Afoot: Exploring the Northern Western Ghats

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A corrigendum, published on July 8, 2012.
A compilation of photo-documented flora and fauna during the monsoon of 2011 in the northern Western Ghats, India.

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Afoot: Exploring the Northern Western Ghats

  1. 1. Afoot: exploring theNorthernWestern Ghats …with an Eye for Insects and Other Living Things fdf Aniruddha Dhamorikar 1
  2. 2. Afoot: Exploring the Northern Western Ghats …with an Eye for Insects and Other Living Things · by Aniruddha Dhamorikar A Monsoon Trails 2011 ReportPublished on Friday, May 25, 2012Original PDF File Name: Afoot Exploring NWG.pdfFile Size: 34.1 MBFront cover: Overlooking the western ranges of Sahyadri from Mahuli FortFrontispiece: Pogostemon deccanensis at KorigadBack cover: Misty forests of Matheran© Aniruddha Dhamorikar, All Rights Reserved. 2
  3. 3. CONTENTS (clickable titles) Title Page Title Page 1. Prologue 4 28. Neuroptera 120 Concerning 29. Mecoptera 121 2. Sahyadri 6 30. Plecoptera 121 3. Monsoon 7 31. Blattodea 121 4. Abbreviations 8 32. Mantodea 122 5. People 9 33. Phasmatodea 124 6. Littering Folk 10 34. Arachnida 125 7. Places 12 35. Araneae 127 8. Habitats 27 36. Acarina 137 9. Methodology 38 37. Scorpiones 138 Concerning 38. Fishes 13910. Flora 39 Concerning11. The Diversity of Plants 41 39. Key Observations 14012. Fungi 52 40. Threats to Sahyadris 14413. Mushrooms and Toadstools 53 41. This Report 14614. Invertebrates 56 42. Bibliography 14715. The Unsung Invertebrates 57 43. Index 14916. Insecta 5917. Coleoptera 6118. Lepidoptera 6819. Hemiptera 7920. Odonata 8421. Diptera 9222. Hymenoptera 10223. Wasps 10224. Ants 10725. Bees 11226. Orthoptera 11427. Other Insect Orders 119 3
  4. 4. Prologue Karnataka and Maharashtra. And it is here that I and my friends spent our weekends, scouring the landscape for the largest to the smallest thing that we could find.The Sahyadri welcomed us with arms wide open, as we emergedfrom the dense, humid thickets at the foothills. We stood on the Afoot: Exploring the Northern Western Ghats is an attempt toedge of a bastion, overlooking the jagged landscape and cherishing encompass all that we could observe and photograph through thethe blowing wind on our face. The day was bright with a few fluffy hours trodden on many forts, on rocky paths and on animal trails,monsoon clouds passing silently along the edge of the plateau. The in streams and under thickets, in heat and in rain. Although theflowers of Senecio lay dancing at our feet, with the Sahyadris name signifies a rather large part of the range; it only focuses on theproviding one of the most spectacular stages there ever has been regions explored around the major cities of Mumbai and Pune,laid to dance upon. Here, like in several other places that I explored stretching down to Kolhapur. It is a journal expressing my immensethis Monsoon, lay a paradise atop the high plateaus and deep pleasure to live amidst this rich ecosystem, and to explore thisjungles of the northern ranges of the Western Ghats. landscape in the light of the day and the dark of the night.The Western Ghats bisect the city of Mumbai and Pune by tall Most of the expeditions that we led were in the months from Juneridges, and stretch north over hundreds of kilometers – to the to September, however I find it crucial to include here the days eresouthern boundary of the state of Gujarat, and, running parallel to monsoon and post-monsoon, as the gradual transition provides athe Arabian coast, are drawn down to the very feet of India in broader picture of how the subdued life unfurls from the hottest toKanyakumari in the state of Kerala. These ranges separate the the wettest climes in the Sahyadri. Therefore, I have decided tocoastal plains of the west, the Konkan, from the Deccan plateau of include the month of May – for the scarce but diverse flora andcentral India. The Ghats encompass rich ecosystems of evergreens fauna dearly expecting the arrival of the thunders, and October –and rainforests, from Sholas of the southerly states, to moist for the copious and diverse flora and fauna engrossed in love anddeciduous and semi-evergreen forests in north of Karnataka, and in preparation of another long wait, into this report.gradually transform in Maharashtra into ragged mountains withflat tops – built one on top of the other, until they run further This photo-document is a part of the Monsoon Trails Report that Inorthwards towards Gujarat as mountains undulating amidst vast began writing in 2007. It contains information on the places I visitedplains that lay to the east and west. These ranges are called the – focusing more on insects, spiders and flowers photographed overSahyadri, although the name is more commonly used to the jagged, a period of six months. It may not acknowledge the commoneststep-like mountains that are mostly found along the western rim of insect seen in the regions explored, but it does not mean that they 4
  5. 5. do not exist. Thus, you may find this report lacking in a lot ofspecies; it is only because they are already well known in theirdistribution, and there are those that I may have been unfortunateto notice at all. Effort has been made to highlight all the findings,however, and I‟ve strived to document the behaviour of everyanimal seen.It should be noted that this report is not a field guide, for it is notspecific to any group of animal or plant, but you may find it usefulif you come across the same organism which I have, on which therehave been no identification guides available. At the same time, thisreport also documents several animals, those that I have failed toidentify for the lack of expert guidance, and those that I may havemisidentified. And hence I also seek your help in obtaining theidentifications of such animals.Lastly, and in brief, this report has been divided and categorizedaccording to the biological classification, keeping plants, and fungi,and keeping animals, in which insects, arachnids, (and notes on)fish, each in their own sections. At the very end of the report is anIndex of the Common and the Binomial names – whereverapplicable – of the organisms covered under this document. Thetone of the document is not scientific, and is steered towards ageneral audience, but care has been taken to correctly acknowledgethe binomial names.The views expressed in this report are solely that of the author and do notrepresent the views of the name of persons mentioned in this report. 5
  6. 6. Concerning Sahyadri to these forests. Our kind, too, has sought shelter in the natural citadels, building walls of stone iron strong, and watchtowers looking over the low-lying landscapes. And as early settlers such asThe Western Ghats, so called for their westerly existence as a chain Dravidians and Buddhists, and kingdoms of old such as theof mountains stretching roughly fifteen thousand kilometers, came Marathas and the Moguls came and went, they brought in theinto existence over one-hundred million years ago when India split riches of cultures that are now closely entwined with the naturalwith Madagascar. These ranges are a rich haven for wildlife – wonder of these Ghats. Today, the intricately carved caves toharbouring myriad of life forms from the simplest plants to the handsomely hewn forts, where none may reside anymore, form amost complex animals – more than a dozen of them endemic to the man-made monument of dirt and stone for the animals and plantsregion. to dwell and flourish.They are bestowed with different names as you move up its It is no wonder that man chose the highest accessible peaks as thebackbone, such as Sahay Parvatam in Kerala, Nilagiri Malai in Tamil place of rest, since the weather here is always rather bearable if notNadu, and Sahyadri in Karnataka and Maharashtra, with smaller too hot in summer months, and cool if not too cold in winterranges bearing titles of historical and ecological significance; but the months, and full of freshwater if not too wet in monsoon months.„Ghats‟ are especially recognized by most. Ghat literally means aseries of steps to a water body; and a difficult climb up a mountain The Western Ghats are much like a wall of stone separating thepass – and Ghats in context of Sahyadri are just that, albeit on a vast coastal plains from the eastern plateaus. When the monsoons arrivescale of several kilometers, where one „step‟ may be a three from south, these ranges block their passage into the interior ofthousand feet sheer climb followed by a pathar – a plateau, and India, thus creating rain-abundant and rain-shadow regions on itsgoing upwards still until ending either into a blunt mountain or a opposite ends – with the coastal plains receiving utmost amount ofpointed apex. rain, while the plateau regions to the east remain in drought. Yet in winter, the high altitudinal plateaus are colder than the sultryThese ancient ranges have played a crucial role in shaping of the coastal regions.lands and all the living organisms inhabiting this ecosystem –including humans. The landscape upon the towering plateaus is The Ghats therefore provide a unique geography in terms ofanything like that at its feet –grasses mainly dominate this niche, climate, which has resulted in harbouring diverse flora and faunaand a number of endemics inhabit this place. The foothills are from organisms that are found exclusively in the wet season, tostrewn with broad-leaved semi-deciduous trees, where one may those in the dry, and those resident throughout the year.find scarce or dense undergrowth, and animals that have adapted 6
  7. 7. Concerning Monsoon The rains ceased within a short span of time, and the Eucalyptus leaves glistened in the golden streetlight. The world was washed anew. Everything was fresh, brand-new from the eyes of aEvery year when the clock hits twelve and the date changes to 1st of newborn. It rained on the next evening as well, and this time theJune, my countdown for the rain begins. This year, too, I waited for display of lights and the thunder of the rolling clouds put up anthe arrival of monsoon with same enthusiasm, but I‟m not the only upbeat musical, and the trees swayed to their tune. The rain in theone. It is a respite from the hot, hot summer of the coastal region, month of June was fairly decent, and more-than-decent in thewith a promise of lush green meadows and nomadic gushing following month, when it flooded twice. The month of August wasstreams. From a sparrow that keeps its beak open, panting in the rather hot than wet, but Mumbai and the surrounding region hadsun, to a dog with its long tongue hanging low from its face, and recorded its average annual rainfall by then. September was rathermen who curse Mumbai for its oppressive weather, to farmers who wet as well, with rains lashing the coast for a period of four days atpatiently wait for the rains to awash the parched fields, everyone a stretch. By then the reservoirs providing water to the district ofawaits the first showers. Mumbai and Thane were full. These were further threatened ofThe Monsoon of India officially hits the southern coast on 7th of flooding by the post-monsoonal thunderstorms in the month ofJune, and scales up the backbone progressively. This year, it arrived October that lasted well into the second week.a week early on the shores of Kerala. The first real monsoon I saw the retreating monsoons from the top of Bhimashankar,showers, in Mumbai, were experienced in the evening of 6th June – situated three thousand feet from the sea level. That was the lasta week earlier – as I watched it soak and rinse the layer of thick time it rained. And so it was that rainy season came to an end withdust settled on Eucalyptus trees near my home. The first few drops a bang, just as it had arrived. In the city, the ruddy sky of the nightset a chain reaction in the ground invisible to the naked eye, as turned dark as ever. The leaves frowned as dust resettled on them,millions of bacterial spores dispersed into the air. This fragrance is and the scent of the rain was lost in vehicular exhaust.called petrichor. It has the capacity to freshen up a sleepy soul, tolight up a sad mood, to inspire someone to pen down theirdescriptions of this absolute scent. Yet it is something that cannotbe caught in a jar, or captured into a photograph, or is extremelydifficultly jotted down in words. Ruskin Bond describes it as themost exhilarating of all smells, and I couldn‟t agree more. 7
  8. 8. Concerning AbbreviationsEN = EndangeredR = RareTN = ThreatenedWIN = Western Ghats EndemicSIN = Endemic to Sahyadri(?) = Unidentified/ unsure of identification 8
  9. 9. Concerning People Ascher, the bee-expert – also from across the ocean; James O‟Hara and Thomas Pape, who so greatly responded to my little query about an inconspicuous insect. Ryan Brookes and Roger Kendrick,No journey is possible without help – or the slightest push – from both prominent experts of the Moth world, have been a guidingfriends and family. I was fortunate that I was not just helped, but presence for more than a few years. All of them are doingpushed into the little crevices I could get into and narrowest ledge I wonderful work in teaching us about the riches of the planet wecould walk upon. I am thankful for my parents for allowing me to live in. I cannot thank them enough, but by putting their valuablewander as a vagrant, equipped with just enough materials I could responses together as one document.manage. I am glad to shares a packet of biscuits with my friendswhen we didn‟t carry much, and the countless hot chai breaks at The kind folks of villages surrounding the hills and the peaks ofpractically every tappri. If it were not for these wonderful folks, I Sahyadri, who provided us the most delicious tea I‟ve ever drank,would not have wandered so far by myself. Neither would I drink who gave us shelter from a thunderstorm, who guided us when wechai all alone. were utterly lost in the multitudes of trees, who, when we required a push for our vehicle, eagerly came to our rescue, the elders whoMy sincere gratitude goes out to my friend Dinesh, with whom I talked of the wonderful years of yore, and those who would offerclaimed several forts, who guided me into the life of patience and us a pauncho or a place to lunch, all remain in my heart. Althoughpersistence when it comes to photo-trekking. To Alok, who is not our associations were rather restricted to a few dialogues, I cannotonly a friend, but a kind facilitator of the plants of Sahyadri. To forget how glad they were to see us, as tourists, who provide themAmol, from whom I learnt to notice the tiniest details in a butterfly with a living. And we were more than glad to receive their blessing.or a beetle. Siddarth, who tolerated me as I sat peering into apuddle on a dark evening, and for fishing scorpions. And, to all my Without them I‟d never realize that our world is rich with beautifultrekking friends – from the youngest at heart to the eldest in people and equally beautiful creatures.wisdom, without whom I‟d be hopelessly lost in the thickwoodlands – thank you! If it was not for their constant calling outto me, urging me to push on, I‟d have never succeeded inconquering any fort.My heartfelt thanks to my friend Morgan Jackson – my fly guru;Prof. Hegde – the only expert on Diptera I know from India; to EricEaton, the amazing entomologist from across the ocean; John 9
  10. 10. Concerning Littering Folk The story of the Littering Folk is not new. It isn‟t even unheard of, but it is rarely spoken of, and rarely ever shared. They come and they go like the snow in the wind – steadily filling the valley, bit byA calm stream carves its way on the forest floor, its bubbling waters bit, except like snow, they never melt away.slowly modelling the sharp, shapeless stones into oval smooth-edged pebbles. Trees at its banks tower as sentinels, guiding its way These wandering people are no wizards, nor cruel, but what setsto the valley, their serpentine roots embracing the clear cool waters. them apart is their poor ignorant soul, the one that has somehowBirds fly amongst the highest reaches of the hills that flank the managed to disconnect from nature, and has founded an identity ofstream from both sides, and butterflies flutter in the boughs, its own. They carry it wherever they may roam, on city streets toplaying hide-and-seek with the sunrays as they slowly shift their pristine forests. And that is why it‟s easy to trace them.glance. This is nature; encompassing serenity and a sense ofbelonging that one feels even in solitude. A quintessential exemplar We all litter, even if we may dump ours in a garbage-bin – whichof nature. A timid leopard sipped through this stream in the night. ultimately goes to an open landfill. But what sets them apart is theirA herd of deer skittered its bank in alarm, creating ripples in the habit of littering in cities as well as in wilderness. Their habit isstill flowing waters. But the tranquility always prevailed, until… their nature – that is, they don‟t know what they‟re doing, although they quite know why they‟re doing it. Their common perceptionUntil they arrived. The stream became still and stagnant, its colour about littering is this: thou shalt not litter thy home, but thou mayturned red. Trees bore torturous scars carved deep in their bones. dumpeth garbage in thy neighbour’s. It may not be their anthem, or itThe leopard forsook his drinking hole, and the deer vanished. They won‟t make any grammatical sense, but those who throw garbagehad arrived. And they brought with them their tools, which they out of their homes, or cars, on the road, or in the forests, know whatleft behind to slowly poison this secret abode. Everything became I‟m talking about.utterly quiet – not the everlasting tranquility – the dead silence aftera terrible nightmare. Although I haven‟t met one yet, their presence is felt everywhere. And if you feel their presence, you might as well give up yourThe trees bled where they were slashed and stabbed – the red ooze chance of seeing a leopard. You‟ll perhaps be cursed to watch aresembling fresh blood. The stream, with its banks now heavy with packet of chips perched upon a shrub.Styrofoam and polythene, cried a trickle from a clogged opening.The Littering Folk cursed this place, and it will never regain its Now these folk do not have a disease, or any addiction. Theypeace again. The quintessence was lost. simply lack awareness, which comes through education, but also through self-realisation. What I mean is, many of the city folk know 10
  11. 11. about plastics, how long they prevail in the world, what they do toanyone that eats it, and how dirty it makes a place. And yet theLittering Folk choose to, of course, litter, without realising itsdangers. There are two ways to solve their problem – one is simplyto clean after them, which we‟ve adopted. We remove the plasticrubble that we may stumble upon in nature, and dump them intheir last resting place – the garbage bin. And if more of us adoptthis, we‟re only increasing the quality of the wilderness, so thatthose affected by pollution start moving back in. Second is to createmass awareness programs by the means of media, which does takeplace in schools, sometimes on TV, or in newspapers, but not to thescale where the Littering Folk may understand, and rarely in placeswhere they do litter.The Littering Folk prevailed in all places this monsoon, and theymay still the next, and the following, but it is our responsibility toreduce their impact on the ecosystems, for we belong to the samekind, and we produce garbage too, and the least we can do to offsetour impact on the environment, in one of the many ways, is bycleaning after them and educating them. 11
  12. 12. Concerning PlacesThe northern Western Ghats are dotted with several protected areas, religiously preserved forests (sacred groves), forts, and other historicallysignificant ranges – and are sought by pilgrims, trekkers and naturalists alike.Monsoon is an ideal season to observe many plants and animals that are seen exclusively during this season. Some plants, in fact, are soparticular that they flower only during the month of June, while some animals, such as a few frogs and insects, wouldn‟t dare face the summerwrath of the Western Ghats.We explored six protected areas, six historically significant regions, and two urban habitats. An inventory of my blog posts concerning theplaces is given below. Name of the Place Significance Nearest City/ Town Blog Link June 2011, July Part I, July 1 Yeoor Hills (part of Sanjay Gandhi National Park) Protected Area Thane Part II 2 Nagla Block (part of Sanjay Gandhi National Park) Protected Area Thane Monsoon June 2011 3 Tungareshwar Wildlife Sanctuary Protected Area Vasai Tungareshwar 4 Bhimashankar Wildlife Sanctuary Protected Area Pune Bhimashankar 5 Karnala Bird Sanctuary Protected Area Panvel Karnala 6 Matheran Ecological Sensitive Area Karjat Matheran 1, Matheran 2 7 Naneghat Historically Significant Area Junnar Naneghat 8 Tung Historically Significant Area Lonavla Tung 9 Lohagad Historically Significant Area Lonavla Lohagad 10 Manikgad Historically Significant Area Karjat Manikgad, Manikgad 2 11 Mahuli Historically Significant Area Asangaon Mahuli 12 Korigad Historically Significant Area Lonavla Korigad 13 Jijamata Udyan Zoo (Urban habitat) Mumbai Monsoon July Part I 14 Kolhapur (outskirt) Urban habitat Kolhapur - 12
  13. 13. YEOOR HILLS – Protected Area (National Park)Lies to the eastern side of Kanheri Hills of Sanjay Gandhi National Park. The habitat is predominantly moist- and dry-deciduous, with patches of secondary forests near therim of the Park. A few meandering annual streams feed a larger river that runs through the heart of Yeoor. Large swathes of farmlands to the north-east mark theboundary of the City. It is easily approachable via road from the city of Thane. 13
  14. 14. NAGLA BLOCK – Protected Area (National Park)Lies to the north of Sanjay Gandhi National Park, flanked by Vasai Creek. The habitat is mostly moist semi-deciduous forests, along with swathes of mangroves along thecreek. It serves as the only corridor connecting SGNP with Tungareshwar Wildlife Sanctuary to the north. Approachable via NH8. 14
  15. 15. TUNGARESHWAR WILDLIFE SANCTUARY – Protected AreaLies further north of Nagla Block; it is a part of the Tungar Hills range. Covered predominantly by moist semi-deciduous forests, with a large density of semi-evergreenrainforest tree species. It is approachable from NH8. 15
  16. 16. BHIMASHANKAR WILDLIFE SANCTUARY – Protected AreaIt is one of the few sacred groves of Maharashtra. Lies on a 3000 feet tall plateau, dominated by semi-evergreen rainforests, meadows and grasslands, and riparianecosystems. Approachable via Pune-Nashik Road, towards Rajgurunagar. 16
  17. 17. KARNALA BIRD SANCTUARY – Protected AreaA sanctuary south of Panvel, preserved around Karnala Fort; dominated by moist-semi deciduous forests, with undulating hills. Approachable from Kanyakumari-Panvel Road. 17
  18. 18. MATHERAN – Ecological Sensitive AreaA hill-station at about 2500 feet, with swathes of moist-semi deciduous forests and patches of semi-evergreen rainforests. Approachable from Neral Railway Station viatrain, and Neral-Matheran Road via MIDC Road. 18
  19. 19. NANEGHAT – Historically Significant RegionAt a height of 2800 feet, one of the spectacular plateaus to explore during monsoons. It is a mountain-pass, used as a trade route used between Kalyan and Junnar in 200BCE. Dominated by moist-deciduous forests along the foothills, and riparian ecosystems. Approachable from Major State Highway 2; the trek route lies to the left of theroad while approaching from Mumbai. 19
  20. 20. TUNG FORT – Historically Significant Region (Fort)A lone hill-fort standing at 1075 feet. The habitat is mainly dominated by grasslands, with peculiarly hill-slope plants taking root during monsoon seasons.Approachable from Malawli Railway Station near Lonavala. 20
  21. 21. LOHAGAD – Historically Significant Region (Fort)A large stronghold, the foothills of this fort are dominated by deciduous forests, with large swathes of disturbed, secondary forests along the edges of the trek route.Plants growing exclusively on steep hill-slopes grow along the edges of the fort. It standing at around 3450 feet. Approachable from Malawli Railway Station nearLonavala. 21
  22. 22. MANIKGAD – Historically Significant Region (Fort)A hill-fort at the height of 1900 feet, dominated by moist-semi deciduous forests, riparian and grassland-type ecosystems are common along the plateau. Approachablefrom the town of Chowk by road. 22
  23. 23. MAHULI FORT – Historically Significant Region (Fort)At the height of 2815 feet, a fort atop a sheer mountain, Mahuli is dominated by moist-semi deciduous forests and a few meadows. Approachable from AsangaonRailway Station via rikshaw to the base of the temple. 23
  24. 24. KORIGAD – Historically Significant Region (Fort)A fort situated at the height of about 929 feet. Dominated mostly by deciduous forests, with few meadows and riparian habitats. Approachable from Lonavala, situatednear Shahpur and Amby Valley City. 24
  25. 25. JIJAMATA UDYAN – Urban habitat (Zoo)One of the oldest zoos in India built in 1861. Contains many endangered, as well as exotic plant species. The local, un-caged diversity of this zoo is rich andunderstudied. Approachable from Byculla Railway Station on foot. 25
  26. 26. KOLHAPUR – Urban habitatA large city situated south-east of Mumbai. The urban habitat of Kolhapur is rich with many species exclusively seen in Western Ghats, some of which not seen higherup in the northern Ghats. About 10 hours by road from Mumbai. 26
  27. 27. Concerning HabitatsWestern Ghats was declared as a biodiversity hotspot in the year 1988. Since then, it has attracted attention from world over, and the„ecological-gold-rush‟ to this region picked pace. Many new species were discovered – and continue to be discovered in this ecological mine,some of which are found nowhere else on the planet.What makes Western Ghats so rich is the diversity of ecosystems – from micro to macro – the dense undergrowth to clear meadows, and denseforestlands to large lakes, rivers and creeks. The habitats that were explored during our expedition were mostly moist-, dry- and semi-deciduous forests that are peculiar of the northern Western Ghats. As well as few rainforest patches spread sparsely over the Ghats, and theriparian ecosystems exclusively seen during monsoon months – from forest streams to large rivers, grasslands on largely flat plateaus andmeadows along the edge of the Ghats. Type of Habitat Place Month 1 Sahyadris (an overall landscape) Manikgad September 2 Dry Deciduous Yeoor May 3 Semi Deciduous Lohagad August 4 Perennial Stream Yeoor May 5 Shrubland Tung July 6 Meadows Lohagad August 7 Forest Stream Naneghat August 8 Perennial Lake Korigad October 9 Plateau Grasslands Manikgad September 10 Exotic Plantations Matheran August 27
  28. 28. SAHYADRIS MANIKGAD SEPTEMBERIt is interesting to find a variety of habitats within a small region in the Western Ghats. With every passing mountain, you‟re bound to find yourself in habitats ranging fromdeciduous forests and shrublands, to riparian and grassland ecosystems – all spread over a few kilometers. 28
  29. 29. DRY DECIDUOUS YEOOR MAYDry-deciduous forests are predominant in the Sahyadris, with broad-leaved trees such as Tectona grandis (Teak) common amongst such forests. Yeoor Hills, a part ofSanjay Gandhi National Park, contains several dry deciduous as well as semi-deciduous trees. 29
  30. 30. MOIST DECIDUOUS LOHAGAD AUGUSTCharacterized by humid, dense forests, the moist deciduous forests of Sahyadri are in patches, and remain, for the most part, most diverse in terms of the invertebratefauna. These forests are partly deciduous and partly evergreen. 30
  31. 31. PERENNIAL STREAM YEOOR MAYPerennial streams are those which persist under the stream-bed in drier months. Such large streams commonly harbour evergreen trees along its borders. 31
  32. 32. SHRUBLAND TUNG JULYShrublands are predominantly seen on hill-slopes. The shrubs are dense thickets, green through monsoon, and dry out during drier months. The little shrubs here arethat of Pleocaulus ritchiei, commonly called Topli Karvy, as well as a few Wild Banana (Ensete superbum) plants. 32
  33. 33. MEADOW LOHAGAD AUGUSTMeadows are open grasslands amidst forests. They are different from plateau grasslands in the sense, they are found over a broader range of elevation – from nearsea level to as high as the tallest plateaus. Some of the forest meadows are formed due to feeling of the trees – such types of meadows are usually found near citiesand villages bordering forests, they are generally weaker in terms of biodiversity. 33
  34. 34. FOREST STREAM NANEGHAT AUGUSTForest stream ecosystems are common throughout the Sahyadris. They serve as a feeding and breeding ground to a variety of organisms – many of the fishes thatbreed in such streams are endemic to the Western Ghats. Perennial herbs and shrubs surround these temporary forest oases. 34
  35. 35. PERENNIAL LAKE KORIGAD OCTOBERSuch lakes and ponds are primarily fed by monsoons. They persist through the wet season, and dry out during drier months. Organisms that depend on such anecosystem lead an interestingly short lifespan – which may last for a mere four months. 35
  36. 36. Plateau grassland sdsd manikgad OCTOBERPlateau grasslands of the Sahyadri are especially known to harbour endemic species. The grasses dominate this region, which are usually short. Trees, if any, arestunted by strong winds. 36
  37. 37. EXOTIC PLANTATIONS sdsd MATHERAN AUGUSTExotic plantations are scattered in urban as well as natural habitats. Acacia auriculiformis (Australian Acacia) is the commonest exotic tree used in mass afforestationdrives. They hold lowest diversity, and are akin to forests that appear lush green, but are mere biological deserts. 37
  38. 38. Concerning METHODOLOGYThe study or „expedition‟ lasted from the month of May to October. Spanning over these six months, I was able to record life as it blossomedand shriveled with the gradual change in weather.The method of study was random sampling and crude transect walks. We mostly stuck to the path, and explored the surrounding area. Thesightings were recorded photographically, but it was not possible in certain circumstances. Such animals, most of which are common, havebeen omitted from this report.No organisms were sampled – any of those caught humanely were released at the site within a few minutes. They were mostly caught to aid intheir identifications. Most of the identifications were undertaken on the field, and with the help of photographs. The most courteous expertswere more than happy to provide identifications roughly, or accurately, based on the photographs.I made use of several reference materials, an inventory of which is given in the Index. However, some identifications were conducted based onresources (not particularly that of the experts) over the internet, therefore I cannot assure the identifications as concrete. And I appreciatecorrections, if any, for the same.My tool of trade was a Sony DSC H7 point-and-shoot camera, along with a homemade flash diffuser, and a 1.7X Teleconverter lens. 38
  39. 39. Concerning FLORA 14 Fabaceae 3 15 Gentianaceae 1Over seventeen thousand species of flowering plants are thought to 16 Lamiaceae 1exist in India. The Western Ghats contain about 4500 plant species, 17 Lecythidaceae 1of which 1600 are found only in the Ghats. Sahyadri (the region 18 Liliaceae 2north of Karnataka), also boasts some endemics that are foundnowhere else in the Ghats. Most of these endemics are restricted to 19 Lentibulariaceae 1the plateau region, and blossom only during monsoon season. 56 20 Malvaceae 1species were photographed over the period of six months, 21 Martyniaceae 1belonging to 33 families. 22 Melastomataceae 1 Family Total species observed 23 Musaceae 1 1 Acanthaceae 5 24 Orchidaceae 9 2 Apiaceae 1 25 Orobanchaceae 1 3 Asclepiadaceae 4 26 Pedaliacae 1 4 Asteraceae 1 27 Poaceae 1 5 Balsaminaceae 3 28 Rubiaceae 2 6 Begoniaceae 2 29 Scrophulariaceae 1 7 Boraginaceae 1 30 Sterculiaceae 1 8 Colchicaceae 1 31 Varbenaceae 1 9 Commelinaceae 1 32 Vitaceae 1 10 Convolvulaceae 1 33 Zingiberaceae 2 11 Dilleniaceae 1 Total 33 Families 56 Species 12 Dioscoreaceae 1 13 Eriocaulaceae 1 39
  40. 40. Acanthaceae Apiaceae Asclepiadaceae 2 Asteraceae 1 5 1 Acanthaceae Balsaminaceae 1 1 1 Begoniaceae Boraginaceae 2 Colchicaceae 4 1 Commelinaceae Convolvulaceae 1 Dilleniaceae 1 1 Dioscoreaceae Eriocaulaceae 3 Fabaceae Gentianaceae Lamiaceae Lecythidaceae 9Orchidaceae 2 Liliaceae Lentibulariaceae 1 Malvaceae 1 Martyniaceae Melastomataceae 1 Musaceae 1 Orchidaceae 1 1 Orobanchaceae 1 1 Pedaliacae 1 1 1 Poaceae 1 3 Rubiaceae 2 1 1 1 Scrophulariaceae Sterculiaceae Varbenaceae Family-wise diversity of FLORA Vitaceae Zingiberaceae 40
  41. 41. The Diversity of Plants 33 Families · 56 SPECIES 41
  42. 42. Acanthus ilicifolius Asystasia dalzelliana Strobilanthes callosusFamily: Acanthaceae Family: Acanthaceae Family: AcanthaceaeLocation: Nagla Block Location: Mahuli Location: BhimashankarMonth: June Month: September Month: OctoberBarleria prattensis Belpharis asperrima Pinda concanensisFamily: Acanthaceae Family: Acanthaceae Family: ApiaceaeLocation: Karnala Location: Karnala Location: LohagadMonth: October Month: June Month: August 42
  43. 43. Ceropegia lawii EN Ceropegia rollae R Ceropegia attenuata R Family: Asclepiadaceae WIN Family: Asclepiadaceae SIN Family: Asclepiadaceae SIN Location: Tung Location: Lohagad Location: Matheran Month: July Month: August Month: AugustCeropegia vincaefolia TN Senecio grahamii Impatiens pulcherrimaFamily: Asclepiadaceae Family: Asteraceae Family: BalsaminaceaeLocation: Mahuli Location: Manikgad Location: TungMonth: September Month: September Month: July 43
  44. 44. Impatiens oppositifolia Impatiens balsamina Begonia crenataFamily: Balsaminaceae Family: Balsaminaceae Family: BegoniaceaeLocation: Lohagad Location: Manikgad Location: TungMonth: August Month: August Month: JulyBegonia concanensis Adelocaryum malabaricum Gloriosa superbaFamily: Begoniaceae Family: Boraginaceae Family: ColchicaceaeLocation: Tung Location: Lohagad Location: NaneghatMonth: July Month: August Month: August 44
  45. 45. Cyanotis tuberosa Dinetus racemosus Dillenia pentagynaFamily: Commelinaceae Family: Convolvulaceae Family: DilleniaceaeLocation: Tung Location: Korigad Location: Nagla BlockMonth: July Month: October Month: JuneDioscorea sp. Eriocaulon sp. Smithia setulosaFamily: Dioscoreaceae Family: Eriocaulaceae Family: FabaceaeLocation: Naneghat Location: Manikgad Location: MahuliMonth: August Month: August Month: September 45
  46. 46. Smithia purpurea Vigna vexillata Exacum pumilumFamily: Fabaceae SIN Family: Fabaceae Family: GentianaceaeLocation: Korigad Location: Korigad Location: KorigadMonth: October Month: October Month: OctoberPogostemon deccanensis Careya arborea Iphigenia pallidaFamily: Lamiaceae WIN Family: Lecythidaceae Family: LilaceaeLocation: Korigad Location: Nagla Block Location: TungMonth: October Month: June Month: July 46
  47. 47. Chlorophytum glaucum Utricularia striatula Urena lobataFamily: Liliaceae WIN Family: Lentibulariaceae Family: MalvaceaeLocation: Tung Location: Lohagad Location: YeoorMonth: July Month: August Month: OctoberMartynia annua Sonerila scapigera Ensete superbumFamily: Martyniaceae Family: Melastomataceae Family: MusaceaeLocation: Naneghat Location: Tung Location: TungMonth: August Month: July Month: July 47
  48. 48. Acampe sp. Vanda testacea Cottonia peduncularisFamily: Orchidaceae Family: Orchidaceae Family: OrchidaceaeLocation: Tung Location: Lohagad Location: YeoorMonth: May Month: May Month: MayOberonia recurva Habenaria rariflora Habenaria grandifloriformisFamily: Orchidaceae Family: Orchidaceae Family: OrchidaceaeLocation: Yeoor Location: Lohagad Location: YeoorMonth: May Month: August Month: October 48
  49. 49. Habenaria foliosa Pecteilis gigantea Porpax sp.Family: Orchidaceae SIN Family: Orchidaceae Family: OrchidaceaeLocation: Lohagad Location: Korigad Location: KorigadMonth: August Month: October Month: OctoberAeginetia indica Sesamum orientale Coix sp.Family: Orobanchaceae Family: Pedaliacae Family: PoaceaeLocation: Manikgad Location: Manikgad Location: MahuliMonth: August Month: August Month: September 49
  50. 50. Neanotis lancifolia Pavetta indica Sopubia delphinifoliaFamily: Rubiaceae Family: Rubiaceae Family: ScrophulariaceaeLocation: Lohagad Location: Yeoor Location: KorigadMonth: August Month: May Month: OctoberHelicteres isora Clerodendrum serratum Cayratia trifoliaFamily: Sterculiaceae Family: Varbenaceae Family: VitaceaeLocation: Naneghat Location: Lohagad Location: Nagla BlockMonth: August Month: August Month: July 50
  51. 51. sdsd Cucurma pseudomontana Kaempferia scaposa Family: Zingiberaceae Family: Zingiberaceae Location: Naneghat Location: Korigad Month: August Month: October 51
  52. 52. Concerning FUNGIThe Western Ghats is also home to some fascinating fungi, which mainly remain unobserved because of their inconspicuous nature. Althoughmany have been thoroughly studied, and are used in our day-to-day lives, such as Yeast, the wild varieties of fungi which are importantdecomposers in the forests are one largely ignored group of organisms when it comes to general awareness. The Fungi of Maharashtra havebeen documented scientifically, but there is a large lacuna concerning information concerning this Kingdom.We were able to sight most of the fungi due to their spore-bearing bodies – the Mushrooms, yet it is rather difficult to identify them solely fromphotographs. For simplicity, and as far as my understanding of fungi goes, I‟ve divided them according to the order they resemble:Aphyllophorales: Simply put, they contain fungi that do not bear “gills” on their fruiting bodies, such as mushrooms.Agaricales: These fungi contain gilled mushrooms.Randive et al recorded 256 species of aphyllophoraceous fungi in the state of Maharashtra, mostly along the Sahyadri ranges. While there arestudies concerning Agaricales of Maharashtra, it is not available in public domain.Only 7 different types of Fungi – mainly mushrooms – were photographed during the period from June to September. 52
  53. 53. MUSHROOMS AND TOADSTOOLS 7 TYPES 53
  54. 54. Fungus and fungal spores in a raindrop Fungus Dacryopinax spathularia (?)Order: Aphyllophorales Order: Aphyllophorales Order: AphyllophoralesLocation: Yeoor Location: Naneghat Location: YeoorMonth: July Month: August Month: JulyBracket Fungus Bracket Fungus with gills Mushroom with gillsOrder: Aphyllophorales Order: Agaricales Order: AgaricalesLocation: Manikgad Location: Mahuli Location: YeoorMonth: August Month: September Month: July 54
  55. 55. sdsdMacrolepiota Top: Showing gillsOrder: Agaricales Bottom: Showing sizeLocation: MatheranMonth: September 55
  56. 56. Concerning Invertebrates recorded along the Western Ghats. Crabs in the genus Barytelphusa (cunicularis being one of the species) are known to be present in the Sahyadri.Invertebrates make up the majority of biomass, only next to theplants. Most of the animals that lie at the base of the food pyramid The diversity of freshwater mollusks is also an equallyare invertebrate, and so are those that carry out the everyday understudied group of invertebrates. Malacology is a rarely heardfunctions of pollination, decomposition and propagation. And if term that deals with the study of mollusks. Madhyastha et althey cease to exist, life would be nonexistent on this planet. Yet, mentioned several genus endemic to the Western Ghats. About 24they remain the least appreciated group of animals today. families out of 26 in India are found in the Western Ghats, with as many as 258 species recorded in this biodiverse hotspot.While it is difficult – if not impossible – to study theseunderestimated organisms, extensive research has been conducted Millipedes belong to Class Diplopoda. About 500 species areto understand most of the terrestrial invertebrates such as mollusks, recorded from India. All of us, young and old, have seen themcrustaceans, insects and arachnids, and many others. crawl along the ground on their tiny line of legs. They are rather common, yet unknown. The most common Millipede of theIn this section, a few invertebrates, namely crabs, snails and Sahyadri belongs to the family Polydesmidae. Some speciesmillipedes have been mentioned merely to attract general attention. commonly congregate on bare rocks under thickets and grassesThese animals are so common; it‟s an irony that their lives are during monsoon months, probably to mate, or to feed, or to migrateentirely alien to us. We don‟t know for sure when and where the – but we don‟t know for sure.land crabs go into hibernation; nor do we know the breeding life ofland snails. Recently, I found a group of tiny snails hibernating Although much work has been done in documenting theseinside an empty moth pupa. Such little findings keep our curiosity arthropods of India, there is a large lacuna when it comes to fieldintact, and we discover things we never know of. studies, because these resources remain hidden with inconspicuous names, or get buried in the stacks of many research publicationsThe freshwater crabs – also referred as land crabs or field crabs, and never see light of the day.remain rather elusive to an untrained eye. There are about eightfamilies of freshwater crabs found in the tropics, and are known toexhibit parental care – where a female will carry her offspring in a“brooding pouch” – the abdomen. There are two families occurringin Asia, Gecarcinucidae and Parathelphusidae, with the latter 56
  57. 57. THE UNSUNG INVERTEBRATES 57
  58. 58. Land Crab carrying offspring in abdomen Name: Barytelphusa (?)dsd Family: Parathelphusidae Location: Nagla Block Month: June A congregation of Millipedes Land Snail Class: Diplopoda Clade: Eupulmonata Family: (?) Family: Ariophantidae (?) Location: Matheran Location: Yeoor Month: September Month: July 58
  59. 59. Concerning INSECTAClass Insecta is by far the most diverse in the world, and also in the Western Ghats. There have been many estimates of the species present inIndia, ranging from 50,000 to 60,000 – although there is no established number assigned yet – and it will be decades from now to ascertain it.The northern Western Ghats, with a variety of habitats in her lap, harbours some astonishing insects that can be as beautiful as they can bedreadful to some. From the tiniest Thrips to the large overpowering Mantids, the Sahyadri is well equipped with a million year old evolutionin its caretakers, who look after the primary function of decomposition, pollination, propagation, and predation as well as by forming abaseline of the food web.Through my journey into the few corners of Sahyadri, I always had my eyes scanning the undergrowth for insects and their distant relatives.Some of them, fortunately, blessed me with their sightings, yet many of them still remain an enigma – perhaps even to science. This sectiondiscusses the major findings – identified as well as unidentified – that were documented over the span of six months.Overall, 235 specimens of insects were recorded belonging 102 Families in 13 Orders. Order Families Identified Specimens Unidentified Specimens Total Observed Specimens Coleoptera 15 15 16 31 Lepidoptera 17 50 04 54 Hemiptera 15 09 12 21 Odonata 08 28 0 28 Diptera 23 13 28 41 Hymenoptera 10 19 13 32 Orthoptera 04 03 09 12 Neuroptera 02 - 03 03 Mecoptera 01 - 01 01 Plecoptera 01 - 01 01 Blattodea 02 01 03 04 Mantodea 03 02 04 06 Phasmatodea 01 - 01 01 Total 102 140 95 235 59
  60. 60. This list is not comprehensive because many insects are specifically seen only during winter and summer months. It only mentions the ones that were observed in Monsoon, and happened to occur on the path, and which I was able to photograph. A complete checklist is given in the Index. Coleoptera 11 2 3 1 15 Lepidoptera 2 31 14 1 Coleoptera 4 Hemiptera 6 12 31 Odonata 32 10 Diptera 54 Hymenoptera Lepidoptera 17 Orthoptera Neuroptera 41 Mecoptera 21 28 Plecoptera 23 Blattodea 15 Mantodea 8 PhasmatodeaFamily-wise diversity of insect orders Total observed Specimen-wise diversity of insect orders 60
  61. 61. COLEOPTERABANNER OF THE BEETLES 15 Families · 31 types 61
  62. 62. Leaf-rolling Weevil Sternocera sp. Longhorn BeetleSuper-family: Curculionidea Family: Buprestidae Family: BuprestidaeFamily: Attelabidae Location: Korigad Location: Nagla BlockLocation: Tungareshwar Month: October Month: JulyMonth: SeptemberFlea Beetle Chrysochus sp. Leaf Beetle – pairFamily: Chrysomelidae Family: Chrysomelidae Family: ChrysomelidaeLocation: Yeoor Location: Tung Location: KorigadMonth: July Month: July Month: October 62
  63. 63. Clytria sp. Leaf Beetle Sagra femorataFamily: Chrysomelidae Family: Chrysomelidae Family: ChrysomelidaeLocation: Yeoor Location: Nagla Block Location: TungMonth: June Month: June Month: JulyCicindela viridicincta Cicindela fabriciana (shoulder spot present) Cicindela fabriciana (shoulder spot absent)Family: Cicindelidae Family: Cicindelidae Family: CicindelidaeLocation: Nagla Block Location: Yeoor Location: YeoorMonth: June Month: June Month: June 63
  64. 64. UnidentifiedFamily: CicindelidaeLocation: YeoorMonth: JuneCicindela colicia Cicindela azureocinctaFamily: Cicindelidae Family: Cicindelidae WINLocation: Yeoor Location: YeoorMonth: June Month: June 64
  65. 65. Menochilus sexmaculatus Unidentified Weevil Unidentified Family: Coccinellidae Super-family: Curculionidea Family: Dytiscidae Location: Korigad Location: Yeoor Location: Korigad Month: October Month: June Month: OctoberClick Beetle Firefly Larva UnidentifiedFamily: Elateridae Family: Lampyridae Family: LanguriidaeLocation: Tung Location: Matheran Location: KorigadMonth: July Month: August Month: October 65
  66. 66. Net-winged Beetle Epicauta waterhousei Mylabris pustulataFamily: Lycidae Family: Meloidae Family: MeloidaeLocation: Bhimashankar Location: Manikgad Location: ManikgadMonth: October Month: August Month: AugustBlister Beetle Unidentified Epicauta sp. Macrosaigon sp.Family: Meloidae Family: Meloidae Family: RipiphoridaeLocation: Tungareshwar Location: Tungareshwar Location: ManikgadMonth: September Month: September Month: August 66
  67. 67. Onthophagus sp. (?) – Dung Beetle Dung Beetles Clinteria sp.Family: Scarabaeidae Family: Scarabaeidae Family: ScarabaeidaeLocation: Naneghat Location: Karnala Subfamily: CetoniinaeMonth: August Month: October Location: Mahuli Month: September Popilla sp. Popilla sp. (?) Family: Scarabaeidae Family: Scarabaeidae Subfamily: Rutelinae Subfamily: Rutelinae Location: Bhimashankar Location: Bhimashankar Month: October Month: October 67
  68. 68. LEPIDOPTERATHE RUFFLE OF MOTHS & FLUTTER OF BUTTERFLIES 17 Families · 54 types 68
  69. 69. Pseudocatharylla sp. Parotis sp. Hyblaea pureaFamily: Crambidae Family: Crambidae Family: HyblaeidaeSubfamily: Crambinae Subfamily: Spilomelinae Location: YeoorLocation: Manikgad Location: (near) Yeoor Month: JulyMonth: August Month: SeptemberAnoba pectina Dysgonia stuposa Cerura priapusFamily: Noctuidae Subfamily: Catocalinae Family: Noctuidae Subfamily: Catocalinae Family: Notodontidae Subfamily: StauropinaeLocation: Tungareshwar Location: (near) Yeoor Location: YeoorMonth: September Month: July Month: June 69
  70. 70. Phauda sp.Family: PhaudidaeLocation: MatheranMonth: SeptemberSynanthedon sp. (?) Synanthedon sp.Family: Sesiidae Family: SesiidaeLocation: Yeoor Location: YeoorMonth: July Month: July 70
  71. 71. Unidentified Hawkmoth Wooly Bear Caterpillar Stinging Nettle CaterpillarFamily: Sphingidae Family: Eupterotidae Family: LimacodidaeLocation: Lohagad Location: Yeoor Location: YeoorMonth: August Month: July Month: JulyCerura priapus Caterpillar Stick-case Moth Caterpillar Trypanophora sp. CaterpillarFamily: Notodontidae Subfamily: Stauropinae Family: Psychidae (?) Family: Zygaenidae Subfamily: ChalcosiinaeLocation: Naneghat Location: Manikgad Location: NaneghatMonth: August Month: September Month: August 71
  72. 72. Sarangesa dasahara | Common Small Flat Sarangesa purendra | Spotted Small Flat Celaenorrhinus ambareesa | Malabar Spotted FlatFamily: Hesperiidae Family: Hesperiidae Family: HesperiidaeLocation: Korigad Location: Lohagad Location: MahuliMonth: October Month: August Month: SeptemberTagiades litigiosa | Water Snow Flat Caprona ransonnetti | Golden Angle Pelopidas conjuncta | Conjoined SwiftFamily: Hesperiidae Family: Hesperiidae Family: HesperiidaeLocation: Korigad Location: Tungareshwar Location: Nagla BlockMonth: October Month: September Month: June 72
  73. 73. Iambrix salsala | Chestnut Bob Taractrocera ceramas |Tamil Grass Dart Caleta caleta| Angled Pierrot Family: Hesperiidae Family: Hesperiidae Family: Lycaenidae Location: Matheran Location: Matheran Location: Karnala Month: September Month: September Month: OctoberCastalius rosimon| Common Pierrot Chilades laius| Lime Blue Zizeeria karsandra| Dark Grass BlueFamily: Lycaenidae Family: Lycaenidae Family: LycaenidaeLocation: Yeoor | Month: June Location: Bhimashankar | Month: October Location: Yeoor | Month: October 73
  74. 74. Jamides celeno | Common Cerulean (laying eggs) Jamides bochus | Dark Cerulean Chilades pandava |Plains Cupid Family: Lycaenidae Family: Lycaenidae Family: Lycaenidae Location: Yeoor Location: Yeoor Location: Naneghat Month: July Month: May Month: AugustLoxura atymnus | Yamfly Neptis hylas | Common Sailor Kallima horsfieldii | Southern Blue OakleafFamily: Lycaenidae Family: Nymphalidae Family: NymphalidaeLocation: Yeoor Location: Korigad Location: YeoorMonth: July Month: October Month: May 74
  75. 75. Elymnias hypermnestra |Common Palmfly Mycalesis sp. | Bushbrown Ypthima huebneri | Common Four-ringFamily: Nymphalidae Family: Nymphalidae Family: NymphalidaeLocation: Jijamata Udyan Location: Tungareshwar Location: KorigadMonth: July Month: September Month: OctoberEuthalia nias |Baronet Hypolimnas misippus |Danaid Eggfly Phalanta phalantha | Common LeopardFamily: Nymphalidae Family: Nymphalidae Family: NymphalidaeLocation: Tungareshwar Location: Korigad Location: YeoorMonth: September Month: October Month: June 75
  76. 76. Pareronia valeria |Common Wanderer Vanessa cardui |Painted Lady Junonia almana |Peacock PansyFamily: Nymphalidae Family: Nymphalidae Family: NymphalidaeLocation: Yeoor Location: Korigad Location: KarnalaMonth: October Month: October Month: OctoberJunonia orithya |Blue Pansy Junonia hierta |Yellow Pansy Junonia atlites |Gray PansyFamily: Nymphalidae Family: Nymphalidae Family: NymphalidaeLocation: Yeoor Location: Yeoor Location: YeoorMonth: May Month: May Month: October 76
  77. 77. Euploea core |Common Indian Crow Papilio clytia form clytia |Common Mime Papilio polytes |Common MormonFamily: Nymphalidae Family: Papilionidae Family: PapilionidaeLocation: Manikgad Location: Tungareshwar Location: YeoorMonth: September Month: September Month: OctoberAtrophaneura aristolochiae |Common Rose Graphium nomius |Spot Swordtail Eurema hecabe |Common Grass YellowFamily: Papilionidae Family: Papilionidae Family: PieridaeLocation: Yeoor Location: Yeoor Location: KoirgadMonth: May Month: May Month: October 77
  78. 78. Abisara echerius|Plum Judy Euthalia aconthea|Common Baron (caterpillar) Surendra quercetorum|Common Acacia BlueFamily: Rionidinae Family: Nymphalidae (caterpillar)Location: Yeoor Location: Tungareshwar Family: LycaenidaeMonth: July Month: September Location: Yeoor | Month: JuneCharaxes bernardus|Tawny Rajah (caterpillar)Family: NymphalidaeLocation: Yeoor| Month: July 78
  79. 79. HEMIPTERASTEALTH OF THE BUGS 15 Families · 21 types 79
  80. 80. Callitettix versicolour | Spittle Bug Unidentified Spittle Bug Spittle Bug Nymph in Spittle MassFamily: Cercopidae Family: Cercopidae Family: CercopidaeLocation: Yeoor Location: Mahuli Location: TungareshwarMonth: July Month: September Month: SeptemberGiant Water Bug Nepholettix virescens Unidentified CicadaFamily: Belostomatidae Family: Cicadellidae Family: CicadidaeLocation: Kolhapur Location: Manikgad Location: YeoorMonth: September Month: September Month: June 80
  81. 81. Unidentified Cicada Anoplocnemis phasianaFamily: Cicadidae Family: CoreidaeLocation: Yeoor Location: TungareshwarMonth: June Month: SeptemberHomoeocerus sp. Dalader sp. UnidentifiedFamily: Coreidae Family: Coreidae Family: FulgoridaeLocation: Mahuli Location: Korigad Location: TungareshwarMonth: September Month: October Month: September 81
  82. 82. Leptocentrus sp. Waterscorpion BackswimmerFamily: Membracidae Family: Nepidae Family: NotonectidaeLocation: Yeoor Location: Karnala Location: KarnalaMonth: May Month: October Month: OctoberAntestiopsis sp. Erthesina acuminata Erthesina acuminate (Nymph)Family: Pentatomidae Family: Pentatomidae Family: PentatomidaeLocation: Tung Location: Yeoor Location: NaneghatMonth: July Month: July Month: August 82
  83. 83. Stink Bug Nymph Mealy Bugs Assassin Bug NymphFamily: Pentatomidae Family: Pseudococcidae Family: ReduviidaeLocation: Tungareshwar Location: Yeoor Location: Nagla BlockMonth: September Month: July Month: JuneUnidentified Chrysocoris stolli (nymph) Pycanum ponderosumFamily: Ricaniidae Family: Scuteleridae Family: TessaratomidaeLocation: Yeoor Location: Yeoor Location: LohagadMonth: October Month: July Month: August 83
  84. 84. ODONATAFLIGHT OF DRAGONS & PLIGHT OF DAMSELS 8 FAMILIES · 28 types 84
  85. 85. Gynacantha dravida Gynacantha bayaderaFamily: Aeshnidae Family: AeshnidaeLocation: Kolhapur Location: KarnalaMonth: September Month: October Epopthalmia vittata (Dead) Anax immaculifrons Female Ovipositing Anax immaculifrons (Mating in Wheel Formation) Family: Macromiidae Family: Aeshnidae Family: Aeshnidae Location: Kolhapur Location: Tung Location: Korigad Month: September Month: July Month: October 85
  86. 86. Trithemis aurora (Male) Trithemis aurora (Female) Tramea limbataFamily: Libellulidae Family: Libellulidae Family: LibellulidaeLocation: Yeoor Location: Yeoor Location: ManikgadMonth: October Month: May Month: SeptemberCrocothemis servilia (Male) Crocothemis servilia (Female) Orthetrum pruinosumFamily: Libellulidae Family: Libellulidae Family: LibellulidaeLocation: Yeoor Location: Tungareshwar Location: BhimashankarMonth: October Month: September Month: October 86
  87. 87. Rhodothemis rufa (Female) Pantala flavescens Potamarcha congener (Female)Family: Libellulidae Family: Libellulidae Family: LibellulidaeLocation: Manikgad Location: Yeoor Location: YeoorMonth: August Month: July Month: MayTholymis tillarga (Female) Trithemis festiva (Male) Diplacodes trivialis (Female)Family: Libellulidae Family: Libellulidae Family: LibellulidaeLocation: Yeoor Location: Tungareshwar Location: MatheranMonth: July Month: September Month: September 87
  88. 88. Orthetrum glaucum (?) Orthetrum luzonicumFamily: Libellulidae Family: LibellulidaeLocation: Korigad Location: KorigadMonth: October Month: OctoberBradinopyga geminata Trithemis pallidinervisFamily: Libellulidae Family: LibellulidaeLocation: Korigad Location: NaneghatMonth: October Month: August 88
  89. 89. Ceriagrion coromandelianum Agriocnemis pygmaea (Male)Family: Coenagrionidae Family: CoenagrionidaeLocation: Yeoor Location: TungareshwarMonth: July Month: September Agriocnemis pygmaea (Female Red Morph) Agriocnemis pygmaea (Mating in Wheel Formation) Family: Coenagrionidae Family: Coenagrionidae Location: Tungareshwar Location: Tungareshwar Month: September Month: September 89
  90. 90. Ichnura aurora Ichnura senegalensis (feeding on I. aurora) Ichnura senegalensisFamily: Coenagrionidae Family: Coenagrionidae Family: CoenagrionidaeLocation: Korigad Location: Mahuli Location: TungareshwarMonth: October Month: September Month: SeptemberPseudagrion rubriceps Pseudagrion decorum Pseudagrion microcephalumFamily: Coenagrionidae Family: Coenagrionidae Family: CoenagrionidaeLocation: Mahuli Location: Kolhapur Location: MatheranMonth: September Month: September Month: September 90
  91. 91. Vestalis gracilis Lestes sp. Disparoneura quadrimaculata (Male)Family: Calopterygidae Family: Lestidae Family: PlatystictidaeLocation: Yeoor Location: Korigad Location: YeoorMonth: October Month: October Month: OctoberDisparoneura quadrimaculata (Female)Family: PlatystictidaeLocation: YeoorMonth: October 91
  92. 92. DIPTERAAGILITY OF BRACHYCERA & TEASING OF NEMATOCERA 23 FAMILIES · 41 types 92
  93. 93. Robber fly (Male) Robber fly (Female) Robber fly (Teneral)Family: Asilidae Family: Asilidae Family: AsilidaeLocation: Yeoor Location: Yeoor Location: YeoorMonth: June Month: June Month: JuneRobber fly (Male) Robber fly (feeding on another fly) Robber flyFamily: Asilidae Family: Asilidae Family: AsilidaeLocation: Yeoor Location: Matheran Location: NaneghatMonth: June Month: September Month: August 93
  94. 94. Top: Robber fly (Ovipositing on grass frond) Right: Egg mass Family: Asilidae Location: Karnala Month: October 94
  95. 95. Bee fly (Female) Bee fly (Mating pair) Greon argentifronsFamily: Bombyliidae Family: Bombyliidae Family: BombyliidaeLocation: Mahuli Location: Tungareshwar Location: TungareshwarMonth: September Month: September Month: SeptemberBottle fly Bengalia sp. UnidentifiedFamily: Calliphoridae Family: Calliphoridae Family: CalliphoridaeLocation: Tung Location: Tung Location: MatheranMonth: July Month: July Month: September 95
  96. 96. Beetle-backed fly Teleopsis sp.| Stalk-eyed fly (Male) Long-legged flyFamily: Celyphidae Family: Diopsidae Family: DolichopodidaeLocation: Manikgad Location: Tung Location: LohagadMonth: September Month: July Month: AugustDance fly Unidentified UnidentifiedFamily: Hybotidae Family: Lauxaniidae Family: MuscidaeLocation: Tung Location: Yeoor Location: YeoorMonth: July Month: June Month: July 96
  97. 97. Stilt-legged fly Stilt-legged fly Ant mugging fly (Crematogaster sp. in theFamily: Micropezidae Sub family: Taeniapterinae background)Location: Tungareshwar Family: Micropezidae Family: MilichiidaeMonth: September Location: Tungareshwar | Month: September Location: Tungareshwar | Month: SeptemberSnipe fly Scavenger fly Black scavenger flyFamily: Rhagionidae Family: Sepsidae Family: SepdiadeLocation: Tung Location: Korigad Location: KorigadMonth: July Month: October Month: October 97

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