEL </li></ul><ul><li>PHYSICAL LAYER </li></ul><ul><li>DATA LINK LAYER </li></ul><ul><li>NETWORK LAYER </li></ul><ul><li>TRANSPORT LAYER </li></ul>protocol stack
  4. 4. INTRODUCTION <ul><li>PROTOCOLS </li></ul><ul><li>PROTOCOL STACK </li></ul><ul><li>OSI MODEL </li></ul>protocol stack
  5. 5. OSI MODEL <ul><li>APPLICATION LAYER </li></ul><ul><li>PRESENTATION LAYER </li></ul><ul><li>SESSIONS LAYER </li></ul><ul><li>TRANSPORT LAYER </li></ul><ul><li>NETWORK LAYER </li></ul><ul><li>DATA LINK LAYER </li></ul><ul><li>PHYSICAL LAYER </li></ul>protocol stack
  6. 6. PHYSICAL LAYER <ul><li>It is the first and lowest layer of OSI model of computer networking. The physical layer consists of the basic hardware transmission technologies of a network </li></ul><ul><li>Physical layer obtains the data obtained by data link layer in the form of frames which it will convert into bits </li></ul><ul><li>Physical layer converts the data sent by data link layer into signals compatible with the transmission media </li></ul>protocol stack
  7. 7. Techniques <ul><li>Data present in the physical layer can be analog or digital. It has to be converted either to digital signal or analog signal </li></ul><ul><li>For the conversion of digital to digital signals three techniques are used: </li></ul><ul><li>1.Line coding </li></ul><ul><li>2.Block coding </li></ul><ul><li>3.scrambling </li></ul>protocol stack
  8. 8. Techniques <ul><li>For the conversion of digital data to analog signals the techniques used are </li></ul><ul><li>1.Amplitude shift keying </li></ul><ul><li>2.Frequency shift keying </li></ul><ul><li>3.Phase shift keying </li></ul><ul><li>4.Quadrature amplitude modulation </li></ul>protocol stack
  9. 9. Functions Of physical Layer <ul><li>Physical characteristics of interfaces and medium </li></ul><ul><li>Representation of bits </li></ul><ul><li>Line configuration </li></ul><ul><li>Physical topology </li></ul><ul><li>Transmission mode </li></ul><ul><li>Autonegotiation </li></ul>protocol stack
  10. 10. Protocols of Physical Layer <ul><li>X.21 </li></ul><ul><li>EIA-232-E </li></ul><ul><li>ATM </li></ul>protocol stack
  11. 11. X.21 <ul><li>X.21 interface protocol is concerned only with the set-up and clearing operating between DTE and DCE associated with each call </li></ul><ul><li>It is a circuit switching protocol using synchronous ASCII with odd parity to connect or disconnect a subscriber to bulic switching network </li></ul><ul><li>Any data can be transferred through the network after call establishment is successful via x.21 protocol </li></ul>protocol stack
  12. 12. EIA-232-E <ul><li>It is also called is found in both synchronous and asynchronous environment </li></ul><ul><li>Almost all modems conform to the EIA-232 standard and most PC have an EIA-232 port for connecting a modem or other devices </li></ul>protocol stack
  13. 13. ATM <ul><li>Asynchronous transfer mode is an electronic digital data transmission technology. </li></ul><ul><li>It is mainly used to transfer real-time video conference and audio as well as image files, text and email </li></ul><ul><li>ATM is a packet oriented transfer method that uses asynchronous time division multiplying techniques. </li></ul><ul><li>It encodes the data into small sized cells and provides data link layer services that run over OSI layer. </li></ul><ul><li>It is mainly designed for high speed(155 MBits) communication </li></ul>protocol stack
  14. 14. DATA LINK LAYER <ul><li>The data link layer is the second layer in the OSI seven-layer reference model. It responds to service requests from the network layer above it and issues service requests to the physical layer below it. </li></ul><ul><li>FUNCTIONS: </li></ul><ul><li>1)Framing </li></ul><ul><li>2)Addressing </li></ul><ul><li>3)Flow Control </li></ul><ul><li>4)Error Control </li></ul><ul><li>5)Media Access Control </li></ul>protocol stack
  15. 15. Framing <ul><li>Framing in this layer separates a message from one source to a destination, or from other messages to other destinations, by adding a sender address and a destination address. </li></ul><ul><li>TYPES: </li></ul><ul><li>1)Fixed-Size Framing </li></ul><ul><li>2)Variable-Size Framing </li></ul><ul><li>Character-Oriented Protocols: </li></ul>flag trailer flag header Data from upper layer protocol stack
  16. 16. Error detection <ul><li>Data can be corrupted during transmission. </li></ul><ul><li>TYPES of errors: </li></ul><ul><li>1)Single-Bit Error </li></ul><ul><li>2)Burst Error </li></ul><ul><li>To detect or correct errors, we need to send extra (redundant) bits with data. </li></ul><ul><li>Error detection: </li></ul><ul><li>1) The receiver has a list if valid codewords. </li></ul><ul><li>2) The original codeword has changed to an invalid one. </li></ul>protocol stack
  17. 17. Data word generator codeword Data word Checker Codeword SENDER RECEIVER Encoder Decoder Extract Discard Unreliable Transmission Data words Codewords Code fro error detection protocol stack 00 000 01 011 10 101 11 110
  18. 18. Error correction <ul><li>More redundant bits are required for error correction than for error detection. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>let the code word transferred be 01001. </li></ul><ul><li>Humming distance: between two words is the number of differences between corresponding bits. </li></ul><ul><li>Minimum humming distance is chosen. </li></ul>protocol stack Data word Code word 00 00000 01 01011 10 10101 11 11110
  19. 19. Protocols <ul><li>Flow control refers to a set of procedures used to restrict the amount of data that the sender can send before waiting for acknowledgment. </li></ul><ul><li>Error control in the data link layer is based on automatic repeat request, which is the retransmission of data. </li></ul><ul><li>Protocols are implemented in software by using one of the common programming languages. </li></ul>Protocols Noiseless channels Noisy channel Stop and wait simplest Stop and wait ARQ Go back-N ARQ Selective repeat ARQ protocol stack
  20. 20. Simplest protocol sender site algorithm While (true) { wait for event(); if(event ( request to send)) { get data(); make frame(); send frame(); } } protocol stack
  21. 21. <ul><li>Receiver site algorithm </li></ul><ul><li>While ( true ) </li></ul><ul><li>{ </li></ul><ul><li>wait for event(); </li></ul><ul><li>if( event ( arrival notification)) </li></ul><ul><li>{ </li></ul><ul><li>receive frame(); </li></ul><ul><li>extract data(); </li></ul><ul><li>deliver data(); </li></ul><ul><li>[send frame] // for stop and wait protocol </li></ul><ul><li>} </li></ul><ul><li>} </li></ul>protocol stack
  22. 22. STOP AND WAIT PROTOCOL While(true) Can send= true { wait for event(); if( event(request to send)and can send) { get data(); make frame(); send frame(); can send= false; } Wait for event(); If ( event( arrival notification) { receive frame(); can send= true; } } protocol stack
  23. 23. POINT TO POINT PROTOCOL <ul><li>provides network address configuration. That is when a home user needs a temporary network address to connect to the internet. </li></ul><ul><li>Defines format of the frame. </li></ul><ul><li>Provides multiple network layer . </li></ul><ul><li>Does not provide flow control. </li></ul><ul><li>No sophisticated addressing mechanism to handle frames. </li></ul><ul><li>Simple mechanism for error control. </li></ul>flag address control protocol Payload (variable) FCS flag protocol stack
  24. 24. Multiple access <ul><li>Data link layer consists of data link contol and multiple-access resolution. </li></ul><ul><li>Lower sub layer is responsible for resolving access to the shared media. </li></ul><ul><li>One of the methods is random access method. Here, no station is superior to another station and none is assigned the control over another. </li></ul><ul><li>In controlled access method, the stations consult one another to find which station has the right to send. </li></ul><ul><li>Channelization is a multiple access method in which the available bandwidth of a link is shared in time, frequency, or through code, between different stations. </li></ul>protocol stack
  25. 25. NETWORK LAYER <ul><li>This is the third layer from the bottom of protocol stack. </li></ul><ul><li>There is a piece of network layer in each and every host and in the routers. </li></ul><ul><li>It determines how packets are routed from one route to another. </li></ul>protocol stack
  26. 26. Network layer protocol stack
  27. 27. Important functions <ul><li>Main role of network layer is to move packets from a sending host to receiving host. </li></ul><ul><li>Functions are categorized into three types </li></ul><ul><li>Path determination: Determined by routing algorithms. </li></ul><ul><li>Forwarding: Done by routers. </li></ul><ul><li>Call set up: Routers establish connections with each other. </li></ul>protocol stack
  28. 28. Network service model <ul><li>Defines characteristics of end to end transmission of data. </li></ul><ul><li>Virtual circuit model </li></ul><ul><li>Network determines the path between sender and receiver. </li></ul><ul><li>Packets flow along the path set up. </li></ul><ul><li>Routers are aware of the connection made. </li></ul><ul><li>Connection oriented service. </li></ul><ul><li>Datagram model </li></ul><ul><li>Networks sends packets with the address of destination. </li></ul><ul><li>Packets flow towards nearest router along the destination. </li></ul><ul><li>Routers are not aware of the connection made. They maintain a forwarding table. </li></ul><ul><li>Connectionless service. </li></ul>protocol stack
  29. 29. Network layer protocols Internet protocol : Responsible for network layer addressing. IP address: An address assigned to every interface. They are of two types: IPV4 and IPV6 protocol stack
  30. 30. IPV4 addressing <ul><li>32 bit length(4 bytes) </li></ul><ul><li>Represented in dotted decimal notation </li></ul><ul><li>Eg: </li></ul><ul><li>Equivalent decimal notation </li></ul><ul><li>11000001 00100000 11011000 00001001 </li></ul><ul><li>Two ways of assigning IP address: </li></ul><ul><li>Manual configuration </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamic host configuration protocol </li></ul>protocol stack
  31. 31. IPV4 data packet format protocol stack 32bits version Header length Type of service Data packet length 16-bit identifier Flags 13-bit fragmentation offset Time-to-live Upper-layer protocol Header checksum 32-bit source IP address 32-bit destination IP address Options(if any) Data
  32. 32. ICMP – Internet Control Message Protocol <ul><li>Used by routers, hosts and gateways. </li></ul><ul><li>Used for error reporting when IP router in not able to find the path to the host specified as the target. </li></ul>protocol stack
  34. 34. <ul><li>Network layer oversees source to destination delivery of individual packets, it does not recognize any relationship between those packets. </li></ul><ul><li>It treats each one independently, as though each piece belonged to a separate message, whether or not it does. </li></ul><ul><li>Transport layer on the other hand ensures that the whole message arrives intact and in order overseeing both error control and flow control at the source to destination level . </li></ul>Process to Process delivery protocol stack
  35. 35. <ul><li>Service Point Addressing </li></ul><ul><li>Several programs run at the same time. </li></ul><ul><li>Data transfer needed only between two specific processes. </li></ul><ul><li>Port numbers of the destination process is assigned in the header which ensures that only the specific process responds to it. </li></ul><ul><li>Segmentation and Reassembling </li></ul><ul><li>The message is divided into transmittable segments. </li></ul><ul><li>Each segment contains a sequence number . </li></ul><ul><li>This enables the correct reassembling of the message at the destination end and also in retransmission. </li></ul>protocol stack
  36. 36. <ul><li>Connection Control </li></ul><ul><li>Two types: </li></ul><ul><li>Connectionless : Treats each segment as a independent packet and delivers it. </li></ul><ul><li>Connection Oriented: sets up a connection with the transport layer at the destination machine before delivering the packets. </li></ul><ul><li>Flow Control </li></ul><ul><li>Oversees the proper co-ordination of transfer between the source and destination. </li></ul>protocol stack
  37. 37. <ul><li>Error Control </li></ul><ul><li>Sending Transport Layer make sure that the entire message arrives at the receiving transport layer without error (damage, loss or duplication). </li></ul><ul><li>Terminologies: </li></ul><ul><li>Reliable : Flow and error control present at the transport layer resulting in slower and more complex service. </li></ul><ul><li>Non-Reliable: Uses Own Flow and error control mechanism or it needs fast service or nature of the service does not demand flow and error control (Real Time Application) </li></ul>protocol stack
  38. 38. <ul><li>User Datagram Protocol (UDP) </li></ul><ul><li>It’s a connectionless, unreliable transport protocol. </li></ul><ul><li>No services added to IP except process to process communication using port numbers. </li></ul><ul><li>Limited error checking. </li></ul><ul><li>UDP Operations </li></ul><ul><li>Connectionless Services: It is important to note that the process which uses UDP cannot send a stream of data to UDP and expect UDP to chop them into different related user datagrams. Instead each request must be small enough to fit into one user datagram. </li></ul>protocol stack
  39. 39. <ul><li>Flow and Error Control </li></ul><ul><li>No Flow Control : Receiver may overflow with incoming messages. </li></ul><ul><li>No Error Control: Sender does not know if the message is lost or duplicated. </li></ul><ul><li>Checksum is one error control mechanism and if the receiver detects an error through the checksum, the user datagram is silently discarded. </li></ul><ul><li>UDP Uses </li></ul><ul><li>Process that require simple request response communication with little concern for flow and error control. </li></ul><ul><li>Process with internal flow and error mechanism. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) can easily use UDP </li></ul>protocol stack
  40. 40. Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) 16/09/09 <ul><li>It’s a connection oriented, reliable transport protocol. </li></ul><ul><li>TCP Services: </li></ul><ul><li>Process to process communication using port numbers. </li></ul><ul><li>Stream Delivery Service: </li></ul><ul><li>Data is sent as a stream of bytes and obtained also as a stream of bytes. </li></ul><ul><li>An environment is created in which the two processes seem to be connected by an imaginary tube that carries their data across the internet. </li></ul><ul><li>Sending And Receiving Buffers: </li></ul><ul><li>Sending or receiving processes may not read or write data at the same speed, hence buffers are needed for storage. </li></ul>
  41. 41. <ul><li>Segments </li></ul><ul><li>The IP layer as a service provider for TCP cannot send data as a stream of bytes. Therefore TCP groups a number of bytes together into a packet called segment. </li></ul><ul><li>TCP adds a header to each segment (for control purposes) and delivers the segment to the IP layer for transmission. </li></ul><ul><li>Full Duplex Communication </li></ul><ul><li>TCP offers full duplex service in which data can flow in both directions as each time. </li></ul><ul><li>Reliable Service : TCP is reliable transfer protocol which uses an Acknowledgement mechanism to check the safe and sound arrival of data </li></ul>protocol stack
  42. 42. Comparison Between UDP and TCP protocol stack UDP TCP Packet Header Size 8 bytes 20 – 60 bytes Transport Layer Packet entity Datagram Segment Port Numbering Yes Yes Error Detection Optional Yes Reliability: Error recovery by automatic repeat request (ARQ) No Yes Virtual circuits: Sequence numbering and reordering No Yes Flow control No Yes Congestion avoidance: Variable congestion window, slow start, time outs No Yes Multiple streams No No ECN support No Yes
  43. 43. THANK YOU protocol stack