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MALIGNANCY
BY
Dr. Anit Acharya
Batch – 2013
Department of Materia
Medica
 Malignancy in Latin male meaning “badly”and –gnus
means “born”is the tendency of medical condition to
become progressive...
Hippocrates (ca. 460 BC – ca. 370 BC) described several
kinds of cancer, referring to them with
the Greek word καρκίνοs ka...
What Is Cancer?
 Cancer is a large group
of diseases (over 200)
characterized by
uncontrolled growth
and spread of
abnorm...
Normal Cells Vs. Cancer Cells
 Lose control over growth and
multiplication
 Do not self-destruct when they
become worn o...
Growth of Cancer Cells
 Size of cancer cells:
 One million cancer
cells = head of a pin
 One billion cancer
cells = a s...
TYPES OF TUMOURS
Types of Cancer
 Carcinomas
 Sarcomas
 Lymphomas
 Leukaemias
 Adenomas
 Often prefixed by the specific cell
Risks For Cancer
 Lifetime risk – the probability that an individual, over
the course of a lifetime, will develop cancer ...
Lung Cancer…..
 Since 1987, more women have died from lung cancer
that breast cancer
 Symptoms: persistent cough, blood-...
Breast Cancer…..
 1 out of 8 women will develop breast cancer (lifetime risk)
 Detection: mammograms, regular breast sel...
Colon And Rectal Cancers……..
 Risk factors: over 50 years old, obese, family history of
colon or rectum cancer or polyps,...
Prostate Cancer……
 1 in 3 men will be diagnosed in their lifetime
 Prostate is a muscular, walnut-sized gland the
surrou...
Skin Cancer…..
 Long term effects of sun exposure can result in skin
cancer
 Malignant melanoma, deadliest form of skin ...
Skin Cancer…..
 The ABCD’s of melanoma
(skin cancer):
◦ Asymmetry: one half is not like
the other
◦ Border: the edges are...
Testicular Cancer…..
 Men between the ages 15-35 are at the greatest
risk
 Important to practice regular testicular self...
Ovarian Cancer…..
 Most common symptom is enlargement of the abdomen
 Risk factors include: family history, age, childbe...
Cervical and Endometrial (Uterine)
Cancer……..
 Pap test – cells are taken from the cervical region
 Risk factors:
◦ Cerv...
Other Cancers……..
 Pancreatic cancer – “silent” 4% 5-year
survival rate
 Leukemia – cancer of blood forming
tissues
Diagnosis and staging
 Clinical History
 Normal diagnostic procedures
◦ Scans, xrays
◦ Blood tests
◦ Biopsy
 Pathologic...
Detecting Cancer
 The earlier the diagnosis the better the prospect
for survival
 Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
 Com...
TNM Staging
 T (a,is,(0),1-4): size or direct extent of the primary tumor
 N (0-3): degree of spread to regional lymph n...
Other parameters.....
 G (1-4): the grade of the cancer cells (i.e. they are "low grade"
if they appear similar to normal...
Examples
 Small, low grade cancer, no metastasis, no spread to
regional lymph nodes, cancer completely removed,
resection...
New Hope In Cancer Treatments
 Remove less surrounding tissue during surgery
 Combine surgery with radiation or chemothe...
Side-effects of chemotherapy…..
 * Hair loss
 * Nausea and vomiting
 * Infections (bacterial and fungal) of oral cavity...
Side-effects of radiotherapy….
 * Hair loss
 * Buccal mucositis, xerostomia and rarely osteoradionecrosis
when radiation...
MIASM
 Dr. A.H. Grimmer quote "My experience has been that
there is not a case of Cancer without a tubercular
background....
 The potencies suggested are ( as a general guideline ) -
high potencies for the precancerous phase and medium
and low po...
Scope of homoeopathy
 General Treatment of Cancer.
 This is composed of :
 1. Constitutional remedies.
 2. Cancer reme...
 Homoeopathic treatment can be useful in cancer -
 1. To retard the progression of cancer
 2. To palliate the cancer pa...
 Selection of the medicine
 There are two lines of action -
 1. General treatment - medicines given during the
precance...
General treatment
 This comprises : a. Constitutional remedies
 b. Cancer remedies
 c. Drainage and canalisation remedi...
 b. Cancer remedies
 The most habitual remedies :
 They have the most constant action on the tumoral
element as well as...
iii. Tumour remedies
 Silicea and its satellites Silica acid , Calcarea :
Connective and interstitial tissue
 Baryta car...
 The Calcareas : Lymphatic glands
 Calcarea fluorica : Connective tissue and glands.
 Aurum , Ruta , Silica , Symphytum...
c. Drainage and canalisation remedies
:
These remedies are supposed to drain the toxins
produced in the body.They are sele...
 Pylorus and duodenum : Ornithogalum
 Intestines : Cundurango, Carbo animalis
Arsenicum album , Sedum repens , Petroleum...
 Pancreas : Phosphorus .
 Uterus : Aurum m.n. , Kreosotum ,
Cinnamomum , Sepia .
 Breasts : Asterias rubens , Conium ,
...
 Skin : Scrofularia nodosa , Cundurango , Galium
aparine Arsenicum album , Thuja , Cinnabaris , Petroleum , Kali arsenicu...
Local treatment
 The tinctures used most often by them are :
 All cancers : Sedum repens , Phytolacca , Scrofularia
nodo...
Cancer themes and personality
 the overwhelming high degree of cell division, with need for
control in order to survive
...
 try hard to please others
 high level of performance
 often had demanding parents, who set up high
expectations, deman...
10 Rules to Avoid Cancer
2. Don’t smoke.
3. Don’t smoke.
4. Avoid exposure to other known carcinogens,
including aflatoxin...
“In the battle of life,
When the wave and the
gale
Are around and about;
If the footing should fail
If thine eye should gr...
References
• Pathology..by harsh mohan
• APItextbook of medicine
• J.C.Burnett…curability of tumours
• J.H.Clarke..the cur...
presentation on Malignancy
presentation on Malignancy
presentation on Malignancy
presentation on Malignancy
presentation on Malignancy
presentation on Malignancy
presentation on Malignancy
presentation on Malignancy
presentation on Malignancy
presentation on Malignancy
presentation on Malignancy
presentation on Malignancy
presentation on Malignancy
presentation on Malignancy
presentation on Malignancy
presentation on Malignancy
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presentation on Malignancy

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presentation on malignancy with homoeopathic view.

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presentation on Malignancy

  1. 1. MALIGNANCY BY Dr. Anit Acharya Batch – 2013 Department of Materia Medica
  2. 2.  Malignancy in Latin male meaning “badly”and –gnus means “born”is the tendency of medical condition to become progressively worse.  Neoplasms is new growth of tissues that serves no physiological actions.  Tumour is clumping of neoplasmic cells.
  3. 3. Hippocrates (ca. 460 BC – ca. 370 BC) described several kinds of cancer, referring to them with the Greek word καρκίνοs karkinos (crabor crayfish).This name comes from the appearance of the cut surface of a solid malignant tumor, with "the veins stretched on all sides as the animal the crab has its feet, whence it derives its name".Galen stated that "cancer of the breast is so called because of the fancied resemblance to a crab given by the lateral prolongations of the tumor and the adjacent distended veins".Celsus (ca. 25 BC – 50 AD) translated karkinos into theLatin cancer, also meaning crab .
  4. 4. What Is Cancer?  Cancer is a large group of diseases (over 200) characterized by uncontrolled growth and spread of abnormal cells.*
  5. 5. Normal Cells Vs. Cancer Cells  Lose control over growth and multiplication  Do not self-destruct when they become worn out or damaged  Crowd out healthy cells
  6. 6. Growth of Cancer Cells  Size of cancer cells:  One million cancer cells = head of a pin  One billion cancer cells = a small grape  230 = 1,073,741,824 = 1 billion cells 2-6 weeks  Cancer cells reproduce every 2-6 weeks. 2-6 weeks 2-6 weeks
  7. 7. TYPES OF TUMOURS
  8. 8. Types of Cancer  Carcinomas  Sarcomas  Lymphomas  Leukaemias  Adenomas  Often prefixed by the specific cell
  9. 9. Risks For Cancer  Lifetime risk – the probability that an individual, over the course of a lifetime, will develop cancer or die from it  Relative risk – measure of the strength of the relationship between risk factors and a particular cancer  Smoking – 30% of all cancer deaths, 87% of lung cancer deaths  Obesity – 50% higher risk for breast cancer in postmenopausal women, 40% higher risk in colon cancer for men
  10. 10. Lung Cancer…..  Since 1987, more women have died from lung cancer that breast cancer  Symptoms: persistent cough, blood-streaked sputum, chest pain  Treatment: surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy  Prevention: avoid smoking and environmental tobacco smoke
  11. 11. Breast Cancer…..  1 out of 8 women will develop breast cancer (lifetime risk)  Detection: mammograms, regular breast self-exams  Symptoms: lump in the breast, thickening, dimpling, skin irritation, distortion or tenderness  Risk factors: family history, hyperplasia, long menstrual history, obesity after menopause, oral contraceptives  Treatment: lumpectomy, radical mastectomy, radiation, chemotherapy  Prevention: exercise
  12. 12. Colon And Rectal Cancers……..  Risk factors: over 50 years old, obese, family history of colon or rectum cancer or polyps, diets high in fats, low in fiber, smoking, high alcohol consumption, lack of exercise  90% of colorectal cancers are preventable  Treatment: radiation, surgery, and possible chemotherapy  Prevention: regular exercise, a diet heavy in fruits and plant-origin foods, a health weight, and moderation in alcohol consumption
  13. 13. Prostate Cancer……  1 in 3 men will be diagnosed in their lifetime  Prostate is a muscular, walnut-sized gland the surrounds part of the urethra. Its primary function is to produce seminal fluid.  Symptoms: nonspecific, weak or interrupted urine flow, difficulty starting or stopping urination  Risk factors: age, race, nationality, family history, diet, lifestyle, and vasectomy  Prevention: diet high in lycopenes, vitamin E
  14. 14. Skin Cancer…..  Long term effects of sun exposure can result in skin cancer  Malignant melanoma, deadliest form of skin cancer  Sun give off 3 types of harmful rays: ◦ UVA ◦ UVB ◦ UVC  Prevention: limit exposure to harmful UV rays, drink more fluids than usual, apply cool compresses to skin, moisturize skin
  15. 15. Skin Cancer…..  The ABCD’s of melanoma (skin cancer): ◦ Asymmetry: one half is not like the other ◦ Border: the edges are jagged or irregular ◦ Color: the color is varied, tan, red, black ect ◦ Diameter: the diameter is larger than 8mm (the top of a pencil eraser A B C D
  16. 16. Testicular Cancer…..  Men between the ages 15-35 are at the greatest risk  Important to practice regular testicular self exams  Lance Armstrong Foundation “LiveStrong” campaign to raise awareness
  17. 17. Ovarian Cancer…..  Most common symptom is enlargement of the abdomen  Risk factors include: family history, age, childbearing, cancer history, fertility drugs, talc use in genital area, genetic predisposition  Prevention: diet high in vegetables and low in fat, exercise, sleep, stress management, and weight control
  18. 18. Cervical and Endometrial (Uterine) Cancer……..  Pap test – cells are taken from the cervical region  Risk factors: ◦ Cervical cancer: early age at first intercourse, multiple sex partners, cigarette smoking, and certain STIs ◦ Endometrial cancer: age, endometrial hyperplasia, overweight, diabetes, and high blood pressure
  19. 19. Other Cancers……..  Pancreatic cancer – “silent” 4% 5-year survival rate  Leukemia – cancer of blood forming tissues
  20. 20. Diagnosis and staging  Clinical History  Normal diagnostic procedures ◦ Scans, xrays ◦ Blood tests ◦ Biopsy  Pathological staging  Screening
  21. 21. Detecting Cancer  The earlier the diagnosis the better the prospect for survival  Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)  Computerized axial tomography scan (CAT scan)  Prostatic ultrasound  Regular self-exams, and check ups
  22. 22. TNM Staging  T (a,is,(0),1-4): size or direct extent of the primary tumor  N (0-3): degree of spread to regional lymph nodes  N0: tumor cells absent from regional lymph nodes  N1: tumor cells spread to closest or small number of regional lymph nodes  N2: tumor cells spread to an extent between N1 and N3.  N3: tumor cells spread to most distant or numerous regional lymph nodes  M (0/1): presence of metastasis  M0: no distant metastasis  M1: metastasis to distant organs (beyond regional lymph nodes)
  23. 23. Other parameters.....  G (1-4): the grade of the cancer cells (i.e. they are "low grade" if they appear similar to normal cells, and "high grade" if they appear poorly differentiated)  R (0/1/2): the completeness of the operation (surgery- boundaries free of cancer cells or not)  L (0/1): invasion into lymphatics  V (0/1): invasion into vein  C (1-4): a modifier of the certainty (quality) of the last mentioned parameter
  24. 24. Examples  Small, low grade cancer, no metastasis, no spread to regional lymph nodes, cancer completely removed, resection material seen by pathologist - pT1 pN0 M0 R0 G1; this would be considered Stage I.  Large, high grade cancer, with spread to regional lymph nodes and other organs, not completely removed, seen by pathologist - pT4 pN2 M1 R1 G3; this would be considered Stage IV.  Most Stage I tumors are curable; most Stage IV tumors are not.
  25. 25. New Hope In Cancer Treatments  Remove less surrounding tissue during surgery  Combine surgery with radiation or chemotherapy  Immunotherapy  Cancer-fighting vaccines  Gene therapy  Stem cell research
  26. 26. Side-effects of chemotherapy…..  * Hair loss  * Nausea and vomiting  * Infections (bacterial and fungal) of oral cavity.  * Arrhythmia pericarditis and rarely cardiac ischaemia and infarction.  * Chemotherapy-induced pneumonitis.  * Gonadal dysfunction  * Secondary malignancy - usually in those treated for Hodgkin's disease, paediatric cancers and breast cancers. The chemotherapy given may lead to acute non-lymphocytic leukaemia
  27. 27. Side-effects of radiotherapy….  * Hair loss  * Buccal mucositis, xerostomia and rarely osteoradionecrosis when radiation is given to head and neck.  * Pericarditis and rarely cardiac ischaemia and infarction.  * Radiation pneumonitis  * Gonadal dysfunction  * Radiation-induced skin burns  * Secondary malignancy - usually bone cancer
  28. 28. MIASM  Dr. A.H. Grimmer quote "My experience has been that there is not a case of Cancer without a tubercular background. It growths on a tubercular soul. It is the miasm where in the blending of all the other miasms results".  disease has an evolution of miasmatic phase from Psora to Syphilis, the same holds true for cancer. Hahnemann in his Chronic diseases classifies cancer under Psora (here actually he means the earliest pre-cancerous states). Robert in his Principles and Art of Cure mentions cancer as multi-miasmatic. I would like to classify as follows : (1) All exophytic growths e.g. Warts, Dermoid cyst, Bony tumors, etc. are syco-syphilitic in nature. (2) All ulcerative and fungative growths are syphilitic in nature. (3) Whenever cancer is accompanied by haemorrhage and secondary infection it is due to presence of strong tubercular miasm
  29. 29.  The potencies suggested are ( as a general guideline ) - high potencies for the precancerous phase and medium and low potencies for the cancerous phase .  In the precancerous phase , the results obtained with the use of these medicines alone are good .  In the cancerous phase , the results obtained with the use of these medicines alone are very uncertain and cure is extremely rare .
  30. 30. Scope of homoeopathy  General Treatment of Cancer.  This is composed of :  1. Constitutional remedies.  2. Cancer remedies.  3. Drainage remedies.  4. Specific nosodes.  5. Anthroposophical remedies
  31. 31.  Homoeopathic treatment can be useful in cancer -  1. To retard the progression of cancer  2. To palliate the cancer pains .  3. To cure precancerous state , and  4. To oppose the ' general intoxication ' in a case of confirmed cancer .
  32. 32.  Selection of the medicine  There are two lines of action -  1. General treatment - medicines given during the precancerous phase ; the cancerous phase and after it .  2. Local treatment - possible only during the actual cancerous phase.
  33. 33. General treatment  This comprises : a. Constitutional remedies  b. Cancer remedies  c. Drainage and canalisation remedies  A. Constitutional or basic remedies ; These are the polychrest remedies selected  mainly on the basis of the mental and physical general symptoms and to a  limited extent on the basis of physical particular symptoms .
  34. 34.  b. Cancer remedies  The most habitual remedies :  They have the most constant action on the tumoral element as well as the general state ;  Example : Sedum acre , Sedum repens , Scrofularia nodosa , Sempervivum tectorum , Carbo animalis , Cundurango , Cistus canadensis , Hydrastis , Kreosotum, Ornithogalum , Phytolacca .  ii. Remedies for pains Example : Arsenicum album , Nitric acid , Apis , Arnica , Bryonia , Calcarea acetica , Euphorbium , Magnesia phosphorica , Ruta .
  35. 35. iii. Tumour remedies  Silicea and its satellites Silica acid , Calcarea : Connective and interstitial tissue  Baryta carbonica : Scleroed and indurated tissues , especially breast adenomas.  Aurum metallicum, Aurum arsenicum, Aurum muriaticum natronatum : Indurated and scirrhous forms of malignancy .  Plumbum iodatum : Indurated and scirrhous forms of malignancy.  Selenium: Sarcomas
  36. 36.  The Calcareas : Lymphatic glands  Calcarea fluorica : Connective tissue and glands.  Aurum , Ruta , Silica , Symphytum : Osseous tissue .  iv. Several minerals and acids : The results with these do not appear to be encouraging.  Acetic acid , Carbolic acid , formic acid , Calcarea iodata , Calcarea oxalica , Kali Cyanatum , Plumbum iodatum , Cinnabaris , Carboneum sulphuratum , Ova tosta , Arsenicum bromatum , Antimonium chloridum
  37. 37. c. Drainage and canalisation remedies : These remedies are supposed to drain the toxins produced in the body.They are selected on the basis of their local action and administered in material doses , that is , one or two drops of a well prepared Example :  Lips : Cundurango .  Tongue : Kali cyanatum , Sempervum tectorum, Galium aparine .  Pharynx : Cistus canadensis .  Oesophagus : Cundurango .  Stomach : Carbo animalis , Cundurango , Hydrastis , Lycopodium, Kali bichromicum.
  38. 38.  Pylorus and duodenum : Ornithogalum  Intestines : Cundurango, Carbo animalis Arsenicum album , Sedum repens , Petroleum.  Caecum : Ornithogalum  Simoid colon and rectum : Ruta , Scrofularia nodosa , Sempervivum tectorum .  Anus : Cundurango .  Liver : Cholesterinum , Lycopodium , Phosphorus , Choline, Taraxacum , Chelidonium , Carduus marianus .
  39. 39.  Pancreas : Phosphorus .  Uterus : Aurum m.n. , Kreosotum , Cinnamomum , Sepia .  Breasts : Asterias rubens , Conium , Carbo animalis , Hydrastis, Sempervivum tectorum , Plumbum iodatum, Thuja.  Testes : Aurum metallicum .  Scrotum : Fuligo ligni
  40. 40.  Skin : Scrofularia nodosa , Cundurango , Galium aparine Arsenicum album , Thuja , Cinnabaris , Petroleum , Kali arsenicum , Radium bromide .  Eye ( lids ) : Cundurango .  Periosteum : Ruta , Symphytum, Phosphorus .  Lymphatic glands : Carbo animalis .  Glands : Scrofularia nodosa , Iodum, Calcarea fluorica .  Face : Thuja , Cinnabaris .  Neck : Cistus canadensis , Mercerise ( parotids )
  41. 41. Local treatment  The tinctures used most often by them are :  All cancers : Sedum repens , Phytolacca , Scrofularia nodosa Hydrastis . ,   Stomach : Cundurango , Ornithogalum , Conium .  Breast : Conium , Bryonia .  Ulcerated cancers : Calendula .  Ruta in case of cancer of the colon .  Ornithogalum in a case of cancer of the stomach .  Lobelia erinus in a case of cancer of the omentum  The remedies for the ill-effects of radiotherapy are Cadmium iodide , Calcarea fluor , Fluoric acid , Phos. , Radium brom , Silica , Sulphur , X- ray.
  42. 42. Cancer themes and personality  the overwhelming high degree of cell division, with need for control in order to survive  feeling of chaos, disorder, and of losing control  need for self control and to restore order  little chance of success but some hope  expected to fulfill a great demand which he is incapable of doing  making superhuman efforts and stretching oneself beyond the limits of his capacity in order to survive  failure is death and destruction  continuous and prolonged struggle which seems to have no end  cancer people are a model of perfection, one with whom it is easy to get along and difficult to find faults  no rest or freedom from tension
  43. 43.  try hard to please others  high level of performance  often had demanding parents, who set up high expectations, demanded quality and achievements, and were moralizing and ethical  or have a history of lack of closeness with one or both parents, or a lack of closeness with spouse or others who would normally be close
  44. 44. 10 Rules to Avoid Cancer 2. Don’t smoke. 3. Don’t smoke. 4. Avoid exposure to other known carcinogens, including aflatoxin, asbestos and UV light. 6. Eat fresh fruit and vegetables several times a day. 7. Be physically active and avoid obesity. 8. Have vaccination against, or early detection/treatment of, cancer causing chronic infections. 9. Have the right genes. 10. Have good luck ! 5. Enjoy a healthy diet, moderate in calories, salt and fat, and low in alcohol. 1. Don’t smoke
  45. 45. “In the battle of life, When the wave and the gale Are around and about; If the footing should fail If thine eye should grow dim, and thy courage depart, Look aloft and be firm and be fearless of heart."
  46. 46. References • Pathology..by harsh mohan • APItextbook of medicine • J.C.Burnett…curability of tumours • J.H.Clarke..the cure of tumours by medicines. • A.H Grimmer…the homoeopathic treatment of cancer. • Special regards to few facts from wikipedia…

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