The West Indian Federation


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The West Indian Federation

  1. 1. On the way to Caribbean Integration
  2. 2. The bringing of people of different racial, ethnic or national groups into equal association,
  3. 3. The degree of economic integration can be categorized into six stages:  Preferential trading area  Free Trade Area  Customs Union  Common Market  Economic & Monetary Union  Complete Economic Union
  4. 4.  Weaker forms of international political integration refer to cooperation between states  Stronger forms of integration refer to the constitution of new political entities, e.g. FEDERATIONS .
  5. 5.  Regional Integration has several meanings and levels.  Integration has various forms of political units (FEDERATION) or economic units (CARIFTA, CARICOM, CSME).  Integration is also the development of institutions (UWI, the West Indian Cricket Board, Regional Central Bank, Caribbean Court of Justice)
  6. 6. A “parent” organization formed by the linking of several states, countries ... each retaining the control of much of its own affairs.
  7. 7. 2008-The fiftieth (50th) anniversary of the establishment of the West Indies Federation
  8. 8. The history of the attempt by the British Government to federate its West Indian colonies date back to the nineteenth century.
  9. 9. The Colonial Office set up regional institutions such as:  The Imperial College of Tropical Agriculture (1922)  West Indian Court of Appeal  Regional Met Office  The first West Indian Conference (1926)  The Closer Union Commission (1932) Some West Indian politicians attempted to use the CUC to gain self-government and wider voting rights but they were rejected by the Colonial Office
  10. 10. During the early twentieth century a number of West Indian leaders and institutions pursued the concept of  W.G.Donovan  T.A.Marryshow  A.A. Cipriani  The West Indian Labour Congress
  11. 11. “The West Indies must be West Indian!” T.A. Marryshow (1887-1958)-a key figure in the history of Grenada and the Caribbean
  12. 12.  1903-Apprenticed to W. G. Donovan who published newspapers, advocating representative government and a Federation of Britain's West Indian colonies.  1916-By time of Donavan’s death in, Marryshow published, The West Indian.  The first one (1 January 1915) promised quot;an immediate and accurate chronicler of current events, an untrammelled advocate of popular rights, unhampered by chains of party prejudice, an unswerving educator of the people in their duties as subjects of the state and citizens of the worldquot; and hopes for quot;the day when, our islands linked together in an administrative and fiscal union, the West Indian Dominion will take its place, small though that may be, in the glorious Empire.quot;
  13. 13.  His goals were Federation and the replacement of Crown Colony Government by representative democracy  His slogan was quot;Educate, Agitate, Federatequot;  He was a staunch advocate of wider black empowerment.
  14. 14. A.A.Cipriani and T.A.Marryshow Two stalwarts of West Indian nationalism
  15. 15. T.A.Marryshow (2nd from left)Lord Hailes (3rd from left) Lord Hailes was the first and only Governor General of the West Indies Federation
  16. 16.  March, 1945, Colonel Oliver Stanley, the Colonial Secretary, formally proposed the idea of federation to the West Indian Governments.  The Colonial Office asked that the West Indians themselves propose what form the federation should take.  1947 -The Montego Bay Conference. Members have differences. Planter element not in favour. Bustamante feels Br abandoning West Indies. Labour elements want federation.
  17. 17.  SCAC works out details of federation  1949-presents report  British Guiana, British Honduras, British Virgin islands did not accept proposals  Grantley Adams says it was a glorified Crown Colony  Dr Patrick Solomon accepts  T.A. Marryshow rejects
  18. 18.  1953 and 1956 -Conferences held in London in to write the Federal Constitution  Post SCAC disagreements continue  March 25, 1958 -Federal Elections, for a Federal Parliament  The West Indies Federal Labour Party (W.I.F.L.P.) narrowly defeats the Democratic Labour Party (D.L.P.)  W.I.F.L.P. had not done enough to explain Federation to the people
  19. 19.  Sir Grantley Adams, from Barbados, became Prime Minister of the West Indies.
  20. 20.  22nd April 1958- that the West Indies Federation came into being  HRH Princess Margaret opened the first Parliament of the new nation.  The Federation comprised ten territories : Antigua and Barbuda, Barbados, Dominica, Grenada, Jamaica, Mont serrat, St Kitts-Nevis-Anguilla(as it was then) Saint Lucia, St Vincent and Trinidad & Tobago.  Br. Guiana & Br Honduras do not join .Not happy with freedom of movement.
  21. 21. Flag of the Governor General Coat of Arms of the Federation
  22. 22. UCWI -the early days
  23. 23. Norman Manley Alexander Bustamante
  24. 24. There were several disagreements over measures proposed for the operation of the Federation  Taxation  Customs  Freedom of movement  Financing(Jamaica (bauxite), T&T (oil) not prepared to share burden of financing)  Capital Site
  25. 25.  As a result of the growing unease in Jamaica, the Government, in 1961, decided to hold a referendum on the future of the Federation.  Manley said that if he lost the referendum he would take Jamaica out of the Federation  The final results: 45.9% for; 54.1% against.  Manley, the Jamaican Premier, had to concede defeat.
  26. 26.  April 1962-The final session of the Federation’s Parliament was held  May 23, 1962 -the West Indies Federation was formally dissolved.  Four years after its inception the “Great Experiment” ended in failure.
  27. 27.  Mainland colonies (B.G. and Br. Honduras) did not join  Rivalry between Trinidad & Tobago and Jamaica  The suspicions and fears of the smaller states  Political unity came before economic agreement. Federation had no powers re:taxation,customs,freedom of movement  Jamaica (bauxite), T&T (oil) not prepared to share burden of financing  Br. Government had control over foreign affairs
  28. 28.  The Caribbean population not sufficiently informed regarding the issues.
  29. 29. Williams “One from ten Sparrow “Every body fighting leaves nought” singularly...”
  30. 30. “Devoid of programme and consideration for the people they saw Federation and met among themselves only to arrange what their governments would get and what they would lose. That is always an important part of any political discussion. But if you are discussing nothing else, then the result is always the violent quarrels, in fact the unseemly squabbles for that is what they were, by which these gentlemen broke up the Federation and disgraced the West Indian people” CLR James :Party Politics in the West Indies
  31. 31.  Jamaica withdraws. British governement promise Independence  1962, August 6- Jamaica independent  1962,August 31-T&T independent  Barbados could go it alone as head of the remaining units  1966,November- Barbados Independent  1966, Antigua and Barbuda, Dominica, Grenada, St Kitts-Nevis-Anguilla(as it was then) Saint Lucia, St Vincent –Associated states to Britain
  32. 32.  Wallace, Elizabeth, The breakup of the West Indies Federation-(Caribbean Freedom ed H.Beckles an V Shepherd)  James, C. L. R. Party Politics in the West Indies (pp159-164)  Claypole,W & Robottom,J. Caribbean Story Book 2 (pp 123-147)
  33. 33. Image credits will be placed on the Credit page