Overview And Principles Of Standardization 27 May 2008


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  • ISO/IEC Guide 2 defines;• Basic Standard: It has a wide-ranging coverage or containsgeneral provisions for one particular field.• Terminology Standard: It is concerned with terms, usuallyaccompanied by their definitions and sometimes by explanatorynotes, illustrations, examples, etc.• Testing Standard: It is concerned with test methods, sometimessupplemented with other provisions related to testing; such assampling, use of statistical methods, sequence of tests• Product Standard: It specifies requirements to be fulfilled by aproduct or a group of products, to establish its fitness of purpose.•Process Standard: It specifies requirements to be fulfilled by aprocess, to establish its fitness of purpose.• Service Standard: It specifies requirements to be fulfilled by aservice, to establish its fitness of purpose.• Interface Standard: It specifies requirements concerned withcompatibility of products or systems at their points ofinterconnection.• Standard on data to be provided: It contains a list ofcharacteristics for which values and other data are to be statedfor specifying the product, process or service.
  • Overview And Principles Of Standardization 27 May 2008

    1. 1. Overview and Principles of Standardization<br />NOR ANISAZILA ABDUL RAHIM <br />Senior General Engineer<br />Specification and Standards Unit<br />Consultancy and Research Section<br />Material Engineering Directorate<br />27th May 2008<br />1<br />
    2. 2. Overview and Principles of Standardization<br />What is standardization?<br />In the traditional cake maker, workers<br />• Open a recipe<br />• Prepare materials<br />• Measure materials as required<br />• Mix all materials and ……<br />A recipe is written<br />• With the experience<br />• To have the best quality.<br />Making a recipe is ‘standardization’.<br />How do you make a cake?<br />2<br />
    3. 3. Overview and Principles of Standardization<br />What kind of standards are there ?<br />• You cannot work without ‘standard’.<br />• You cannot play games without it.<br />• You cannot eat anything without it.<br />• You cannot live without it.<br />‘Standards’are divided into the national, regional and international standards, but classified for convenience of users.<br />3<br />
    4. 4. Overview and Principles of Standardization<br />WHAT IS A STANDARD ?<br />‘A document approved by a recognized body thatprovides, for common and repeated use, rules, guidelines or characteristics for products and theirrelatedprocesses or production methods, withwhichcomplianceis not mandatory’<br />WHAT IS A SPECIFICATION?<br />A specification is a type of a standard. It provides the necessary details about the specific requirements. Specifications may be written by government agencies/body, standards organizations (ISO,ASTM,BS etc), trade associations, corporations, and others.<br />Annex 1 WTO/TBT Agreements<br />4<br />
    5. 5. 5<br />Overview and Principles of Standardization<br />CATEGORIES OFSTANDARDS<br /><ul><li>Specifications
    6. 6. Methods of sampling, testing, measuring
    7. 7. Codes of practice, guides, recommendations
    8. 8. Terminology/glossaries/vocabulary/ symbols/nomenclature
    9. 9. Classification/grading</li></li></ul><li>6<br />Overview and Principles of Standardization<br />
    10. 10. Overview and Principles of Standardization<br />What is the different and relation between international and national standards ?<br />National standards<br />- are established through agreement at national level<br />- designed to serve local needsand reflect local economicand social factors<br />International standards<br />- are established through agreement at international level and <br />- designed to serveinternational tradeof goods and services <br />DUE TO GLOBALISATION ALL TRADING NATIONS ARE INCREASINGLY HARMONISING THEIR STANDARDS AND BAHRAIN IS NO EXCEPTION<br />7<br />http://www.wto.org/english/news_e/news08_e/tbt_20march08_e.htm<br />
    11. 11. Overview and Principles of Standardization<br />Standardsat Various Levels<br />INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS<br />(ISO/IEC /ITU)<br />Regional Standards (EN /GSO)<br />INPUT<br />NATIONAL<br />STANDARDS<br />(MS/BS/AS/DIN)<br />INPUT<br />Industry Standards (ASTM/ACI)<br />COMPANY <br />STANDARDS<br />STANDARDS APPROVED <br />BY THE NATIONAL <br />STANDARDS BODY /GOVERNMENT<br />8<br />
    12. 12. Standards level or Standards hierarchy <br />9<br />Overview and Principles of Standardization<br />
    13. 13. The kinds of standardsand their contents<br />10<br />Overview and Principles of Standardization<br />
    14. 14. Overview and Principles of Standardization<br />What will be standardized?<br />The followings are standardized;<br />• Products<br />- Tangible goods<br /><ul><li> Intangible goods</li></ul>• Processes<br />- Control system<br /><ul><li>Management system</li></ul>• Services<br />- involved with ‘human’<br />goods’ and ‘money’<br />Egyptian cubit about 3000 BC, ‘Cubit’, <br />Egyptian unit of length, was established.<br />11<br />
    15. 15. 12<br />Overview and Principles of Standardization<br />
    16. 16. Standards<br />When published are voluntary and available for adoption by all private sector or government agencies<br />Regulatory authorities can stipulate mandatory compliance to any of these standards<br />Regulatory authorities (MOW-MED) may either:<br /> publish their own regulatory standards, or<br /> adopt Standards fully or partially in <br /> their regulations <br />http://www.mwh.gov.bh/Tarticle.php?id=84<br />13<br />Overview and Principles of Standardization<br />
    17. 17. 14<br />Institutions of Higher<br />Learning<br />Professional<br />Bodies<br />Industries<br />Government<br />Agencies (MOW)<br />Research<br />Organisations<br />A BALANCED COMMITTEE<br />Manufacturer and Trade<br />Association<br />Consumer<br />Associations<br />Overview and Principles of Standardization<br />WHO DEVELOPS STANDARDS ?<br />COMMITTEE REPRESENTATIONS<br />
    18. 18. 15<br />Overview and Principles of Standardization<br />Necessary factors forstandardization<br />Standardization<br />
    19. 19. Overview and Principles of Standardization<br />Integration of Research & Development (R&D) <br />and Standardization<br /><ul><li>R&D within the range of Standardization
    20. 20. Standardization of high technology
    21. 21. Set up of Intellectual Base Standards
    22. 22. Participation of National Research Institutes or Engineers Society and etc</li></ul>16<br />
    23. 23. 17<br />Overview and Principles of Standardization<br />
    24. 24. Overview and Principles of Standardization<br />Meaning of Standardization<br />-Function for interested parties – supplier ,consumer ,government and etc<br />Function for economy -Information on products and their quality-Interchangeability-Control of production process level -Improvement of productivity and quality-Nation-wide education and dissemination of technology <br />2. Function for social purpose –<br />safety, health or environment matter <br />through production, distribution, <br />consumption, disposition etc. <br />3. Function for communication and mutual recognition -glossary terms, marks, evaluation measures etc. <br />4. Function for promoting trade -Provision of competitive conditions and fair trade <br />18<br />
    25. 25. 19<br />Overview and Principles of Standardization<br />THEIR RELEVANCE TO CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY<br />STANDARDS - WHAT MAKES CONFORMITY ASSESMENT SO IMPORTANT<br />At its simplest, “conformity assessment” means checking that products, materials, services, systems or people measure up to the specifications of a relevant standard. <br />Today, many products require testing for conformance with specifications or compliance <br />with safety, or other regulations before they<br />can be put on many markets. <br />
    26. 26. 20<br />Overview and Principles of Standardization<br />Whatis ConformityAssessment? <br />‘Anyprocedureused, directly or indirectly, <br />to determinethatrelevant requirementsin <br />technicalregulations or standards are fulfilled’<br />Annex 1 WTO/TBT Agreements<br /><ul><li>Testing (MED)
    27. 27. Inspection (MED)
    28. 28. System certification
    29. 29. Product certification
    30. 30. Accreditation</li></ul>It covers activities such as:<br />
    31. 31. 21<br />Overview and Principles of Standardization<br />What is Certification and how does it differ fromAccreditation? <br />Certification - the process of assessing and auditing a business system (quality, environment, health & safety, information security etc.) against the relevant standard. A system which is approved as fully compliant with the standard is certified and awarded a &apos;certification&apos;<br />MED is Conformity Assessment Body by default by doing Testing and Inspection<br />Accreditation - the process that the certification body (such as Lloyds, TUV, SIRIM QAS, BVQI, etc) is subject to, carried out by a recognized national authority, to ensure that the certification body is compliant with relevant standards and has the knowledge , skills and systems to carry out certification audits in a particular field. Each standard is subject to a separate assessment and accreditation.<br />To be accredited as a Conformity Assessment Body, an organization shall comply as a Testing Body in accordance with ISO/IEC 17025 and/or to be Inspection Body in accordance with ISO/IEC 17020.<br />
    32. 32. 22<br />Overview and Principles of Standardization<br />
    34. 34. Overview and Principles of Standardization<br />CONCLUSION<br />Without Standards, <br />Conformity Assessment Is Meaningless<br />Without Conformity Assessment, <br />The Value Of Standard Is Limited<br />Without Accreditation, <br />The Competence Of Conformity Assessment Bodies Cannot Be Ascertained.<br />Thank You <br />24<br />
    35. 35. 25<br />Overview and Principles of Standardization<br />