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Adult Approach To Education

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This presentation was prepared and presented while undertaking the Graduate Certificate in Higher Education at Deakin University.

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Adult Approach To Education

  1. 1. Transformation to adult learning Through the lens of transformative and constructivist understandings of learning
  2. 2. Typical learning activities in Occupational Therapy Education <ul><li>Pre-reading </li></ul><ul><li>Lectures </li></ul><ul><li>Tutorials </li></ul><ul><li>Workshops </li></ul><ul><li>Reports </li></ul><ul><li>Fieldwork </li></ul><ul><li>Portfolio </li></ul><ul><li>Group-work </li></ul><ul><li>On-line activities </li></ul><ul><li>Self-directed study </li></ul>
  3. 3. Constructivist Understandings of Learning <ul><li>Learning is affected by: </li></ul><ul><li>context of learning (classroom & field) </li></ul><ul><li>beliefs and attitudes (why I am here) </li></ul><ul><li>culture (where I come from) </li></ul><ul><li>Learning is a process of fitting new information with what is already known </li></ul>
  4. 4. Zone of Proximal Development student metacognition competencies self-efficacy Current zone of functioning Future zone of functioning <ul><li>Constructivist learning: </li></ul><ul><li>Curriculum design </li></ul><ul><li>Curriculum delivery </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment tasks </li></ul>Pre-programme During OT programme Post-programme Adapted from:http://www.aare.edu.au/01pap/men01511.htm
  5. 5. Constructivist Understandings of Assessment <ul><li>Assessment tasks are: </li></ul><ul><li>Varied and or negotiable formats </li></ul><ul><li>Related to learning goals (not just for the sake of assessment) </li></ul><ul><li>Clearly related to professional skill development </li></ul><ul><li>Designed to qualify students to be accepted by the profession </li></ul>
  6. 6. Constructivist Understandings of Fieldwork learning <ul><li>Key features: </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple perspectives and representations of concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Goals and objectives are derived by the student in negotiation with the “teacher” </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers serve in the role of facilitators </li></ul>
  7. 7. Constructivist Understandings of Fieldwork learning <ul><li>Key features: </li></ul><ul><li>Activities encourage reflection and self-awareness </li></ul><ul><li>Student plays central role in mediating learning </li></ul><ul><li>Learning occurs in authentic situations </li></ul>
  8. 8. Constructivist Understandings of Fieldwork learning <ul><li>Key features: </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge construction not reproduction </li></ul><ul><li>Learner’s previous knowledge is considered </li></ul><ul><li>Problem solving and higher order thinking emphasised </li></ul>
  9. 9. Constructivist Understandings of Fieldwork learning <ul><li>Key features: </li></ul><ul><li>Errors provide opportunity for re-construction </li></ul><ul><li>Independent exploration to seek knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Apprenticeship learning opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Interdisciplinary learning </li></ul>
  10. 10. Constructivist Understandings of Fieldwork learning <ul><li>Key features: </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborative and cooperative learning </li></ul><ul><li>Scaffolding facilitates students performing just beyond limits of ability (just right challenge) </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment is authentic and interwoven with teaching </li></ul>
  11. 11. Transformative Learning <ul><li>“ A defining condition of being human is that we have to understand the meaning of our experience” (Mezierow, 1997, p.5) </li></ul>
  12. 12. Transformative Learning <ul><li>Involves a deep shift in consciousness: alters thought, feelings and actions </li></ul><ul><li>Leads to exploration of self, power relations, concept of power, race gender, class, social justice </li></ul><ul><li>Challenges beliefs and values </li></ul>
  13. 13. Transformative Learning <ul><li>Approach to teaching </li></ul><ul><li>Self-Reflective </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitator </li></ul><ul><li>Provocateur </li></ul><ul><li>Not the font of knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Enable discourse </li></ul><ul><li>“ Just right challenge” </li></ul>
  14. 14. Transformative Learning <ul><li>Role of the teacher: </li></ul><ul><li>Establish an environment that builds trust and care </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitates the development of sensitive relationships between learners </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher serves as a role model </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher demonstrates willingness to learn & change </li></ul>
  15. 15. Summary of Transformative and Constructivist approaches <ul><li>Critical reflection of self and curriculum </li></ul><ul><li>Discourse is a feature of curriculum </li></ul><ul><li>Authentic assessment tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Boundaries of role (facilitator) </li></ul><ul><li>Positive learning environments </li></ul><ul><li>Actively seeking feedback and using it constructively </li></ul><ul><li>Being student-centered </li></ul>
  16. 16. Bibliography <ul><li>Australian Association of Occupational Therapists. (1999). Australian Competency Standards for Occupational Therapists in Mental Health . [Fitzroy, Vic.]: OT Australia - Australian Association of Occupational Therapists. </li></ul><ul><li>Biggs, J. B., & Society for Research into Higher Education. (2003). Teaching for quality learning at university : what the student does (2nd ed.). Buckingham ; Philadelphia, Pa.: Society for Research into Higher Education : Open University Press. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Bibliography <ul><li>Costa, A. L. (2001). Developing minds : a resource book for teaching thinking (3rd ed.). Alexandria, Va.: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics of Constructivist Learning & Teaching http://www.cdli.ca/~elmurphy/emurphy/cle3.html accessed April 2005. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Bibliography <ul><li>Funderstanding, http://www.funderstanding.com/constructivism.cfm first accessed April 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>Kief, C. A., & Scheerer, C. R. (2001). Clinical competencies in occupational therapy . Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Bibliography <ul><li>Lazear, D. G. (1999). Eight ways of knowing : teaching for multiple intelligences : a handbook of techniques for expanding intelligence (3rd ed.). Cheltenham, Vic.: Hawker Brownlow Education. </li></ul><ul><li>Mezirow, J. (1997). Transformative Learning: Theory to Practice. New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education, 74 , 5-12. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Bibliography <ul><li>Napier-Tibere, B., & Haroun, L. (2003). Occupational therapy fieldwork survival guide : strategies for success . Philadelphia, PA: F.A. Davis. </li></ul><ul><li>World Federation of Occupational Therapists. (1998). Minimum standards for the education of occupational therapists . West Perth, W.A.: The Federation. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Zone of Proximal Development student metacognition competencies self-efficacy Current zone of functioning Future zone of functioning <ul><li>Scaffolded learning </li></ul><ul><li>Guided participation </li></ul><ul><li>Socially shared cognition </li></ul><ul><li>Reflective practice </li></ul>Pre-programme OT programme Post-programme Adapted from:http://www.aare.edu.au/01pap/men01511.htm

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