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  2. 2. DEFINITION OF CONJUNCTIONS <ul><li>Conjunction is a word we used to join or link two or more </li></ul><ul><li>sentences together or two words within the same sentence. </li></ul><ul><li>The most command conjunctions in English are: and, but, or </li></ul><ul><li>nor, for </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Please bring music and snacks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maria is tall but her friend is short </li></ul></ul><ul><li>There are 3 classes of conjunction: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Coordinate Conjunction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Subordinate Conjunction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Correlative Conjunction </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. COORDINATE CONJUNCTIONS <ul><li>There are 7 coordinate conjunctions . They are short, simple words and have only 2 or 3 letters. </li></ul><ul><li>For example: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two words : cake and muffin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two phrases: in the car or on the bike </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two independent clauses: You must study, or you won’t success. </li></ul></ul>F A N B O Y S FOR AND NOR BUT OR YET SO
  4. 4. <ul><li>A coordinate conjunction joins two equal parts of speech (words or independent clauses). </li></ul><ul><li> + </li></ul><ul><li>e.g: I like tea and coffee </li></ul><ul><li>*the conjunction “ and ” joins the sentences: “ I like tea ” with ‘ I like coffee” </li></ul><ul><li>A coordinate conjunction always come between the words or clauses that they join. </li></ul><ul><li>e.g: I painted the walls but Shila painted the woodwork. </li></ul><ul><li>* but is a coordinate conjunction joining clauses of equal significance in the sentence. </li></ul>IC IC
  5. 5. SUBORDINATE CONJUNCTIONS <ul><li>Subordinate conjunctions are used to join a subordinate dependent clause to a main clause. </li></ul><ul><li>Common subordinate conjunctions are: </li></ul><ul><li>after, although, as, because, before, if, provided, since, </li></ul><ul><li>until, unless, than, whenever, wherever, while, where, when. </li></ul><ul><li>e.g.: They are sleeping because they are tired </li></ul><ul><li>“ The Subordinate Conjunctions Song” </li></ul><ul><li>Subordinate Conjunctions I hate and I abhor </li></ul><ul><li>There’s after , although , as , because and before </li></ul><ul><li>If , provided , since , and unless , until , and than , </li></ul><ul><li>There’s whenever , wherever , and while , and, where , and when </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>A subordinate conjunction joins a subordinate [dependent] clause to a main [independent] clause. </li></ul><ul><li> + </li></ul><ul><li>e.g.: I fell on my face after I tripped on the stairs </li></ul><ul><li>A subordinate or dependent clause cannot stand alone . It depends on a main or independent clause </li></ul><ul><li>A subordinate conjunction always come at the beginning of a subordinate clause. </li></ul>Independent clause (IC) Dependent clause (DC)
  7. 7. <ul><li>However, a subordinate clause can sometimes come after and sometimes before a main clause. </li></ul><ul><li>Thus, two structures are possible: </li></ul><ul><li> + = complex </li></ul><ul><li>I fell on my face after I tripped on the stairs. </li></ul><ul><li>+ , = complex </li></ul><ul><li>after I tripped on the stairs , I fell on my face. </li></ul>IC DC DC IC
  8. 8. CORRELATIVE CONJUNCTIONS <ul><li>Correlative conjunctions are always used in pairs . </li></ul><ul><li>[either…or], [both…and], [neither..nor], </li></ul><ul><li>[not only..but also], [whether..of] </li></ul><ul><li> Example: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Both Fairuz and I are allergic to seafood. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Either Mom or Dad will pick you up. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Faizal is either in Ipoh or in Penang. </li></ul></ul></ul>