Toddler Age

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Describes the growth and development in toddlerhood in the various domains - Physical, psychosocial, cognitive, psychosexual, spiritual and moral.Also discusses the special health concerns in toddlerhood.

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Toddler Age

  1. 1. TODDLER AGE (1 – 3 YEARS)
  2. 2. THE TERRIBLE 2’s ! <ul><li>Intense exploration of the environment </li></ul><ul><li>Expression of control of the environment </li></ul><ul><li>Struggles of toilet-training, limit setting, discipline and sibling rivalry </li></ul><ul><li>Less dramatic maturation of </li></ul><ul><li>body systems </li></ul><ul><li>Mastering a wide variety of </li></ul><ul><li>activities </li></ul>
  3. 3. BIOLOGIC DEVELOPMENT <ul><li>Weight - 2½ yrs – Birth wt quadrupled </li></ul><ul><li>- Av wt gain – 2.2 Kg/ Yr (1.8 – 2.7Kg/Yr) </li></ul><ul><li>Height - Increases by 6.25 – 7.5 cms/ Yr </li></ul><ul><li>Body proportions - Chest Circ = OFC by 1yr </li></ul><ul><li>- After 1 yr, Chest Circ > OFC </li></ul><ul><li>- Transverse chest diameter > AP </li></ul><ul><li>- Pot bellied </li></ul><ul><li>- Chubby appearance lost </li></ul><ul><li>- Infantile curves straightened </li></ul><ul><li>Dentition - 2 yrs – 16 teeth </li></ul><ul><li>2½ yrs – 20 teeth </li></ul>
  4. 4. BIOLOGIC DEVELOPMENT <ul><li>Skull – OFC > by 1 cm/ 6 months ( 1- 3 yrs) </li></ul><ul><li>Ant Fontanel closure by 18 months </li></ul><ul><li>CNS – No of brain cells complete by toddler age </li></ul><ul><li>Brain – 2/3 of adult by 2 yrs, ¾ by 3 yrs </li></ul><ul><li>Myelination – Improved posture & co-ordination </li></ul><ul><li>Bowel control by 2-3 yrs </li></ul><ul><li>Bladder control by 2½ - 3½ yrs </li></ul><ul><li>Gross motor devt – Walks, runs, climbs. Opens doors </li></ul><ul><li>Fine motor devt – Builds tower of 9-10 blocks, strings </li></ul><ul><li>large beads, works simple puzzles, manipulates </li></ul><ul><li>zippers, opens bathrooms, puts on clothes, </li></ul><ul><li>washes hands </li></ul>
  5. 5. BIOLOGIC DEVELOPMENT <ul><li>Integumentary system- Tougher & more resistant epithelium </li></ul><ul><li>CVS & Resp System - <HR, <Resp, > BP </li></ul><ul><li>Hemopoietic system- RBC - < 4.5 million, Hb – 13 gm% </li></ul><ul><li>Digestive system - >ing stomach capacity </li></ul><ul><li>Immunologic system- Pronounced lymphatic enlargement. Increased incidence of infections </li></ul><ul><li>Adenoids – Max growth by 3 yrs. </li></ul><ul><li>Tonsils - Max growth by 7 yrs </li></ul><ul><li>Renal - >ed ability to conserve water, ready for toilet training </li></ul>
  6. 6. PSYCHOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT <ul><li>Psycho-social – Autonomy Vs Shame & doubt </li></ul><ul><li>- Object permanence </li></ul><ul><li>- Discrimination bet inner & outer worlds </li></ul><ul><li>- Idea of self as a separate being </li></ul><ul><li>Behavioural characteristics – Negativism, temper tantrums, ritualistic behaviour, </li></ul><ul><li>ambivalence, </li></ul><ul><li>sibling rivalry </li></ul>
  7. 7. PSYCHOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT <ul><li>Psychosexual – anal stage </li></ul><ul><li>- Gender identity, sexual exploration, body </li></ul><ul><li>image </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive devt – </li></ul><ul><li>- 0-2 yrs – Sensorimotor </li></ul><ul><li>2-7 yrs – Egocentric, object permanence </li></ul><ul><li>achieved, curiosity, imitation, imagination </li></ul><ul><li>Short memory & attention span </li></ul>
  8. 8. PSYCHOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT <ul><li>Language – Increasing vocab (50 words), grammar, telegraphic speech, monologue </li></ul><ul><li>Play – Parallel, destructive, exploratory, distractible, </li></ul><ul><li>no conscience, quiet, dramatic </li></ul><ul><li>- Helps develop cognitive abilities (size, shape, color, speed, texture..), concepts (heavy, light ) </li></ul><ul><li>- Helps ventilate emotions, develop manual dexterity, motor skills </li></ul><ul><li>Moral devt – Deeds to avoid punishment, please the </li></ul><ul><li>parents. </li></ul><ul><li>Spiritual –Intuitive-projective faith </li></ul>
  9. 9. NEEDS & CONCERNS… <ul><li>Love & security – Separation anxiety & regression </li></ul><ul><li>Discipline leading to self control – constructive discipline, consistency, clarity, firmness, immediacy, encourage independence, punishment </li></ul><ul><li>Dependence progressing to self care </li></ul><ul><li>Control of bodily functions </li></ul><ul><li>Developing self esteem </li></ul><ul><li>Dental care </li></ul>
  10. 10. …NEEDS & CONCERNS <ul><li>Nutrition </li></ul><ul><li>- 100 Cal/ day, water – 100- 125 ml/Kg/day </li></ul><ul><li>- 2-3 cups of milk / day </li></ul><ul><li>- Meal schedule, food preferences, rituals </li></ul><ul><li>- Prevent obesity ( wt for ht > 95 Percentile) </li></ul><ul><li>- Pica (danger of Pb poisoning) </li></ul><ul><li>Health Supervision – Immunization, dental health </li></ul><ul><li>Preparation for Play School </li></ul><ul><li>Engage in house work </li></ul>
  11. 11. Thanks from an Angel

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