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Occupational therapyOccupational therapythen and nowthen and nowTracing the origins of occupational therapy:Mapping the fu...
Aims:Aims:►Provide information about history of theProvide information about history of theprofessionprofession►Encourage ...
Why bother with history?Why bother with history?►Occupational therapyOccupational therapy’’s place in a widers place in a ...
When did thinking aboutWhen did thinking aboutoccupation begin?occupation begin?►2600BCChinese believed that “disease was ...
Philosophy and occupationPhilosophy and occupation►Greek philosophers Socrates (400B.C) and Plato (347 B.C)- the relation...
Play and work…Play and work…►Play, games and recreationPart of all primitive life - toys, drawings, sculpturesfound in exc...
Inca leisure occupationsInca leisure occupationsSource: http://www.mexicolore.co.uk/uploadimages/133_00_2.jpg
1780s France1780s France►Moral treatmentPinel introduced work in an asylum for theinsane: “humane treatment”►Injury and di...
Source: http://www.epicidiot.com/thisday/images/pinel.jpg
Developing sciencesDeveloping sciences►The Enlightenment: 18The Enlightenment: 18ththCenturyCentury Moving from tradition...
Occupational therapy beginningsOccupational therapy beginnings► 1880s The settlement house concept begins in England► 1892...
The founders of occupational therapyThe founders of occupational therapyBack row (L to R): William Rush Dunton, Isabelle N...
Eleanor Clarke SlagleEleanor Clarke Slagle► A Social Worker whobecame interested in thenew field of occupationaltherapy► C...
Adolf MeyerAdolf MeyerMeyer (1922) noted that just asour heart beats in a rhythm,so do we respond to thegreater rhythms of...
Thomas B. KidnerThomas B. Kidner► Architect► Immigrated to Canada from England in 1900► 1915 Vocational Secretary of Milit...
The Badge (1919)Foreshadows the 1990’sPer Mentem Et ManusAd SaniatemThrough Mind and HandTo HealthTriangle:Mind, Body and ...
Goldwin HowlandGoldwin Howland► Born in Toronto, 1875► Family in business & politics► Studied medicine► Became a neurologi...
The influence of war…The influence of war…WWI 1914 - 1918WWI 1914 - 1918►Reconstruction Aides- “bedside occupations” for w...
““ReconstructionReconstruction”” as an ideaas an ideaReconstruction aides in official uniformcapes of grey with maroon lin...
WWII 1941 - 1944WWII 1941 - 1944►Improved medicineImproved medicine- greater survival- greater survival- greater disabilit...
Occupational therapy in CanadaOccupational therapy in Canadafill in the gaps…fill in the gaps…Name the pivotal events inoc...
If we were in……If we were in……19391939…………► OT offered its services for injuredOT offered its services for injuredsoldiers...
Therapeutic use of activityTherapeutic use of activity(Anderson & Bell, 1988, p.83)
Adapted tasks for rehabilitationAdapted tasks for rehabilitation(Anderson & Bell, 1988, p.183)
Wilma WestWilma WestWilma L. West, head of orthopedics occupational therapy, Walter Reed GeneralHospital, Washington, DC, ...
Helen WillardHelen Willard(Christensen, 1991, p.33)American Association pioneers Helen Willard andSidney Bottner at the E....
Advertisement forthe first edition ofWillard &SpackmansOccupationalTherapy.Price: $4.50(Gordon, 2009, p. 209)
(Cockburn, 2001)
The 1940sThe 1940s 1939: who was Mary Wilson? 1939-45: What was the CAOT stance on OT forwar rehab? 1943: Who got DVA s...
Muriel DriverMuriel Driver► 1943 Enlisted in the RCAMP Sole therapist for Hamilton Military Hospital Overseas posting in...
Thelma CardwellThelma Cardwell► Graduated from the U of T in 1942► Had a range of clinical positions before her serviceas ...
Isobel RobinsonIsobel Robinson► Graduated from the U of T in 1939► Director of the Uof T program 1967 –1981► Associate edi...
The 1950s and 1960sThe 1950s and 1960sName the pivotal events inoccupational therapy inCanada for these years: 1952 1959...
Kitchens as a place of interestKitchens as a place of interest(Anderson & Bell, 1988, p.171)(Cockburn, 2001)
Working with childrenWorking with children(Willard & Spackman, 1971, p.363)
Mary ReillyMary Reilly…challenged the professionto work more diligentlytoward understandingoccupation from aninterdiscipli...
The 1970sThe 1970s► 1971► 1974► 1974► 1975► 1977► Examples of being more “businesslike” Changes to education of OTs Prov...
Sharon BrintnellSharon Brintnell► Past president CAOT► Muriel Driver lectureship in 1985► Director of the OPAU at the UofA...
The 1980sThe 1980s► 1981 International Year of Disabled Persons► Revised standards for education of occupationaltherapy st...
Elizabeth YerxaElizabeth Yerxa…warned that occupationaltherapy had often not met thechallenge of the profession…Yerxa beli...
The 1980s continued…The 1980s continued…► Return to historicalemphasis on holistic mind-body-spirit perspectivefocusing on...
Gary KielhofnerGary Kielhofner► …influenced by Reillyand Yerxa…► discussed the need forthe profession to continueto develo...
The 1980s were busy!The 1980s were busy!►The Guidelines represented the initialstage in formulating the Canadian Modelof O...
The 1990sThe 1990s► Mary Law chaired a committee to develop anoutcome measure based on the Guidelines: Their work resulte...
The 1990sThe 1990s► Health promotion on the agenda► CMOP and COPM being used widely in Canadaand Internationally► COPM tra...
Elizabeth TownsendElizabeth TownsendFounding member of the schoolof occupational therapy atDalhousie UniversityChairperson...
1990s –1990s – “de-institutionalization“de-institutionalizationof the profession”of the profession”►1990: 3.4% of the memb...
Into the new millenniumInto the new millennium► 1998: WFOT Council Meeting was held in Ottawaand the Congress in Montreal...
Michael IwamaMichael Iwama► Developed the culturallysensitive Kawa model critical work on culture andcritical work on cul...
Into the new millenniumInto the new millennium►2001: CAOT members given unlimitedaccess to OTDBASE►2008: Profile of Occupa...
Assistance to countries developingAssistance to countries developingoccupational therapy services,occupational therapy ser...
Canadian Leadership to theCanadian Leadership to theprofessionprofessionWFOTPresidentThelma Cardwell (1967 -72)Andrée Forg...
Alberta Leadership to theAlberta Leadership to theProfessionProfessionCAOTPresidentSharon Brintnell*Helen Madill*Elizabeth...
Occupational therapy hasOccupational therapy hasemerged as profession that is:emerged as profession that is:Strongly found...
What about in…What about in… 2029?2029?► Where will you be?Where will you be?► What will the world be like?What will the w...
ReferencesAnderson, B. & Bell, J. (1988). Occupational therapy: its place in Australia’shistory. Sydney: NSW Association o...
ReferencesChristensen, E. (1991). A proud heritage: the American Occupational TherapyAssociation at seventy-five. Rockvill...
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A brief history of OT in Canada (an Albertan focus)

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Developed by Anita Hamilton for teaching purposes at the UofA
in conjunction with Lynne Adamson
With support from Sharon Brintnell and Genevieve Pepin

Published in: Education, Health & Medicine

A brief history of OT in Canada (an Albertan focus)

  1. 1. Occupational therapyOccupational therapythen and nowthen and nowTracing the origins of occupational therapy:Mapping the futureDeveloped by Anita HamiltonDeveloped by Anita Hamiltonin conjunction with Lynne Adamsonin conjunction with Lynne AdamsonWith support from Sharon Brintnell andWith support from Sharon Brintnell andGenevieve PepinGenevieve Pepin
  2. 2. Aims:Aims:►Provide information about history of theProvide information about history of theprofessionprofession►Encourage thinking about your place in theEncourage thinking about your place in theprofessionprofession’’s futures future►Create awareness of the development ofCreate awareness of the development ofphilosophical and theoretical perspectivesphilosophical and theoretical perspectives
  3. 3. Why bother with history?Why bother with history?►Occupational therapyOccupational therapy’’s place in a widers place in a widerworld - medical, social, historicalworld - medical, social, historical►Conceptual development - theories guidingConceptual development - theories guidingcurrent practicecurrent practice►Learning from historyLearning from history►Your place in history and the futureYour place in history and the future
  4. 4. When did thinking aboutWhen did thinking aboutoccupation begin?occupation begin?►2600BCChinese believed that “disease was causedby organic inactivity and thus used physicaltraining for the promotion ofhealth…”(Hopkins 1988, p 16).►1000BCPersians used physical training to prepareyoung men for military duty
  5. 5. Philosophy and occupationPhilosophy and occupation►Greek philosophers Socrates (400B.C) and Plato (347 B.C)- the relationship between physical statusand mental health Hippocrates (359 B.C), Galen (200 A.D)- founders of medicine,- recommended exercise as a means ofrecovering from illness
  6. 6. Play and work…Play and work…►Play, games and recreationPart of all primitive life - toys, drawings, sculpturesfound in excavations - Egypt, Babylonia, China,Aztecs, Incas►3400 BCEgyptian men of leisure still engaged in outdoorwork, not idle all day►17ADLivy - “Toil and pleasure in their nature oppositesare linked together in a kind of necessaryconnection”
  7. 7. Inca leisure occupationsInca leisure occupationsSource: http://www.mexicolore.co.uk/uploadimages/133_00_2.jpg
  8. 8. 1780s France1780s France►Moral treatmentPinel introduced work in an asylum for theinsane: “humane treatment”►Injury and diseaseFrench cavalry used crafts and recreationalactivities for disabilities of muscles andjoints following disease or injury
  9. 9. Source: http://www.epicidiot.com/thisday/images/pinel.jpg
  10. 10. Developing sciencesDeveloping sciences►The Enlightenment: 18The Enlightenment: 18ththCenturyCentury Moving from tradition, irrationality,Moving from tradition, irrationality,superstition and tyrannysuperstition and tyranny emphasised reason, science and rationalityemphasised reason, science and rationality
  11. 11. Occupational therapy beginningsOccupational therapy beginnings► 1880s The settlement house concept begins in England► 1892 Dr. Adolf Meyer, a psychiatrist, reported that "the properuse of time in some helpful and gratifying activity appeared to bea fundamental issue in the treatment of the neuropsychiatricpatient”► 1895 William Rush Dunton, Jr., "Father of OccupationalTherapy," psychiatrist fitted a metalworking shop for thetreatment of patients.► 1895 Mary Potter Brooks Meyer, (Meyers wife), a socialworker, introduced a systematic type of activity into the wards ofa state institution in Worcester, Massachusetts.► 1904 Dr. Herbert J. Hall began to prescribe occupation for hispatients as medicine to regulate life and direct interest. He calledthis the "work cure."► 1905 Susan E. Tracy noticed in her training as a nurse thebenefits of occupation in relieving nervous tension and makingbedrest more tolerable for patients.Source: http://www.recreationtherapy.com/history/rthistory2.htm ; Gordon, 2009, p.206)
  12. 12. The founders of occupational therapyThe founders of occupational therapyBack row (L to R): William Rush Dunton, Isabelle Newton, and Thomas Bessell Kidner.Front row (L to R): Susan Cox Johnson, George Edward Barton, and Eleanor Clarke Slagle.(Gordon, 2009, p. 206)
  13. 13. Eleanor Clarke SlagleEleanor Clarke Slagle► A Social Worker whobecame interested in thenew field of occupationaltherapy► Conducted Generaloccupational therapytraining at Hull House,Chicago► 1922 NY state director ofOT► First large-scale OTprogram for a state hospitalsystem
  14. 14. Adolf MeyerAdolf MeyerMeyer (1922) noted that just asour heart beats in a rhythm,so do we respond to thegreater rhythms of day andnight, sleeping and waking,and hunger and satiation, allcentered on the fundamentalactivities of human life: “workand play and rest and sleep”(p. 8).These ideas remain astouchstones of occupationaltherapy thought and practiceto this day.Adolf Meyer, renowned psychobiologistand author of The Philosophy ofOccupation Therapy (1922).(Gordon, 2009, p. 207)
  15. 15. Thomas B. KidnerThomas B. Kidner► Architect► Immigrated to Canada from England in 1900► 1915 Vocational Secretary of MilitaryCanadian Military Hospitals Commission► 1918 loaned by the Canadian government tothe US as advisor on the voc. rehab. ofwounded soldiers► Took an active interest in the organizationand development of the AmericanOccupational Therapy Association andserved for six years as its president.► From 1926 to the time of his death conducteda private consulting business in hospitalarchitecture.(No Author, 1932/1995)
  16. 16. The Badge (1919)Foreshadows the 1990’sPer Mentem Et ManusAd SaniatemThrough Mind and HandTo HealthTriangle:Mind, Body and Spirit1919
  17. 17. Goldwin HowlandGoldwin Howland► Born in Toronto, 1875► Family in business & politics► Studied medicine► Became a neurologist► Served in WWI as a medical officer Where he witnessed “War Aides” in action► Set up the first OT department in Canada in 1919► Became a crucial force in the advancement of OTin Canada► Part of group to establish the OT course at UofT in1926► Established the CJOT in 1933
  18. 18. The influence of war…The influence of war…WWI 1914 - 1918WWI 1914 - 1918►Reconstruction Aides- “bedside occupations” for woundedsoldiers- Eleanor Clarke Slagle directed the trainingof 4000 aides for the American ArmedServices
  19. 19. ““ReconstructionReconstruction”” as an ideaas an ideaReconstruction aides in official uniformcapes of grey with maroon lining(Gordon, 2009, p. 208) (Christensen, 1991, p.31)
  20. 20. WWII 1941 - 1944WWII 1941 - 1944►Improved medicineImproved medicine- greater survival- greater survival- greater disability- greater disability►Occupational therapy focus shifted toOccupational therapy focus shifted toenable returned soldiers return toenable returned soldiers return toproductivity.productivity.The influence of war…The influence of war…
  21. 21. Occupational therapy in CanadaOccupational therapy in Canadafill in the gaps…fill in the gaps…Name the pivotal events inoccupational therapy inCanada for these years: 1918 1920 1922 1926 1932-34 September 1933 1939
  22. 22. If we were in……If we were in……19391939…………► OT offered its services for injuredOT offered its services for injuredsoldiers of World War II.soldiers of World War II.““A profession established during anA profession established during anearlier war was now grown, and readyearlier war was now grown, and readyto contribute again.to contribute again.””► Growing interest in vocational trainingGrowing interest in vocational trainingand industrial therapy programsand industrial therapy programs
  23. 23. Therapeutic use of activityTherapeutic use of activity(Anderson & Bell, 1988, p.83)
  24. 24. Adapted tasks for rehabilitationAdapted tasks for rehabilitation(Anderson & Bell, 1988, p.183)
  25. 25. Wilma WestWilma WestWilma L. West, head of orthopedics occupational therapy, Walter Reed GeneralHospital, Washington, DC, 1943-1944, founder of the American OccupationalTherapy Foundation and president from 1972 to 1982. She was also president ofAOTA from 1961 to 1964 and Eleanor Clarke Slagle lecturer in 1967.(Gordon, 2009, p. 209)
  26. 26. Helen WillardHelen Willard(Christensen, 1991, p.33)American Association pioneers Helen Willard andSidney Bottner at the E.D. Hines, Jr. Hospital,Maywood, Illinois, 1924.
  27. 27. Advertisement forthe first edition ofWillard &SpackmansOccupationalTherapy.Price: $4.50(Gordon, 2009, p. 209)
  28. 28. (Cockburn, 2001)
  29. 29. The 1940sThe 1940s 1939: who was Mary Wilson? 1939-45: What was the CAOT stance on OT forwar rehab? 1943: Who got DVA services up and running? 1947: how many editions of CJOT were producedannually?Name the pivotal events inoccupational therapy in Canada forthese years:
  30. 30. Muriel DriverMuriel Driver► 1943 Enlisted in the RCAMP Sole therapist for Hamilton Military Hospital Overseas posting in the UK► 1946 organized first OT dep’t at RunnymeadeHospital, Toronto► 1948 Supervisor of OT dep’t at Hospital forsick kids Toronto► 1959 director of the CAOT OT program atKingston► 1967 Senior Lecturer at Queens UniversityOT program► Many years of service to CAOT & WFOThttp://www.caot.ca/default.asp?pageid=1357(Cockburn, 2001)
  31. 31. Thelma CardwellThelma Cardwell► Graduated from the U of T in 1942► Had a range of clinical positions before her serviceas a Lieutenant (OT) in the Royal Canadian ArmyCorps 1944-45► Lengthy academic career 1945-1983► President of CAOT 1966► President WFOT 1967-1972► Co-founder of the Canadian Occupational TherapyFoundation (funding scholarship and research)► Thelma Cardwell Lecture series named after her in1977
  32. 32. Isobel RobinsonIsobel Robinson► Graduated from the U of T in 1939► Director of the Uof T program 1967 –1981► Associate editor of CJOT► CAOT board of directors► First archivist for CAOT► Co-founder of COTF► Muriel Driver lectureship 1981► Co-authored and produced thevideo “Fifty years of OccupationalTherapy in Canada”
  33. 33. The 1950s and 1960sThe 1950s and 1960sName the pivotal events inoccupational therapy inCanada for these years: 1952 1959 1960 1961 1966 1970 What theme emerged in the1960s in the OTprofession?
  34. 34. Kitchens as a place of interestKitchens as a place of interest(Anderson & Bell, 1988, p.171)(Cockburn, 2001)
  35. 35. Working with childrenWorking with children(Willard & Spackman, 1971, p.363)
  36. 36. Mary ReillyMary Reilly…challenged the professionto work more diligentlytoward understandingoccupation from aninterdisciplinaryperspective, includingfindings in oranizationaltheory, sociology,psychology, philosophy,economics, and biology.(Gordon, 2009, p.211)
  37. 37. The 1970sThe 1970s► 1971► 1974► 1974► 1975► 1977► Examples of being more “businesslike” Changes to education of OTs Provincial Legislation Emerging talk about models of practiceName the pivotal events in occupationaltherapy in Canada for these years:
  38. 38. Sharon BrintnellSharon Brintnell► Past president CAOT► Muriel Driver lectureship in 1985► Director of the OPAU at the UofA► Consultant to the National Institute ofDisability Management and Research► Pivotal role in development of OTguidelines for client-centred practice► Secured the grant to develop thenational certification examination inOT► Active role in developing OT in SaudiArabia, Indonesia,► Past honorary treasurer WFOT► Current president WFOT
  39. 39. The 1980sThe 1980s► 1981 International Year of Disabled Persons► Revised standards for education of occupationaltherapy students► 1983 (May 17) Canadian Occupational TherapyFoundation (COTF) spearheaded by KarenGoldenberg► 1983-1986 Development of the NationalCertification Examination► Graduate programs Canadas first MScOT program offered at theUniversity of Alberta in 1986
  40. 40. Elizabeth YerxaElizabeth Yerxa…warned that occupationaltherapy had often not met thechallenge of the profession…Yerxa believed that theprofession must focus on itsunique assets, such asallowing the client to exercisechoice in the engagement of“self-initiated, purposefulactivity”(Gordon, 2009, p.211)
  41. 41. The 1980s continued…The 1980s continued…► Return to historicalemphasis on holistic mind-body-spirit perspectivefocusing on occupationand client-centred practice► 1987: First ever NationalOT week► 1983: Development ofnationally-based, genericguidelines for the practiceof occupational therapy
  42. 42. Gary KielhofnerGary Kielhofner► …influenced by Reillyand Yerxa…► discussed the need forthe profession to continueto develop a paradigm ofoccupation that takes intoaccount the active natureof the human adaptiveprocess with attention toongoing researchconcerningdevelopmental and socialtheoryPicture source: http://tinyurl.com/nxecm8
  43. 43. The 1980s were busy!The 1980s were busy!►The Guidelines represented the initialstage in formulating the Canadian Modelof Occupational Performance (CMOP)►CAOT formed the Client-Centred PracticeCommittee in 1989►This decade featured work in the areas ofsocial and political activism by theprofession and development of a strongprofessional identity
  44. 44. The 1990sThe 1990s► Mary Law chaired a committee to develop anoutcome measure based on the Guidelines: Their work resulted in the development of theCanadian Occupational Performance Measure(COPM) in the 1990s.► Sharon Brintnell chaired a committee to developthe Occupational Therapy Guidelines For Client-Centred Mental Health Practice Published in 1993.
  45. 45. The 1990sThe 1990s► Health promotion on the agenda► CMOP and COPM being used widely in Canadaand Internationally► COPM translated into 20 different languages► 1997: Enabling Occupation: An OccupationalTherapy Perspective was published► Evidence of “practice efficacy” being called for Emergence of the EBP era
  46. 46. Elizabeth TownsendElizabeth TownsendFounding member of the schoolof occupational therapy atDalhousie UniversityChairperson of CAOT’s client-centred Practice Committeesince 1990Key contributor to the “EnablingOccupation” textsKey figure in the OccupationalScience movement in Canadaand InternationallyMuriel Driver Memorial Lecturer1993.
  47. 47. 1990s –1990s – “de-institutionalization“de-institutionalizationof the profession”of the profession”►1990: 3.4% of the membership was self-employed; this figure jumped to 23.1% by2000 (CAOT, 2001)►October 26, 1995: CAOT moves to Ottawa►1996: The Profile of Occupational TherapyPractice in Canada developed to describeoccupational therapy practice in Canada.►1996: CAOT revised its AcademicAccreditation Standards
  48. 48. Into the new millenniumInto the new millennium► 1998: WFOT Council Meeting was held in Ottawaand the Congress in Montreal (3500 delegates from 55 countries)► 1998: CAOT launches its first website► 2000: Occupational therapy was regulated in eachprovince.
  49. 49. Michael IwamaMichael Iwama► Developed the culturallysensitive Kawa model critical work on culture andcritical work on culture andits implications forits implications forknowledge, theory andknowledge, theory andpractice in Occupationalpractice in OccupationalTherapyTherapy"No matter what model one uses,its important to try to appreciatewhat daily life looks like through theeyes of the client." - Michael Iwama
  50. 50. Into the new millenniumInto the new millennium►2001: CAOT members given unlimitedaccess to OTDBASE►2008: Profile of Occupational Therapy andeducation Accreditation standards revisedand updated►2008: Sharon Brintnell becomes presidentof WFOT►2009: Liz Taylor becomes president ofCAOT►2009: CAOT members given access toBJOT, JOS and Work (journals)
  51. 51. Assistance to countries developingAssistance to countries developingoccupational therapy services,occupational therapy services,educational programs & CBReducational programs & CBR► Scotland (1920) CAOT► Venezuela (1955) E.S Brintnell► Vietnam (1980) WHO► Indonesia (1989-95) University of Alberta► Bosnia- Herzegovina(1997) Queens University► Russia (1992) University of Western Ontario
  52. 52. Canadian Leadership to theCanadian Leadership to theprofessionprofessionWFOTPresidentThelma Cardwell (1967 -72)Andrée Forget (1981-86)Sharon Brintnell (2008-Vice PresidentGillian Crawford (1952-1954)Andrée Forget (1981-86)Secretary – TreasurerThelma Cardwell (1958 -1964)SecretaryBarbara Postuma (1986-1996)TreasurerSharon Brintnell (1998 – 2008)
  53. 53. Alberta Leadership to theAlberta Leadership to theProfessionProfessionCAOTPresidentSharon Brintnell*Helen Madill*Elizabeth Taylor*Heather ChiltonLorna ReimerElizabeth TaylorSecretarySharon Brintnell*Elizabeth Taylor*AAROT#PresidentHelen Madill*Elizabeth Taylor**U of A Faculty Members#AAROT becomes ACOT and SAOT
  54. 54. Occupational therapy hasOccupational therapy hasemerged as profession that is:emerged as profession that is:Strongly foundedClient-centredEvidence-basedCost-effectiveDiversifyingEvolving
  55. 55. What about in…What about in… 2029?2029?► Where will you be?Where will you be?► What will the world be like?What will the world be like?► What will occupational therapyWhat will occupational therapybe offering to health care andbe offering to health care andbroader society?broader society?► What area of work will interestWhat area of work will interestyou?you?► How many of you will be…How many of you will be… managers of servicesmanagers of services educatorseducators influencing policy/a politicianinfluencing policy/a politician VirtualVirtual therapiststherapists
  56. 56. ReferencesAnderson, B. & Bell, J. (1988). Occupational therapy: its place in Australia’shistory. Sydney: NSW Association of Occupational Therapists.Bearup, C. (1996). Occupational therapists in wartime. Adelaide: AustralianAssociation of Occupational Therapists (SA).Clark Greene, M., Lertvilai, M., & Bribriesco, K. (2001). Prospering throughchange: CAOT from 1991 to 2001. Occupational Therapy Now, 3(6), 13-19. *access from the internet (http://www.caot.ca/default.asp?pageid=1041)Cockburn, L. (2001a). The greater the barrier, the greater the success:CAOT during the 1940s. Occupational Therapy Now, 3(2), 15-18.*access from the internet (http://www.caot.ca/default.asp?pageid=1041)Cockburn, L. (2001b). The professional era: CAOT in the 1950s & 1960s.Occupational Therapy Now, 3(3), 5-9. *access from the internet (http://www.caot.ca/default.asp?pageid=1041)Cockburn, L. (2001c). Change, expansion and reorganization: CAOT in the1970s. Occupational Therapy Now, 3(4), 3-6. *access from the internet(http://www.caot.ca/default.asp?pageid=1041)
  57. 57. ReferencesChristensen, E. (1991). A proud heritage: the American Occupational TherapyAssociation at seventy-five. Rockville, Maryland: The American OccupationalTherapy Association, Inc.  Friedland, J., Robinson, I., & Cardwell, T. (2001). In the beginning: CAOT from1926-1939. Occupational Therapy Now, 3(1), 15-19. *access from the internet(http://www.caot.ca/otnow/jan01-eng/jan01-history.cfm)Gordon, D., M. (2009). The History of Occupational Therapy. In E. B. Crepeau, E.S. Cohn & B. A. Boyt Schell (Eds.), Willard and Spackmans OccupationalTherapy (11 ed., pp. 202-215). Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins.No Author. (1932/2005). Death of Thomas B. Kidner. Psychiatric Quarterly 6(3),569. DOI: 10.1007/BF01586392Johnson, S. (2010). Where good ideas come from. Accessed fromhttp://www.ted.com/talks/steven_johnson_where_good_ideas_come_from.htmlon 20 September 2010. TED TalksTrentham, B. (2001). Diffident no longer: Building structures for a proudprofession. CAOT in the 1980’s. Occupational Therapy Now, 3(5), 3-7. *accessfrom the internet (http://www.caot.ca/default.asp?pageid=1041)University of Toronto (ND). Occupational Science and Occupational Therapy,Illustrious Occupational Therapy Graduates from U of T. accessed fromhttp://www.ot.utoronto.ca/about/past_ots.asp on September 18, 2009.Willard, H.S. & Spackman, C.S. (1971). Occupational therapy. 4th Edn.Philadelphia: J.B.Lippincott.

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