A Brain Computer
Interface (BCI) is a
collaboration in which
a brain accepts and
controls a mechanical
device as a natural part
of its representation of
(a) In healthy subjects, primary motor area sends movement
commands to muscles via spinal cord.
(b) In paralyzed people this pathway is interrupted.
(c) Computer based decoder translates this activity into
commands for muscle control.
Signals from an array of
Cerebral electric activity
Signals are amplified.
Transmitted to computer
Transformed to device
Using computer chips and
Signals translated into
The implant device,
or chronic multielectrode array
The signal recording
An external device
A feedback section to
Development of BCI
Algorithms to reconstruct movements from motor cortex
neurons, which control movement were developed in 1970s.
The first Intra-Cortical Brain-Computer Interface was built by
implanting neurotrophiccone electrodes into monkeys.
After conducting initial studies in rats during the 1990s, researchers
developed Brain Computer Interfaces that decoded brain activity in
monkeys and used the devices to reproduce monkey movements in
BCI for Tereaplegics
Brain controlled Robot
ATR and HONDA's new BCI
BCI for Tetraplegics
6- channel EEG BCI used.
Sensory & motor cortices
activated during attempts.
Control scheme sends
movement intention to
Prosthetic returns force
sensory information to
Feedback processed and
grip is adjusted.
BRAIN CONTROLLED ROBOTS
Robot hand mimics subject's
Signals extracted and
decoded by computer
Transferred to hand shaped
To simulate original
Robot executes commands
using onboard sensor
The `Braingate' device can provide motor-impaired patients a
mode of communication through the translation of thought into
direct computer control.
FEATURES OF BRAINGATE BCI
Neural Interface Device.
Consists of signal sensor and
Converts neural signals to output
Sensor consists of tiny chip with
Chip implanted on brain surface.
Cable connects sensor to external
Create communication o/p using
ATR & HONDA DEVELOP NEW BCI
BCI for manipulating
robots using brain signals.
Enables decoding natural
MRI based neural decoding.
No invasive incision of
head and Brain.
By tracking haemodynamic
responses in brain.
Accuracy of 85%
Medical applications(restoration of a
communication channel for patients with lockedin syndrome and the control of neuroprostheses
in patients affected by spinal cord injuries )
Counter terrorism(10 times faster image
multimedia and virtual reality applications
EEGs measure tiny voltage potentials. The
signal is weak and prone to interference.
Each neuron is constantly sending and
receiving signals through a complex web
of connections. There are chemical
processes involved as well, which EEGs
can't pick up on.
The equipment heavy(~10 lbs.) & hence
Minimally invasive surgical methods.
Next generation Neuroprosthesis.
BCI for totally paralyzed.
Minimal number of calibration trials.
Development of telemetry chip to collect
data without external cables.
A potential therapeutic
BCI System is nominated for
European ICT Grand Prize.
Potentially high impact technology.