What I Do

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What I Do

  1. 1. Quick Samples:<br />Easy Sample 1:<br />Shanti Self Help Group<br />Why<br />To create awareness on Women Employment<br />Capacity building at village level Door to Door step<br />To expand Self Help movement in Kuarmunda Block and District level<br />To facilitate creation of conducive environment through Self Help Act<br />To build cluster association at GP level<br />To prove our SHG as exemplary and Self-sustainable in Sundargarh District<br />The Success Story of Shanti SHG- A Comparative Study<br />No SHG formed earlier in the village <br />SHG formed with 11 Tribal Poor women<br />Started Functioning 09.02.2004<br />Collection of amount @ Rs. 20/- from each member<br />Amount deposited in Kuarmunda Mini Bank Rs. 220/-<br />Meeting once in a month to review group function.<br />Key activities<br />Started vegetable vending collecting Hand Loan form own funding.<br />Received Rs. 9000/- as Micro-finance from bank on 11.04.2005<br />After Micro-Finance, the group started Candle making business and get profit of Rs 6000/- (around 50%)<br />What is now …….<br />Meeting fortnightly to review group function <br />Helping whole heartedly in ICDS works<br />Actively involved in social work like sanitation and health related activities of their own village an nearby villages<br />Key activities (present scenario)<br />By observing the utmost sincerity of the SHG members, the Bank and the Block graded this group and sanctioned Rs.25,000/- as revolving fund on 29.12.2005<br />Then they were trained with Mushroom cultivation by the Department of Horticulture<br />The Group opened a shop in the market building at Padampur G.P for making candles and net profit is Rs. 500/- per month<br />Opened a Public STD booth<br />The Saving Balance (as on 31.12.2006) is Rs 6284/-<br />Mushroom cultivation thrice produced and profit by selling<br />Source of income / Profit : Candle selling, STD Booth, mushroom cultivation, selling minor Forest product, seasonal business<br />The Shanti SHG has become a burning inspiration for their co-villagers<br />It has proved that when there is a will there is a way<br />Now this Group members are financially sound and self dependent.<br />Shanti Self Help Group<br />With a purpose to create awareness on the employment of women and to build their capacities at the village level, the Shanti Self-Help Group was formed in the Kuarmunda Block in Sundergarh District. The aim of expansion of the Self-Help Movement led to the building up of this cluster association to the Gram Panchayat level. The Shanti SHG aims to facilitate the creation of a conducive environment by complying to the Self-Help Act, and to prove itself as an exemplary and self-sustainable group in the District of Sundergarh. <br />The Success Story of Shanti SHG- A Comparative Study<br />The Shanti SHG happens to be the first SHG formed in the village, formed with only eleven poor tribal women. An initial collection of twenty rupees from each member deposited in the Kuarmunda Mini Bank started the functioning of this SHG on the 9th of February, in the year 2004. The SHG members meet once every month to review the functions of the group. <br />The SHG started vegetable vending collecting hand loan from their own funding. They received Rs. 9000/- as Micro-finance from the bank after fourteen months of successful their operation. After receiving the amount, the group started candle making business and made a profit of around fifty percent (Rs 6000/-)<br />The members of the SHG help whole heartedly in ICDS work and are actively involved in social work like sanitation and health related activities of their own village as well as of the nearby villages. <br />The SHG now has a revolving fund of Rs.25,000/- that has been sanctioned to it on the 29th of December, 2005 as a reward of sincerity of the members. The Group opened a shop in the market building at Padampur G.P for making candles and makes a net profit is Rs. 500/- per month. Then they were trained with Mushroom cultivation by the Department of Horticulture. In addition they opened a Public STD booth. Their yield includes a seasonal business of selling minor forest produces. <br />The Mushroom Cultivation was produced thrice and profit was made by selling. Hence with candle selling, STD Booth, mushroom cultivation and the seasonal profit out of minor forest produces as the sources of income, the SHG had a Saving Balance of Rs 6284/- on the 31st of December, 2006). Shanti SHG has become a burning inspiration for their co-villagers and has proved the saying of “where there is a will, there is a way.” Now the Group members are not only financially sound but also self dependent in more ways than one. <br />Easy Sample 2: <br />PRIYADARSHINI WOMEN SELF HELP GORUP<br />Step Ahead….<br />Micro Finance:12.12.2003<br />Amount:Rs 5000/-<br />Activities : Leaf plate making and grained profit of Rs 2000/-<br />Marching ahead<br />Took lease of pond from Jalda GP on 01.03.2004<br />Eligible as Grade I on 29.09.2004<br />Revolving fund and loan from SBI, Jalda and invested the amount in fishery<br />Profit during 2004-2005Rs 5000/- from fishery<br />Profit during 2005-2006Rs 15,000/- from fishery<br />Passed in Grade-II evaluation on 09.11.2005<br />Covered under SGSY loan on poultry amounting to RS 2,60,000/-<br />Trained on Poultry farming by Animal Husbandry Deptt., Lathikata<br />Kerosene dealershipProfit Rs.300/- per month<br />Multipurpose activityCollection and selling of Minor forest product and seasonable vegetable vending which is additional fund raising<br />Became self sufficient and self reliant in group business and proved financially and socially sound<br />To best of our belief the mission of “MISSION SHAKTI” could achieved.<br />PRIYADARSHINI WOMEN SELF HELP GORUP<br />Yet another Woman Self-Help Group, Priyadarshini, took its step ahead with a micro-finance of Rs. 5000/- on the 12th December, 2003. It utilized the amount in leaf plate making and gained a profit of Rs. 2000/- on it. <br />The group took a pond on lease from the Jalda Gram Panchayat on the 1st of February, 2004. It attained its Grade – 1eligibility on the 29th of September, 2004. The WSHG generated a revolving fund and received a loan from the State Bank of India, Jalda. It invested the amount in fishery and made a profit of Rs. 5000/- during the year 2004-2005. The next year saw a huge three-time profit of Rs. 15, 000/-. The group passed its Grade-II evaluation on the Ninth of September, 2005. <br />Marching Ahead…<br />The Priyadarshini Women Self-Help Group is covered under the SGSY loan on poultry amounting to Rs. 2,60,000/-. The group was trained on Poultry farming by the Animal Husbandry Deptt., Lathikata. It took up a Kerosene dealership to make a steady profit of Rs.300/- per month. The group is into multipurpose activities. It gains from an additional fund-raising from collecting and selling of minor forest produces and from seasonal vegetable vending. Today the group is self-sufficient and self-sufficient in group business and has proved itself both financially and socially. The group is therefore “Mission Shakti” accomplished, to the best of our belief. <br />Easy Sample 3:<br />Gayatri SHG<br />Gayatri Swayam Sahayak Dal was formed in the year 1999 when fifteen landless labourers decided to free themselves from the clutches of the mahajan, the local money lender. They started saving regularly and lending small amounts among members for meeting their consumption needs/ Gradually they started taking up economic activity like rice processing, pisciculture and made huge profits. Individually also, the members took up goat rearing and cultivation of sugarcane and cotton etc. Thus, the group members became financially stable and turned away form daily wage employment to take up small enterprises.<br />The Group have a Grain Bank with two quintals of rice to meet the needs of members and an Emergency Fund to help poor patients. The Group have participated in three exhibitions and won awards.<br />The Gayatri SHG members actively participate in social activities like cleaning of village roads, ponds and have repaired the road damaged in the last flood. In the work. Each member is earning a profit of the Rs 860/- per month.<br />The group had planned to take up construction of the village road after the monsoon.<br />The Gayatri SHG<br />Fifteen landless laborers successfully freed themselves from the clutches of Mahajan (the money lender), and formed the Gayatri Swayam Sahayak Dal, a self-help group, in 1999. They started saving regularly and lending small amounts among members for meeting their consumption needs, picked up productive options of livelihood like rice processing and pisciculture. They made huge profits in the process. In addition to this, they took up individual livelihood trades as goat rearing and cultivation of sugarcane and cotton. This made them financially stable and kept them away from daily wage employment to take up small enterprises to sustain livelihood. <br />This effort further contributed to the formation of a Grain Bank with two quintals of rice to meet the needs of members and an Emergency Fund to help poor patients. Each member is now earning a profit of the Rs 860/- per month.<br />The Gayatri Swayam Sahayak Dal has won awards participating in three exhibitions. Its members actively participate in social activities like cleaning of village roads and ponds. They have repaired the road damaged in the previous flood. The group had even planned to take up construction of the village road after the monsoon.<br />Easy Sample 4: <br />JAYADURGA SHG, PURI<br />After the launching of ‘Mission Shakti’, the Jaydurga Group facilitated by the Satyabadi ICDS project consisting of 18 members was formed on 31.08.2001 at Raikhandi village of Satyabadi Block.<br />Within a short span of time, the Group has been able to achieve the position of being of the best SHG of the District for which it received the best Group award in the District on ‘Shakti Diwas 2002’<br />The Group started saving with Rs. 30/- per month per member. The group now has savings of Rs 15,589/- (Recently, Puri Gramya Bank, Saranjodi has financed Rs. 8000/-)<br />Group engaged in economic activities such as stone carving appliqué, badi-making, mixture, broomstick-making and garment-making without depending on any external credit.<br />The Group have been selected by the Rotary Club, Puri to supervise the construction of building works worth Rs. 25 lakhs for which they will receive Rs. 2500/- per month.<br />This Group has promoted 30 SHGs in the adjacent villages. Internal loan has been given to 3 S.C members in the Group for vegetable cultivation.<br />They are also involved in social activities like village cleaning, sanitation, ICDS activities, village road construction etc.<br />The members feel that there has been a great change in their social and economic status after formation of their SHG.<br />JAYADURGA SHG, PURI<br />After the launching of ‘Mission Shakti’, the Jaydurga Group facilitated by the Satyabadi ICDS project, consisting of 18 members. This was formed on the 31st of August, 2001 at Raikhandi village of Satyabadi Block.Within a short span of time, the Group has been able to achieve the position of being of the best SHG of the District for which it received the best Group award in the District on ‘Shakti Diwas 2002.’<br />The Group started saving with Rs. 30/- per month per member. It now has savings of Rs 15,589/-. The Group engaged in economic activities such as stone carving appliqué, bidi-making, mixture, broomstick-making and garment-making without depending on any external credit.<br />The Group has been selected by the Rotary Club, Puri to supervise the construction of building works worth Rs. 25 lacs for which they will receive Rs. 2500/- per month. The Group has promoted 30 SHGs in the adjacent villages. An internal loan has been given to three S.C members in the Group for vegetable cultivation. They are also involved in social activities like village cleaning, sanitation, ICDS activities, village road construction etc. They feel that there has been a great change in their social and economic status after formation of their SHG. Quite recently, Puri Gramya Bank, Saranjodi has financed Rs. 8000/- to the Jayadurga SHG of Puri. <br />Tough Sample 1:<br />Offer of a short term contract for developing content for Brochure on ‘Guidelines for Partners on Gender Equality’:<br />The assignment involved <br />Going through background materials and information provided<br />Developing content following the broader sections that were shared <br />Incorporating the feedback of both the organisation and the client<br />Submitting the final content after satisfactory completion<br />Format 1:<br />Introduction<br />Concern Worldwide is a non-governmental, international, humanitarian organization dedicated to the reduction of suffering and working towards the ultimate elimination of extreme poverty in the world’s poorest countries. It currently implements emergency and development programmes in thirty countries of the world. Concern Worldwide India (CWI) has been working in India since 1999. In 2002 it set up its liaison office in Bhubaneswar, Orissa which is the priority state for its long term development work in India. Concern believes in a world where no-one lives in poverty, fear or oppression; where all have access to a decent standard of living and the opportunities and choices essential to a long, healthy and creative life; a world where everyone is treated with dignity and respect. <br />Concern Worldwide India supports voluntary organizations in Orissa to implement a variety of programmes including livelihoods development, education, HIV prevention, and emergency preparedness and response programmes. It also supports national initiatives for good governance and people centered advocacy. Concern believes that poverty and inequality are so closely linked that poverty cannot be eradicated without addressing inequality. It believes that it is possible to alleviate poverty only when issues of inequality and injustice are themselves addressed. <br />Country Strategy Paper - Bringing hope and opportunity<br />The main guiding document for CWI’S work in India is the Country Strategy, 2006-2011, that outlines a situational analysis of the socio-economic and political conditions in the country recording the increasing inequalities. It records that in spite of declining proportion of people in India living below the poverty line the percentage of ST’s in the rural population living in poverty has increased from 14.8in 1993/94 to 17.5%in 1999-2000. The paper recognizes “the deprivation and exclusion that the tribal communities face is multidimensional and the factors that perpetuate deprivation are intrinsically interlinked and reinforced by exclusion.” <br />Internal discussions within the India office highlighted that inequality must be addressed in all programme activities. However the strategies to do so were unclear. As part of the process to promote equality in development, various actions have been undertaken and equality audits planned to benchmark current practices among project partners. While NGOs work to promote development they are part of society and reflect societal problems as well as issues. <br />The Participatory Equality Audit for Concern Worldwide India and Partners<br />Background<br />CWI works within the broad framework of Concern worldwide policies and practice though it designs local specific interventions to suit Indian conditions. In keeping with its international mandate to promote Equality, CWI has developed an Equality Policy for India and has undertaken a sample participatory Equality Audit of six partners in Orissa. <br />To continue organizational learning around the issue and to reflect on its own systems, procedures and culture CWI has commissioned a participator audit at its India Office in Bhubaneswar. This open culture will support partner’s efforts to bring about change in their own organizations as well as in development planning and practice. Concern staff will have an opportunity to rethink organizational strategies include the most marginalized. The Equality Audit is expected to provide<br />Disaggregated qualitative and quantitative baseline information on systems management, practice and programmes.<br />Identify opportunities and challenges in promoting equality (both policy and practice)<br />Promote organizational learning and change from an equality perspective<br />The Purpose of the Equality Audit:<br />The purpose of the audit was to understand the current structure and practices in each organization identify potential for change and examine possible constraints to promote equality in all its interventions. The exercise is not a programme or project evaluation. Programmes referred to, highlighted processes within the organization and community. <br />Inequalities in Indian Society<br />The major inequalities prevalent in society are reflected in the prevailing gender relations. Patriarchal values in society reflected in gender sub-ordination leads to major deprivations of women's rights. In addition, within Indian society, caste and class divisions, as well as hierarchies among tribes are all pervasive. People with disability are neglected and discrimination due to “otherness” whether it is based on religion or region is common in society. While the audit mainly focuses on gender inequalities it will also reflect on development processes, which continue to marginalize communities. Recognizing following inequalities in the society helps to appreciate the discussion on inequalities of resources, power, learning and solidarity. <br />About Orissa<br />In Orissa, 47.15% of the people in the state live below the poverty line against 26.16% at the national level. In tribal districts such as undivided Kalahandi around 84% live below the poverty line while in Koraput this is 79%. The per capita income at current prices is Rs. 12,388 against Rs. 20,862 for India as a whole. On the other hand the sex ratio is 972 females per 1000 males which is higher than the national average of 935. <br />Orissa is a mineral rich state with 20% of India’s mineral reserves. Current efforts at development have led to large scale displacement due to construction of dams, contract farming, displacement due to mining and setting up of special economic zones. It is estimated that more than 250,000 people are displaced due to development. If we examine the status of food security various studies note that only 34% of the population has access to food round the year. Seventy two percent are under nourished and 3% do not get two square meals a day. Starvation deaths, female feticide and preventable deaths due to malaria, cholera, and tuberculosis continue. Structural violence in society is represented by denial of access to education, health, and food for many sections of society. <br />While efforts have been made to strengthen democratic decentralization the current Panchayati Raj institutions are weak with women playing a token role. Funds continue to pour into the state with major funding provided by international agencies and central funds. The NGO movement has also brought in more than Rs. 650 crores since 2000. It is estimated that large numbers of people will be provided employment due to the industrialization process but this promise is yet to be realized. <br />The voluntary sector in Orissa works within these difficult parameters. While the NGOs work towards social change they also mirror some of the hierarchies prevalent in society. Staff members may hold prejudices and in spite of an ideology to promote equality lapse into class and caste based behavior. Orissa is also known to be a patriarchal and traditional society which reflects gender inequalities. <br />Methodology for the review<br />The audit process involved the study of secondary material, policy documents, annual reports and proposals; discussions with Members of the Board and Senior management; staff presentation of programmes; review of problem identification; strategies to reach out to the excluded; group exercises for critical reflection; small group meetings with women staff; individual interviews with some staff members; case studies when time permitted; exercise to understand lifecycle of men and women of project area; visits to the field – one or two sites, discussions with SHGs and other community institutions, field staff; feedback on observations from the field to the staff; final wrap up session produced by Deccan Development Society; film show – “Onwards to Food Security” which describes women’s leadership to create food security was screened. (The film demonstrates how women’s equality can be promoted while ensuring food security); audit process was also used as an occasion to increase understanding of gender issues; questionnaire to assess Organization culture; introduction of reading material<br />Study of the six partner organizations in collaboration with four CWI Programme Officers and one Programme Manager provided an insight into the partnership management process of CWI and Programme Officer’s role to promote equality. Concern Policy documents were reviewed and individual interviews were held with five Programme Officers, three Programme Managers and the Country Director to understand the process of programme development and management. The General Systems Manager and Finance Manager shared information on organizational systems. Administrative and support staff shared their personal experiences at work and views on the culture of the organization. A total of 21 staff members were interviewed including administrative support staff. A short questionnaire was administered to 14 staff members during the field visits, to understand the culture of the organization The questionnaire was made available both in Oriya and in English.<br />The audit process was carried out among five NGOs and the Concern India office.<br />SOVAKoraput PREM (OAM)22 districts, 7 OAMRuchikaBhubaneswarSewakSundargarhWOSCAKeonjharConcern Orissa<br />The audit process was accompanied by Programme Officers working with each programme. The audit was a participatory process where each organization reflected on its structure, processes, culture and project management. As a part of project management planning, monitoring and results were viewed in the context of promoting equality.<br />Limitations of the Participatory Equality Audit<br />While the audit process was intense, there were limitations to the study. To ensure genuine participation and acceptance of partners the process was started by conducting a workshop where partners shared their experiences to embed participation. The workshop discussed the global scenario of development within which inequalities among nations and within nations was increasing. Participants of the workshop acknowledged that bringing about equality in society involved not only economic development but social change in all aspects of life. It was acknowledged that institutionalized inequalities in organizations were often unrecognized and special efforts were needed to bring about substantive equality. The individual was also recognized as a critical factor to bring about social transformation. The workshop participants noted individual, organizational and society changes were required to promote equality and this was an ongoing process. The organizations included in the study were selected / volunteered to be part of the process. <br />Two days were spent in each organization. In a hierarchal society where the culture of silence is encouraged, it is quite difficult for staff members to speak out openly in front of their senior managers. Recognizing this problem the audit process held discussions in groups as well as with individuals. Moreover, though the organizations were assured that the audit process would not affect funding there may have been concern’s which held back individuals. Efforts were made to make the process reflective and a self learning exercise. Furthermore, gender disaggregated data related to investments in the programme and results were not available. In the absence of such clear information, only tentative conclusions could be drawn. Moreover, the audit process could not explode all the issues of structural violence adequately. The audit process was focused on the NGO as an institution and its initiatives to promote development. <br />The Challenges for centralizing the marginalized:<br />Gender Mainstreaming – Where We Are<br />The major inequality prevalent in society is reflected in prevailing gender relations today. Patriarchal values in society reflected in gender sub-ordination leads to major deprivations of women's rights. In addition, within Indian society, caste and class divisions, as well as hierarchies among tribes are all pervasive. People with disability are neglected and discrimination due to “otherness” whether it is based on religion or region is common in society. Gender Inequalities continue to marginalize communities. While trying to understand the gender inequality issues prevalent amongst the Indian Partner of Concern Worldwide, it aided in reaching out to the excluded sections of the society. <br />Gender Mainstreaming – What to Focus<br />Gender mainstreaming should address all inequalities in society - Legal, Assets, skills, opportunities for education, income and space in public life. There is a certain need for understanding gender and gender planning to counter the prevalent inequalities. Gender planning means that we have to examine and understand the roles played by men and women in society and design projects to meet their needs and bring about change. Gender Planning is also meant to bring about equality of status. It should not lead to stagnation of current roles - women in the house, men outside. <br />Hence, to bring about a Transformatory change, it becomes mandatory for men to recognize their strengths and the advantages in bringing about change in the society, to set up an ideal by taking part in household work and giving up violence. While men create an umbrella of support for women to participate in public life, women have to change through collective action, and each have to support the other. There has to be willingness to claim their rights give up dependency and demonstrate leadership in women, and an overall expression of genuine mutual respect within the household and in society for each has to prevail. <br />Gender Mainstreaming – How to Focus<br />Effective and impartial decision-making requires being open to different realities and transcending the black and white limitations of social norms. The role of a NGO staff is to interpret inequality and work to implement equality. There is a need to realize the need to challenge personal perceptions and beliefs that limit a comprehensive response to issues of inequality. This requires understanding the impact of social baggage and recognizing social contexts. A Director or senior person needs to recognize the need to challenge myths and stereotypes in decision-making. The importance of identifying and re-examining long standing norms, rules and assumptions through the prism of substantive equality has to be understood. It is necessary to realize that equality rights cannot be viewed in isolation and have to be determined by a predetermined set of values that are dynamic and evolutionary. Moreover, while listening to a problem, it is important to ask the following question: Does the overall impact of my action take the goal of equality further?<br />Challenges to implement the Equality Policy<br />The global Concern Equality Policy, the Equality Policy for India and the Country Strategy Paper clearly outline the directions to promote equality. They recognize gender and caste inequalities (among others) in the country as factors which hinder development.<br />The challenge facing CWI was to turn this understanding into action at the organizational and partner level. Indian society is extremely hierarchical and to overcome prejudices is not easy. The process to bring about equality would be a long journey. Commitment and resources were required to accomplish the task.<br />Increasing diversity among staff. Most of the projects were located in remote areas where the local adivasi or dalit people had little education and few skills to undertake development tasks. Women were also not available or recruited in adequate numbers. Motivating partners to increase the diversity among their staff was a formidable task.<br />Enhancing staff skills at CWI and among partners. Staff required skills to undertake gender analysis, caste discrimination and other exclusions (of the poorest, minorities, people with disability or affected by HIV/AIDS). Among the dalit and Adivasi Community there were many hierarchies and these needed to be recognized, and overcome. To do this, skills needed be increased to use participatory planning tools to reach the most marginalized. <br />There was regular staff turnover at the partner level therefore developing in house skills and induction training as an ongoing process was a challenge, particularly as projects run on three or four year cycles.<br />Language acted as a barrier to reach the most marginalized, particularly tribes living in remote locations and primitive tribes.<br />Resources: Working with limited resources, CWI attempted to keep administrative budgets at a minimum. This reduced the possibility of reaching interior areas or using two staff members as a team to talk to men and women separately.<br />Networking among partners to learn and prevent competition among partners. <br />Programme staff at CWI, already had a heavy workload. Monitoring for Equality outcomes added to this.<br />Whenever an organization wants to bring about change and move towards democratic functioning and equality it has to be prepared to seriously review its norms and create an enabling environment where all individuals are treated equally. If we look at the law we find it necessary to make cognitive changes. The same applies to organizations. <br />Understanding Substantive Equality<br />For any organization to create an enabling environment for change, it is necessary to have a clear understanding of substantive equality. Substantive equality implies the practical possibilities in bringing about the change as against in policy. It is necessary to understand that women and men are not equal in the society, that Inequalities are produced by social norms and customs, not by physiology, that men are privileged over women, benefiting from their unpaid housework and dependence through non-cooperation, and that women are disadvantaged through social institutions (as patriarchy) and through rules and regulations (as religion based family laws institutionalized by the State as unequal land rights and custody of children to fathers).<br />While in case of formal equality the aim is to provide same treatment to all, substantive equality supports a more meaningful cause of aiming at eradicating equality. When it comes to the provision of government duty, formal equality avoids discrimination by differential treatment and substantive equality provides a more positive obligation to ensure a level playing field. The focus is on procedures of law in case of formal equality, as against on substance of law in case of substantive equality. Usually non-relevant context of formal equality is countered by always relevant context with a key to analysis under substantive equality. Most importantly, to provide substantive equality, issues of discrimination are compared, in terms of disadvantages, and are not vaguely compared as different meanings of a vague jargon as in formal equality. <br />Reflecting the systems of patriarchy in the context of Orissa, it is often stated that indigenous women are better off and live in a more equal society. While the sex ratios may be better, it is also true that women suffer immense structural violence. Indigenous women are denied access to education and health care as well as opportunities for employment at a much larger scale than mainstream society. The tribal communities continue with many anti women practices. Witch hunting is an example. Women are also denied space in public life and have to observe a meek stands in front of male elders. We need to recognize that there are many different systems of patriarchy and work towards reducing gender inequality. <br />In making efforts to address the increasing inequalities, bringing about equality in society involves not only economic development but a certain social change in all aspects of life. Institutionalized inequalities in organizations are often unrecognized and special efforts are needed to bring about substantive equality. The individual is also recognized as a critical factor to bring about social transformation. <br />Work load analysis surveys on men and women in the country highlight that women work sixteen to seventeen hours a day including productive and household and childcare. Men in contrast are known to work 10 to 12 hours a day. It hence needs to be ensured that women are not over burdened with work and their critical needs are met. To counter violence against women as a major development issue, it is mandatory to check the threat of physical violence that usually pushes women back into their homes and deprives them of self confidence. <br />Structural violence in society is represented by denial of access to education, health, and food for many sections of society. The NGO acts as an institution taking initiatives to promote development. In Policies and in practice, NGOs do so through their process of formalized policies in recruitment, gender, setting up committees to prevent sexual harassment, and in training. <br />The NGO movement has also brought in more than Rs. 650 Crores since 2000. It is estimated that large numbers of people will be provided employment due to the industrialization process but this promise is yet to be realized. While efforts have been made to strengthen democratic decentralization, the current Panchayati Raj institutions are weak with women playing a token role. Participative planning by wealth ranking and people’s input is used in different forms by the NGOs. Concern as a donor partner has worked closely with the NGOs to support them in their efforts. <br />Cross Organizational Learning help in reaching out to the poorest and in an understanding of women’s rights and gender inequalities, in employing an HIV positive person and in becoming a people’s organizations. When promoted, cross-organizational learning can lead to major welcome transformations. <br />Project partners need to review their policies and organizational functioning to ensure equity within their organization. To ensure moving towards equity objectives partners may like to team up through peer groups to provide feedback and support organizational change. This should include organizational issues as well as programme issues. Concern is all set to finalize gender equity and social equality indicators programme-wise, to include them for regular monitoring.<br />The major inequalities in societies are reflected through gender subordination where in women are treated as second class citizens and their development needs and aspirations neglected. Since the 70s development discourse has highlighted gender discrimination and found ways and means to make corrections. Interventions for women’s development include addressing basic needs and strategic needs. To ensure basic needs are addressed organizations need to follow the lifecycle analysis and address issues of concern to women. Life cycle analysis during programme planning helped to locate discriminatory practices at different stages of life.<br />Women’s life cycle: Used during programme analysis. <br />Lack of Health CareEconomic Deprivation<br />Domestic violenceLack of employment opporunity<br />Neglected by Family<br />Lack of Opportunities<br />Responsibility for familyNo Respect From Family<br />Dowry Harassment, Death<br />Infanticide<br />Sale of BabiesVictim of Bigamy<br />Suffer Alcoholic HusbandsBonded LaborOld age<br />Harassed if childlessFemale Feoticide<br />Widows Discriminated againstChild MarriagesChildhood<br />Middle Age<br />Single women’s rights not recognizedDenial of Schooling<br />Harassed if girls are bornDomestic workYouth<br />No Reproductive choices<br />Overwork and exhausted<br />DiscriminationIn FoodIn HealthcareFor other needs<br />Low and unequal wages<br />Low Paid Wage WorkHouse Work Not Allowed to Speak Up<br />Lack of Reproductive ChoicesLack of Knowledge related to Health Care<br />Control on all aspects of life<br />Opportunities and Threats<br />There are several opportunities for bringing about major changes in social relations and to promote economic development. The following new legislations are critical to increase incomes and create access to land and water resources. These are National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme, The Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act, 2006, the Right to Information Act, Mo Jami Mo Diha Campaign, The panchayats Extension to Scheduled Areas (PESA) Act 1996, Prevention of Domestic Violence Act, and the Right to Food entitlements recognized by the Supreme Court of India<br />The marginalized face many threats. On the one hand the government promotes development and on the other exploitative industrialization, corruption and globalization processes tend to deprive local communities of their rights. The concern partners provided many indications to bring about positive change. It was observed that the partners were open to learning, developed their own agenda to counter globalization with enthusiastic staff, willing to learn. There are many good practices among partners worth sharing and Concern was willing to support their initiatives.<br />The Outcomes of the Participatory Equality Audit for Concern Worldwide India and Partners<br />SOVA, Koraput<br />Introduction: <br />Koraput<br />With a predominantly tribal population, the District of Koraput is spread over 1963 villages with 226 Gram Panchayats and 14 Panchayat Samities, and 79% of the people in Koraput live below poverty line. <br />South Orissa Voluntary Action (SOVA), Koraput<br />Concern supports SOVA to implement the project “Empowerment of Young and Adolescents on HIV/AIDS and Reproductive Morbidity” in Koraput District. In addition SOVA promotes livelihood development, primary education and healthcare, improving governance and emergency relief. It acts as a nodal agency to promote mother and child health. SOVA works with 115 villages to implement development programmes and additionally in 3 blocks promotes a sensitization programme to prevent HIV/AIDS. Total budget for the year, 2007-2008 is Rs. 7,850,000.00. <br />The Outcome:<br />After the equality audit of Concern Worldwide India, SOVA as an organization, evaluated on the possible incorporation of the following checklist in areas of management, service rules, complaints committee, organizational culture, programme planning and management and self-governance, while checking the gaps, for its functioning towards gender equality and social inclusions(in the action plan):<br /><ul><li>Actualize of the plan to set up an advisory committee, representative and inclusive of community members.
  2. 2. Check the disparity in recruitments in future.
  3. 3. Involve women, giving them opportunities for higher-level tasks to develop leadership skills among them, along with necessary support, to ensure equal opportunity to women. A planned organization wide intervention is necessary.
  4. 4. Stimulate staff reflections on ongoing processes in the organization
  5. 5. Provide Safe work places to be provided to women to promote gender equality- to act as a barrier and possibly prevent unwarranted behaviour due to the early caution.
  6. 6. Further promotion of The HIV prevention programme that had promoted a network of positive people who were now voicing their own concerns and stood up for their rights.
  7. 7. Construction of a clause stating that the recruited employee is expected to behave with respect and dignity towards all colleagues including women.
  8. 8. A clause incorporating prevention of NGO personnel in behaving in a discriminatory manner towards people from dalit castes could be constructed.
  9. 9. Provision for maternity leave as per clause.
  10. 10. A more sensitive approach to staff with any kind of illness.
  11. 11. Compensatory off days to ensure a healthy work-life balance for overall maintenance of health of the individual as well as the organization.
  12. 12. Establishing the newly set up complaints’ committee to look into cases of sexual harassment at the work place set up with support from Centre for World Solidarity. Steps to educate the staff on what constitutes sexual harassment and how this can be prevented.
  13. 13. Strengthening the core committee of 10 members set up in the organization, which looked at some of the management issues particularly in case of disciplinary action.
  14. 14. Inclusion /representation of staff members from other in represented communities
  15. 15. Equality of treatment to both sexes.
  16. 16. Equality of treatment between senior and junior staff of livelihoods and education, participatory planning.
  17. 17. Transparency in the implementation of development projects.</li></ul>Ensuring equal opportunities to women, promoting leadership skills giving them opportunities for higher-level tasks along with necessary support. <br />Orientation of staff to undertake gender analysis before project planning. This would include an analysis of <br />Who does what – Activities<br />Who has what – control <br />Who decides <br />How<br />Who gains, who looses<br />Which men, which women<br />Complete appreciation of the vulnerable women in sexual relations, particularly wives who are the victims of sexually transmitted diseases, or women in sex work. <br />Identify critical support systems leading to gender equality. Timely review of ongoing programmes and identifying gaps from a development and gender specific perspective<br />People’s Rural Education Movement- Orissa Adivasi Manch, Gajapati<br />Introduction<br />The Organization was started by Jacob Thundyil and Chacko Paruvanany who initiated development programmes in 15 villages of Mohana Block at Gajapati district in 1980. The Organization was formally registered as a society in 1984. Since then it has expanded its activities to 22 districts. It has expanded its mandate from development to include advocacy and support to people’s movements. People’s Rural Education Movement (PREM) has initiated the Orissa Adivasi Manch,(OAM) a people’s Organization to promote rights of adivasi people. Concern Worldwide India (Concern) supports PREM to facilitate the Orissa Adivasi Manch. PREM has been working for the last 22 years to promote the rights of adivasi, dalit and fisher folk communities. It implements a number of programmes with a focus on education, family planning and reproductive health, campaign against HIV/AIDS, child centered development, health promotion schemes, rehabilitation of visually impaired and housing for the disadvantaged. In addition to implementing development programmes, PREM advocates for the rights of indigenous people and supports a network of adivasi activists. It networks with 172 independent voluntary organizations with an outreach of 50,00,000 in 22 districts of Orissa. PREM leads national level forums including ‘National Advocacy Council for Development of Indigenous People’ with membership from 92 Adivasi communities and 225 voluntary organizations in 18 states. It also promotes the ‘East Coast Fisher People Forum and Utkal Dalit Mahasabha’. PREM responds to disasters and works towards reconstruction and rehabilitation of effected communities. It undertakes advocacy for reform in rehabilitation policy. It works to set up indigenous people’s organizations so that they can take control of their own development. As part of its efforts it has set up a micro finance institution ‘Bharat Inter-State Multi-Purpose Cooperative’ to support financing of SHGs. <br />The Outcome:<br />While PREM as an organization was a peoples’ organization, with higher community representation comparatively, gaps to be filled up could be considered. There could be an attempt to reduce gender inequality in salary structure. Grooming women to increasingly take over managerial roles the difference in wages could be eliminated. It was necessary to ensure that larger family does not prevent entry of vulnerable women. It was also the need of the hour to Women’s thinking and vision to be included in village development. There had to be<br />protection of tribal rights and culture and eradication of superstitious beliefs and practices. Community could stay away from mainstream bad practices such as dowry system and encourage inter tribe marriages. There could be a Network with likeminded alliances. There could be planning of a social watch team with 50% representation of women at the Palli Sabha. Women and men could undertake joint problem solving at the village level. There could be a check on the maintenance of financial accounts by men only and of denial of land ownership rights to women. Issues of sanitation as basic amenities could be considered. Action could be taken to evict non-tribals from the illegally occupied of low-lying land. Membership drive, land surveys, identification of Social Watch monitors and surveys to assess distribution of job cards, could be added to the agenda. <br />Ruchika Social Service Organization- Bhubaneswar<br />Introduction<br />Concern Worldwide India supports Ruchika Social Service Organization (Ruchika) to implement a targeted intervention programme for prevention of STI and HIV/AIDS among street children, slum community, auto and taxi drivers and Railway Coolies of Bhubaneswar city. This three year programme, October 2006 to September 2009 has the wider objective to reduce the vulnerability of project participants to STIs and HIV/AIDS. <br />About Ruchika<br />Ruchika was founded by Mrs. Inderjit Khurana in 1985 to educate street children at the Bhubaneswar Railway Station. Currently the Organization is running 21 programmes and has branched off from serving children to working in slum communities to promote HIV/AIDS prevention programme and water and sanitation programmes. The projects include running a Creche programme, alternative schooling, nutrition, vocational training, and shelters for street children boys and girls, providing medical services to children as well as running a 24 hour helpline to support women and children in distress. The community programmes include working with adolescent youth as well as adults. Ruchika works with a vision “to build a child-friendly society where a child is considered as the greatest asset of mankind, where all human rights will be ensured to each child and where all children get the possible environment in which they can grow without obstruction or impediment”. As per the Annual Report 2005-06 income for the year totaled Rs. 87, 48, 264. The Organization has won several prestigious national and international awards.<br />The Outcome:<br />The organization would consider revising the salary levels of the lowest paid staff, and reduce the gaps in salaries. It could introduce women to hold senior management positions . Aiming at an affirmative action policy to employ people from disadvantaged communities such as Dalits or indigenous people was necessary. It could reflect and revise some of the provisions in the Human Resources policy document, which were not in line with the Law. Further, taking up responsibility to enact policies in line with national legislation and provision of transport facilities to women staff in case of late night was needed. The organization could improve toilet facilities for women by ear marking suitable rest rooms and waste bins. It could involve women in decision-making. Salaries could be fixed as per qualification, experience and project. While maternity leave could be increased, paternity leave could be introduced. There could be special facilities for differently abled persons. The dysfunctional women cell had to be reactivated, while it was necessary to involve all the people of the community in the programmes by redesigning strategies, by mobilising local resources, and providing incentives and encouragement for marginalized volunteers. <br />Introduction<br />Sundargarh District<br />Sundargarh is one of the most backward districts of the state with a total population of 18,29,412. More than half the population is made up of indigenous people. Unlike many other parts of Orissa where the sex ratio is better balanced the sex ratio is skewed against women with men outnumbering women. Male population is 9, 34,902 and women 8, 94,510. Literacy rate among women is 34.68% compared to the district rate of 52%. The literacy rate among tribal women is 24.52%. This is also an optimistic figure considering that most adult women in the rural areas do not read or write yet. It is young women and girls in school who have basic education and are reflected in the statistics. The livelihood project supported by Concern is implemented in Gurundia block covering a population of 7631 including 83% adivasi people. Others belong to backward communities and a small number to scheduled caste. The Governance project is implemented by SEWAK and its 17 member partner organizations in all the seventeen Blocks of the district. <br />Self Employed Workers Association Kendra(SEWAK), Sundergarh<br />Sewak is managed by a group of men who have a shared history of working together in the Nehru Yuvak Kendra movement. After undertaking a variety of Voluntary development activities, mainly providing training to youth for self employment they came together to consolidate their efforts and gain legal recognition to take forward their work. The organization was registered as a Society in 1995. SEWAK is implementing a variety of programmes including, livelihood development, promoting child and maternal health, skill development and training for income generation, strengthening local self governance, promotion of low cost housing technology, childcare and education.<br />The Outcome:<br />Sewak. Sundergarh, could consider adopting a more gender sensitive vision and mission statement to better serve the organization to meet its goals to promote a just society. Common allowances for all or pay actual expenditure with a common ceiling for all could be introduced. There was a need for a revised policy to create support to HIV positive people working in the Organization. Support mechanisms for women to take leadership in all community based institutions including Farmer Associations, had to established and strengthened. Strategies to reach out to the more deprived had to be looked upon. There could be a separate module to train women in PRIs. Underlining the clear functioning of the set-up committee to prevent sexual harassment could be reorganized and staff oriented. A revamped SHG strategy as a social agenda for incorporating women’s empowerment could do wonders, so also the strengthening of the community and ordinary citizens to take up leadership roles.<br />Introduction<br />Keonjhar District, in the context of the Audit<br />Keonjhar is rich in natural resources with forest cover and mineral deposits. In contrast the tribal and scheduled caste population comprising 44.5% and 11.41% of the population respectively continue to live in poverty. Forty five scheduled tribes are recorded in the area with sixteen tribes constituting 96.12% of the total tribal population. The literacy rate for males is recorded as 72.53% and for females 46.71% in the district. Among the tribal community, literacy levels remain much lower, particularly among women. Agriculture continues to be the main occupation. Low productivity of land for a variety of reasons leads to low incomes for cultivators as well as daily wage agriculture labor. Poverty levels are significantly higher among SC, ST and female headed households. Economic ranking of the 25 major communities shows the Juang, Rodhi, and Ghasi to be at the bottom of the economic ladder.<br />Women’s Organization for Socio-Cultural Awareness(WOSCA), Keonjhar<br />Women’s Organization for Socio-Cultural Awareness (WOSCA) was founded in 1993 as a registered society by a group of women in Keonjhar district of Orissa. It is active in Keonjhar and Khurda. Starting work to organize and support the DWACRA (Development of Women and Children in Rural Areas) Government programme, it has matured to implement a wide variety of programmes. Currently they implement awareness generation programmes, forest and ecology programmes, bio-diversity conservation, Self Help Group (SHG) promotion and income generation programmes. Livelihood generation through sustainable agriculture, food security and integrated nutrition and health projects are part of its mandate. WOSCA is also implementing a governance programme to strengthen Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRI). In addition, it promotes handicraft and rural artisans through skill development programmes. Entrepreneurship building and vocational training to rural youths and women, and cultural activities are integrated into their activities.<br />The Outcome:<br />The organization would further strengthen their cause. It could:-make available public transport for women to travel and the villages are in remote locations, reduce differential economic and social outcomes for SHG group members, check the internalization of norms before the closure of projects for more programme effectivity, finalize and adopt its gender and equality policy, conduct a quick programmatic review to help the Organization to focus more sharply on the poorest and marginalized, additional support in terms of time commitment by the concerned Programme Officer can improve results manifold.<br />Concern Worldwide India, Bhubaneswar<br />Recommendations<br />Internal Issues<br />It was concluded that CWI should enable staff, to increase their skills for social analysis and gender planning. This could be done by supporting staff to attend gender training programmes. Training could also be provided to improve participatory planning skills. This would help Project Officers to provide ongoing guidance to partners. CWI partnership guidelines could be revised to assess all partnerships with an Equality lens. Project planning could include gender analysis, identifying the most marginalized and groups suffering social discrimination. Financial planning could factor in the above. Support to Rights based approaches could include an analysis of how women’s strategic needed to be met. <br />Partnership Issues<br />Translation of Equality policy into Oriya and making it available to all partners was required. As the resources became available Concern could consider finding and working with partners who were willing to address issues of patriarchy. Promoting equality is an ongoing process and partners will need support to move forward. Set up a task force among partners (on a voluntary basis) to learn from each other. Partners could be linked to Rights based women’s organizations who can provide handholding and training support. Management and project staff could be provided capacity building inputs to undertake gender analysis, gender planning and equality monitoring. Adequate resources could be allocated to promote women’s leadership in the community. At the community level, strategies could be developed to promote women's leadership in all projects. Women led community based organizations could be sensitized to struggle for basic needs as well as strategic needs. Programme interventions at the community level could involve sensitizing men to women’s rights and those of other marginalized communities. <br />Recommendations for Change<br />As we have discussed and documented equality has many dimensions. A voluntary organization which is promoting social justice in society needs to reflect its egalitarian values within the organization. Concern’s policies also work toward this. <br />To implement the Equality Policy across all project partners, each Programme Officer may review Partner organizational policies to ensure they promote principles of equality. The vision, mission statements need to address gender equality and recognize Dalit and indigenous people’s rights. Concern already has elaborate partnership guidelines in place. Policies to be reviewed are:<br />Human Resource policy – to include affirmative action for women, dalit and indigenous people. The policy should recognize the rights of people affected with HIV/AIDS and the differently abled. <br />The current review has highlighted that several labor laws are not implemented by the partners for a variety of reasons. The partners need to collectively review how the situation can be rectified (not paying PF, Gratuity, inadequate maternity leave). <br />Programming – participative planning for inclusion by project partners was acknowledged as an ideal. In spite of this due to shortage of time and inadequate skills this did not take place. In future, programme planning must address the interests of the marginalized. A check list of questions would help to ensure the inclusion of views from women, adivasi and dalit community. In education programmes care must be taken to ensure girls participation. Concern Worldwide India partnership guidelines provide for ending a partnership due to the “failure to target the poorest and most vulnerable”. Systematic efforts must be made towards capacity building to enhance the understanding and skills of project leaders and staff. <br />Resource Allocations – during the current review it was not possible to disaggregate resource flow data. For example, it is not clear as to what extent of funds are provided to women in any project area. It appears that livelihood interventions such as land development lead to grants being provided directly to men who own land. On the other hand large numbers of women are mobilized for the development activities in all projects. These women are primarily organized as SHGs and provided loans. This discrimination between men and women needs to be analyzed in each specific context. An analysis of class, caste and gender relations needs to be undertaken in each specific project and location to ensure that inequalities between genders and marginalized groups do not increase. Gender disaggregated data must be maintained from the planning stage to monitoring and result assessment. <br />Power – Developing leadership among women, dalits and adivasi community. Indian society continues to be marked with great inequalities of power. A small number of elite at the village level and in the country control the lives of others. Concern programmes and partnerships are designed to change these inequalities. For a new leadership to emerge sustained training and development interventions are essential. In future programming, resources should be made available to develop women, adivasi and dalit leaders who can manage their own community based organizations. <br />Programme planning should include recognition of the existing minorities (people with disabilities, primitive tribes, religious minority etc) in any project area. Plans should clearly demonstrate how they will be included in the project. <br />Monitoring – Concern Programme Officers already utilize a monitoring format which records activities completed vis-à-vis plans. Reflections and observations are also recorded. It is recommended that this format should be elaborated to also record the results of the interventions undertaken. There should a shift from focus on activities to achieving objectives. Note should be made whether the results lead to decreasing inequalities or have lead to unintended consequences by increasing inequalities. <br />To take forward the equality agenda across partners, a task force may be set up to monitor progress in each sector (livelihood, HIV/Aids prevention etc). Partners implementing similar programmes or network programmes can undertake peer reviews to learn from each other. <br />Equal Respect and Recognition – John Baker et al (2004) proposed that basic equality is the cornerstone of all egalitarian thinking. The idea that at some very basic level all human beings have equal worth and importance and are therefore equally worthy of concern and respect. In the country where “20 high worth individuals” earn more than 300 million people annually, it is difficult to imagine equal respect and recognition for all citizens. To move forward from citizenship rights of one vote for one person to genuine democratic values requires broad based political awareness and education. This is only possible when deprived communities participate in larger social movements. Concern and its partners need to act as a link between grassroots communities and wider mobilization processes. Currently this is happening to a limited extent. In future these links need to be strengthened. <br />Futuristic Concern<br />Concern promotes a rights based approach to development. It supports many NGOs to implement development projects to meet basic needs. It also supports state and national interventions to make the state accountable. While Concern would rethink organizational strategies including the most marginalized while identifying disaggregated qualitative and quantitative baseline information on systems management, it would not leave any stone unturned in identifying opportunities and challenges in promoting equality (both policy and practice), facilitating organizational learning and change from an equality perspective. Concern may like to reflect and create a meaningful synergy between grassroot level support and advocacy to make the state accountable. <br />Format 2:<br />Introduction<br />Concern Worldwide is a non-governmental, international, humanitarian organization dedicated to the reduction of suffering and working towards the ultimate elimination of extreme poverty in the world’s poorest countries. It currently implements emergency and development programmes in thirty countries of the world. Concern Worldwide India (CWI) has been working in India since 1999. In 2002 it set up its liaison office in Bhubaneswar, Orissa which is the priority state for its long term development work in India. Concern believes in a world where no-one lives in poverty, fear or oppression; where all have access to a decent standard of living and the opportunities and choices essential to a long, healthy and creative life; a world where everyone is treated with dignity and respect. <br />Concern Worldwide India supports voluntary organizations in Orissa to implement a variety of programmes including livelihoods development, education, HIV prevention, and emergency preparedness and response programmes. It also supports national initiatives for good governance and people centered advocacy. Concern believes that poverty and inequality are so closely linked that poverty cannot be eradicated without addressing inequality. It believes that it is possible to alleviate poverty only when issues of inequality and injustice are themselves addressed. <br />Country Strategy Paper - Bringing hope and opportunity<br />The main guiding document for CWI’S work in India is the Country Strategy, 2006-2011, that outlines a situational analysis of the socio-economic and political conditions in the country recording the increasing inequalities. It records that in spite of declining proportion of people in India living below the poverty line the percentage of ST’s in the rural population living in poverty has increased from 14.8in 1993/94 to 17.5%in 1999-2000. The paper recognizes “the deprivation and exclusion that the tribal communities face is multidimensional and the factors that perpetuate deprivation are intrinsically interlinked and reinforced by exclusion.” <br />Internal discussions within the India office highlighted that inequality must be addressed in all programme activities. However the strategies to do so were unclear. As part of the process to promote equality in development, various actions have been undertaken and equality audits planned to benchmark current practices among project partners. While NGOs work to promote development they are part of society and reflect societal problems as well as issues. <br />The Participatory Equality Audit for Concern Worldwide India and Partners<br />Background<br />CWI works within the broad framework of Concern worldwide policies and practice though it designs local specific interventions to suit Indian conditions. In keeping with its international mandate to promote Equality, CWI has developed an Equality Policy for India and has undertaken a sample participatory Equality Audit of six partners in Orissa. <br />To continue organizational learning around the issue and to reflect on its own systems, procedures and culture CWI has commissioned a participator audit at its India Office in Bhubaneswar. This open culture will support partner’s efforts to bring about change in their own organizations as well as in development planning and practice. Concern staff will have an opportunity to rethink organizational strategies include the most marginalized. The Equality Audit is expected to provide<br />Disaggregated qualitative and quantitative baseline information on systems management, practice and programmes.<br />Identify opportunities and challenges in promoting equality (both policy and practice)<br />Promote organizational learning and change from an equality perspective<br />The Purpose of the Equality Audit:<br />The purpose of the audit was to understand the current structure and practices in each organization identify potential for change and examine possible constraints to promote equality in all its interventions. The exercise is not a programme or project evaluation. Programmes referred to, highlighted processes within the organization and community. <br />Inequalities in Indian Society<br />The major inequalities prevalent in society are reflected in the prevailing gender relations. Patriarchal values in society reflected in gender sub-ordination leads to major deprivations of women's rights. In addition, within Indian society, caste and class divisions, as well as hierarchies among tribes are all pervasive. People with disability are neglected and discrimination due to “otherness” whether it is based on religion or region is common in society. While the audit mainly focuses on gender inequalities it will also reflect on development processes, which continue to marginalize communities. Recognizing following inequalities in the society helps to appreciate the discussion on inequalities of resources, power, learning and solidarity. <br />About Orissa<br />In Orissa, 47.15% of the people in the state live below the poverty line against 26.16% at the national level. In tribal districts such as undivided Kalahandi around 84% live below the poverty line while in Koraput this is 79%. The per capita income at current prices is Rs. 12,388 against Rs. 20,862 for India as a whole. On the other hand the sex ratio is 972 females per 1000 males which is higher than the national average of 935. <br />Orissa is a mineral rich state with 20% of India’s mineral reserves. Current efforts at development have led to large scale displacement due to construction of dams, contract farming, displacement due to mining and setting up of special economic zones. It is estimated that more than 250,000 people are displaced due to development. If we examine the status of food security various studies note that only 34% of the population has access to food round the year. Seventy two percent are under nourished and 3% do not get two square meals a day. Starvation deaths, female feticide and preventable deaths due to malaria, cholera, and tuberculosis continue. Structural violence in society is represented by denial of access to education, health, and food for many sections of society. <br />While efforts have been made to strengthen democratic decentralization the current Panchayati Raj institutions are weak with women playing a token role. Funds continue to pour into the state with major funding provided by international agencies and central funds. The NGO movement has also brought in more than Rs. 650 crores since 2000. It is estimated that large numbers of people will be provided employment due to the industrialization process but this promise is yet to be realized. <br />The voluntary sector in Orissa works within these difficult parameters. While the NGOs work towards social change they also mirror some of the hierarchies prevalent in society. Staff members may hold prejudices and in spite of an ideology to promote equality lapse into class and caste based behavior. Orissa is also known to be a patriarchal and traditional society which reflects gender inequalities. <br />Methodology for the review<br />The audit process involved the study of secondary material, policy documents, annual reports and proposals; discussions with Members of the Board and Senior management; staff presentation of programmes; review of problem identification; strategies to reach out to the excluded; group exercises for critical reflection; small group meetings with women staff; individual interviews with some staff members; case studies when time permitted; exercise to understand lifecycle of men and women of project area; visits to the field – one or two sites, discussions with SHGs and other community institutions, field staff; feedback on observations from the field to the staff. Audit process was also used as an occasion to increase understanding of gender/equality issues, questionnaire to assess organization culture, introduction of reading materials and film shows. <br />Study of the six partner organizations in collaboration with four CWI Programme Officers and one Programme Manager provided an insight into the partnership management process of CWI and Programme Officer’s role to promote equality. Concern Policy documents were reviewed and individual interviews were held with five Programme Officers, three Programme Managers and the Country Director to understand the process of programme development and management. The General Systems Manager and Finance Manager shared information on organizational systems. Administrative and support staff shared their personal experiences at work and views on the culture of the organization. A total of 21 staff members were interviewed including administrative support staff. A short questionnaire was administered to 14 staff members during the field visits, to understand the culture of the organization. The questionnaire was made available both in Oriya and in English.<br />The audit process was carried out among five NGOs and the Concern India office.<br />South Orissa Voluntary ActionKoraput Peoples Rural Education Movement (Orissa Adivasi Manch)22 districts, (OAM in 7 districts)Ruchika Social Service OrganisationBhubaneswarSelf Employed Workers’ Association KendraSundargarhWomen’s Organisation for Socio Cultural AwarenessKeonjharConcern Orissa<br />The audit process was accompanied by Programme Officers working with each programme. The audit was a participatory process where each organization reflected on its structure, processes, culture and project management. As a part of project management planning, monitoring and results were viewed in the context of promoting equality.<br />Limitations of the Participatory Equality Audit<br />While the audit process was intense, there were limitations to the study. To ensure genuine participation and acceptance of partners the process was started by conducting a workshop where partners shared their experiences to embed participation. The workshop discussed the global scenario of development within which inequalities among nations and within nations was increasing. Participants of the workshop acknowledged that bringing about equality in society involved not only economic development but social change in all aspects of life. It was acknowledged that institutionalized inequalities in organizations were often unrecognized and special efforts were needed to bring about substantive equality. The individual was also recognized as a critical factor to bring about social transformation. The workshop participants noted individual, organizational and society changes were required to promote equality and this was an ongoing process. The organizations included in the study were selected / volunteered to be part of the process. <br />Two days were spent in each organization. In a hierarchal society where the culture of silence is encouraged, it is quite difficult for staff members to speak out openly in front of their senior managers. Recognizing this problem the audit process held discussions in groups as well as with individuals. Moreover, though the organizations were assured that the audit process would not affect funding there may have been concern’s which held back individuals. Efforts were made to make the process reflective and a self learning exercise. Furthermore, gender disaggregated data related to investments in the programme and results were not available. In the absence of such clear information, only tentative conclusions could be drawn. Moreover, the audit process could not explode all the issues of structural violence adequately. The audit process was focused on the NGO as an institution and its initiatives to promote development. <br />The Challenges for centralizing the marginalized:<br />Gender Mainstreaming – Where We Are<br />The major inequality prevalent in society is reflected in prevailing gender relations today. Patriarchal values in society reflected in gender sub-ordination leads to major deprivations of women's rights. In addition, within Indian society, caste and class divisions, as well as hierarchies among tribes are all pervasive. People with disability are neglected and discrimination due to “otherness” whether it is based on religion or region is common in society. Gender Inequalities continue to marginalize communities. While trying to understand the gender inequality issues prevalent amongst the Indian Partner of Concern Worldwide, it aided in reaching out to the excluded sections of the society. <br />Gender Mainstreaming – What to Focus<br />Gender mainstreaming should address all inequalities in society - Legal, Assets, skills, opportunities for education, income and space in public life. There is a certain need for understanding gender and gender planning to counter the prevalent inequalities. Gender planning means that we have to examine and understand the roles played by men and women in society and design projects to meet their needs and bring about change. Gender Planning is also meant to bring about equality of status. It should not lead to stagnation of current roles - women in the house, men outside. <br />Hence, to bring about a Transformatory change, it becomes mandatory for men to recognize their strengths and the advantages in bringing about change in the society, to set up an ideal by taking part in household work and giving up violence. While men create an umbrella of support for women to participate in public life, women have to change through collective action, and each have to support the other. There has to be willingness to claim their rights give up dependency and demonstrate leadership in women, and an overall expression of genuine mutual respect within the household and in society for each has to prevail. <br />Gender Mainstreaming – How to Focus<br />Effective and impartial decision-making requires being open to different realities and transcending the black and white limitations of social norms. The role of a NGO staff is to interpret inequality and work to implement equality. There is a need to realize the need to challenge personal perceptions and beliefs that limit a comprehensive response to issues of inequality. This requires understanding the impact of social baggage and recognizing social contexts. A Director or senior person needs to recognize the need to challenge myths and stereotypes in decision-making. The importance of identifying and re-examining long standing norms, rules and assumptions through the prism of substantive equality has to be understood. It is necessary to realize that equality rights cannot be viewed in isolation and have to be determined by a predetermined set of values that are dynamic and evolutionary. Moreover, while listening to a problem, it is important to ask the following question: Does the overall impact of my action take the goal of equality further?<br />Challenges to implement the Equality Policy<br />The global Concern Equality Policy, the Equality Policy for India and the Country Strategy Paper clearly outline the directions to promote equality. They recognize gender and caste inequalities (among others) in the country as factors which hinder development.<br />The challenge facing CWI was to turn this understanding into action at the organizational and partner level. Indian society is extremely hierarchical and to overcome prejudices is not easy. The process to bring about equality would be a long journey. Commitment and resources were required to accomplish the task.<br />Increasing diversity among staff. Most of the projects were located in remote areas where the local adivasi or dalit people had little education and few skills to undertake development tasks. Women were also not available or recruited in adequate numbers. Motivating partners to increase the diversity among their staff was a formidable task.<br />Enhancing staff skills at CWI and among partners. Staff required skills to undertake gender analysis, caste discrimination and other exclusions (of the poorest, minorities, people with disability or affected by HIV/AIDS). Among the dalit and Adivasi Community there were many hierarchies and these needed to be recognized, and overcome. To do this, skills needed be increased to use participatory planning tools to reach the most marginalized. <br />There was regular staff turnover at the partner level therefore developing in house skills and induction training as an ongoing process was a challenge, particularly as projects run on three or four year cycles.<br />Language acted as a barrier to reach the most marginalized, particularly tribes living in remote locations and primitive tribes.<br />Resources: Working with limited resources, CWI attempted to keep administrative budgets at a minimum. This reduced the possibility of reaching interior areas or using two staff members as a team to talk to men and women separately.<br />Networking among partners to learn and prevent competition among partners. <br />Programme staff at CWI, already had a heavy workload. Monitoring for Equality outcomes added to this.<br />Whenever an organization wants to bring about change and move towards democratic functioning and equality it has to be prepared to seriously review its norms and create an enabling environment where all individuals are treated equally. If we look at the law we find it necessary to make cognitive changes. The same applies to organizations. <br />Understanding Substantive Equality<br />For any organization to create an enabling environment for change, it is necessary to have a clear understanding of substantive equality. Substantive equality implies the practical possibilities in bringing about the change as against in policy. It is necessary to understand that women and men are not equal in the society, that Inequalities are produced by social norms and customs, not by physiology, that men are privileged over women, benefiting from their unpaid housework and dependence through non-cooperation, and that women are disadvantaged through social institutions (as patriarchy) and through rules and regulations (as religion based family laws institutionalized by the State as unequal land rights and custody of children to fathers).<br />While in case of formal equality the aim is to provide same treatment to all, substantive equality supports a more meaningful cause of aiming at eradicating equality. When it comes to the provision of government duty, formal equality avoids discrimination by differential treatment and substantive equality provides a more positive obligation to ensure a level playing field. The focus is on procedures of law in case of formal equality, as against on substance of law in case of substantive equality. Usually non-relevant context of formal equality is countered by always relevant context with a key to analysis under substantive equality. Most importantly, to provide substantive equality, issues of discrimination are compared, in terms of disadvantages, and are not vaguely compared as different meanings of a vague jargon as in formal equality. <br />Reflecting the systems of patriarchy in the context of Orissa, it is often stated that indigenous women are better off and live in a more equal society. While the sex ratios may be better, it is also true that women suffer immense structural violence. Indigenous women are denied access to education and health care as well as opportunities for employment at a much larger scale than mainstream society. The tribal communities continue with many anti women practices. Witch hunting is an example. Women are also denied space in public life and have to observe a meek stands in front of male elders. We need to recognize that there are many different systems of patriarchy and work towards reducing gender inequality. <br />In making efforts to address the increasing inequalities, bringing about equality in society involves not only economic development but a certain social change in all aspects of life. Institutionalized inequalities in organizations are often unrecognized and special efforts are needed to bring about substantive equality. The individual is also recognized as a critical factor to bring about social transformation. <br />Work load analysis surveys on men and women in the country highlight that women work sixteen to seventeen hours a day including productive and household and childcare. Men in contrast are known to work 10 to 12 hours a day. It hence needs to be ensured that women are not over burdened with work and their critical needs are met. To counter violence against women as a major development issue, it is mandatory to check the threat of physical violence that usually pushes women back into their homes and deprives them of self confidence. <br />Structural violence in society is represented by denial of access to education, health, and food for many sections of society. The NGO acts as an institution taking initiatives to promote development. In Policies and in practice, NGOs do so through their process of formalized policies in recruitment, gender, setting up committees to prevent sexual harassment, and in training. <br />The NGO movement has also brought in more than Rs. 650 Crores since 2000. It is estimated that large numbers of people will be provided employment due to the industrialization process but this promise is yet to be realized. While efforts have been made to strengthen democratic decentralization, the current Panchayati Raj institutions are weak with women playing a token role. Participative planning by wealth ranking and people’s input is used in different forms by the NGOs. Concern as a donor partner has worked closely with the NGOs to support them in their efforts. <br />Cross Organizational Learning help in reaching out to the poorest and in an understanding of women’s rights and gender inequalities, in employing an HIV positive person and in becoming a people’s organizations. When promoted, cross-organizational learning can lead to major welcome transformations. <br />Project partners need to review their policies and organizational functioning to ensure equity within their organization. To ensure moving towards equity objectives partners may like to team up through peer groups to provide feedback and support organizational change. This should include organizational issues as well as programme issues. Concern is all set to finalize gender equity and social equality indicators programme-wise, to include them for regular monitoring.<br />The major inequalities in societies are reflected through gender subordination where in women are treated as second class citizens and their development needs and aspirations neglected. Since the 70s development discourse has highlighted gender discrimination and found ways and means to make corrections. Interventions for women’s development include addressing basic needs and strategic needs. To ensure that the basic needs are addressed organizations need to follow the lifecycle analysis and address issues of concern to women. Life cycle analysis during programme planning helped to locate discriminatory practices at different stages of life.<br />Lack of Health CareEconomic Deprivation<br />Domestic violenceLack of employment opportunity<br />Neglected by Family<br />Lack of Opportunities<br />Responsibility for familyNo Respect From Family<br />Dowry Harassment, Death<br />Victim of BigamyInfanticide<br />Suffer Alcoholic HusbandsSale of Babies<br />Bonded LaborOld age<br />Harassed if childlessFemale Feoticide<br />Widows Discriminated againstChild MarriagesChildhood<br />Middle Age<br />Single women’s rights not recognizedDenial of Schooling<br />Harassed if girls are bornDomestic workYouth<br />No Reproductive choices<br />Overwork and exhausted<br />DiscriminationIn FoodIn HealthcareFor other needs<br />Low and unequal wages<br />Low Paid Wage WorkHouse Work Not Allowed to Speak Up<br />Lack of Reproductive ChoicesLack of Knowledge related to Health Care<br />Control on all aspects of life<br />Opportunities and Threats<br />There are several opportunities for bringing about major changes in social relations and to promote economic development. The following new legislations are critical to increase incomes and create access to land and water resources. These are National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme, The Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act, 2006, the Right to Information Act, Mo Jami Mo Diha Campaign, The Panchayats Extension to Scheduled Areas (PESA) Act 1996, Prevention of Domestic Violence Act, and the Right to Food entitlements recognized by the Supreme Court of India<br />The marginalized face many threats. On the one hand the government promotes development and on the other exploitative industrialization, corruption and globalization processes tend to deprive local communities of their rights. The concern partners provided many indications to bring about positive change. It was observed that the partners were open to learning, developed their own agenda to counter globalization with enthusiastic staff, willing to learn. There are many good practices among partners worth sharing and Concern was willing to support their initiatives.<br />The Outcomes of the Participatory Equality Audit for Concern Worldwide India and Partners<br />For Partners<br />While assessing the vision and mission statements of the organizations, it was found that the underlying objective hidden in the vision statements were varied in each without any acknowledgement of inherent inequalities arising due to issues as patriarchy. Moreover, the mission statements did not acknowledge the need to work differently with women. <br />Implementing the Law<br />Many a practices were found to be not in line with the Law in the Participatory Equality Audit. In case of proper implementation of labour laws, some organizations did not abide by stringent practices even in difficult situations. There were instances of minimum wages being paid for work with gaps in salaries and unequal distribution of work among men and women. There were different norms for maternity leave at all work places with no mention by committees to educate staff on sexual harassment and its prevention. There was no provision for any special facilities for the differently abled persons. <br />Promoting Diversity<br />Unequal representation of women with a majority working on less pay and in lower levels was disappointing. There was no common ceiling of diversity under which women could be provided with support mechanisms to take leadership on issues of denial of their rights; be it land ownership or provision of salaries common allowances for all as per qualification, experience and project. A similar low representation of staff members from other minorities and unrepresented communities as Adivasis, was observed. There were varied norms for re-employment of people with HIV/AIDS with no mention of inclusion of the emerging network of positive people voicing their own concerns and rights, as an extension to the HIV prevention programme. <br />Work/Life Balance<br /><ul><li>While the working atmosphere was overall good with instances of equality of treatment to both sexes, a caring attitude for women was generally found. There were however longer hours to work with men particularly expected to be available at all times, projecting a more informal culture of the organizations. There had to be a more sensitive approach to staff with any kind of illness with compensatory off days to ensure a healthy work-life balance for overall maintenance of health of the individual as well as the organization.
  18. 18. </li></ul>Analysis for Gender planning<br />There was an absence of any critical support system for explicit class, caste and gender equality analysis. An absence of any timely review of ongoing programmes and identifying gaps from a development and gender specific perspective was found. A crystal clear gender planning for issues pertaining to women cell and the involvement of women in the decision-making process, were not to be seen. A similar lack of analysis of women life-cycle, work load and local systems of patriarchy, was evident, as there was no mention of their effect on project interventions. Issues on women subordination, provision of safe work places to prevent unwanted behaviour, and continued male support, were again, yet to a form a part of any analysis. The need of orientation of staff to undertake gender analysis before project planning on activities, control, process and outcomes, was still far away from being realized. Separate strategies to deal with basic needs and strategic needs had not been articulated as well. <br />Resource allocation<br />There was a dire need to redesign strategies to mobilize local resources, provide incentives and encouragement to the marginalized. While women received loans only through Self Help Groups, men had the advantage of receiving grants easily for land development. There was limited allocation of resources for women with inadequate follow-up benefits with no concerted action. Moreover, resource allocation to gain assets for women was very limited, especially on matters of government petition for land rights and on space for undertaking income generation. The focus on, and resources to, reduce discrimination, was limited in most of the cases. Furthermore, due to too much focus on the ‘development’ issue, the issue of violence against women was not addressed systematically. Complete appreciation of the vulnerable women in sexual relations was yet to be seen, especially of wives of the victims of sexually transmitted diseases or of women in sex work. A limited utilization of resources was found with limited training and the necessary support for leadership of women, promoting skills to take up higher-level tasks. <br />Tools for Participatory Planning<br />Strategic tools of Participatory Planning such as PRA techniques were seen to have been used, and so was the livelihood analysis by many. There was however no separate module to train women in PRAs. Moreover, though it was found that the basis needs of women were addressed, the strategic needs were mostly neglected. The need to reach out to the more deprived had to be felt.<br /> <br />SHG Management<br />The most critical question of stakeholders’ benefit remained unanswered as it was difficult to determine the group benefiting from micro-credit. It was difficult to ensure whether or not poor women were cutting down on basic needs to pay back loans. The agenda for women’s rights did not clearly address intra-household discrimination. There was limited access and control over common property resources. It was unclear whether the State was provisioning for basic services or whether it was a sheer transfer of burden to women. Management of SHGs as a means of livelihood development had to be more self-reliant than just for market orientation. There was a however a need for reduction in interest rates for institutional funds. There was a need to reduce differential economic and social outcomes for SHG group members. A revamped SHG strategy as a social agenda for incorporating women’s empowerment could do wonders, as could the strengthening of the community and ordinary citizens to take up leadership roles.<br />Is anybody Left Out?<br />Community members living in remote locations, migrating families, marginalized tribes, and those belonging to the landless Scheduled Caste community are found to have been left out. The landless are the least benefited. Moreover, the poorest of the poor women were afraid to take loans. <br />Dalit issues<br />In spite of all odds being met, the inherent discrimination continues to prevail. Affirmative action by the government in making rules and policies to employ people from disadvantaged communities such as Dalits or indigenous people needs to be ensured by civil society groups. Issues on protection of tribal rights and culture, denial of resources, conflict resolution, and eradication of superstitious beliefs and practices needed to be raised. A clause incorporating prevention of NGO personnel in behaving in a discriminatory manner towards people from dalit castes could be constructed. The community could stay away from mainstream practices such as dowry system, and encourage inter tribe marriages. <br />Recognizing Rights for all <br />There was a need for creating physical access to office for differently abled and to recognize the rights of people affected with HIV/AIDS. It was necessary to earmark resources to work with and support the differently abled persons.<br />Creating Sustainable Institutions<br /><ul><li>In trying to create a sustainable institution, the right scale to ensure survival and control of the community was not found. To ensure sustainability there was hence a need to set up an advisory committee, representative and inclusive of community members. Further, Community Based Organizations needed to be created at different levels of self-reliance as sustainable institutions forging democratic leadership with sufficient financial resources, clear norms, rules and regulations. </li></ul>Monitoring<br />The issue of transparency in the implementation of development projects was not stressed and there was a need of shift from emphasis on process monitoring to monitoring results. Systematic learning was missing in some cases. Issue of long term sustainability of results needed to be highlighted. The internalization of norms needed to be checked before the closure of projects for more programme effectivity. <br />Linkages to Macro change<br />With Context to Globalization, issues of displacement needed to be addressed. There was a felt need for strategic linkages. Opportunities could to be provided through new laws with a core committee set up to look at some of the management issues, particularly incase of disciplinary action. A quick programmatic review could be conducted to help the Organization to focus more sharply on the poorest and marginalized. There could be a Network with likeminded alliances. There could be planning of a social watch team with 50% representation of women at the Palli Sabha. Action could be taken to evict non-tribals from the illegally occupied of low-lying land. Membership drive, land surveys, identification of Social Watch monitors and surveys to assess distribution of job cards, could be added to the agenda. It was found that with NREGA monitoring at local and state level, 68 district study report from 26 states showed 3.2% families receiving 100days of employment. It was hence mandatory for the Government of India to set up an Equal Opportunities Commission to investigate discrimination against deprived groups, to be able to provide strong linkages to macro change. <br />Concern Worldwide India, Bhubaneswar<br />Recommendations<br />Internal Issues<br />It was concluded that CWI should enable staff, to increase their skills for social analysis and gender planning. This could be done by supporting staff to attend gender training programmes. Training could also be provided to improve participatory planning skills. This would help Project Officers to provide ongoing guidance to partners. CWI partnership guidelines could be revised to assess all partnerships with an Equality lens. Project planning could include gender analysis, identifying the most marginalized and groups suffering social discrimination. Financial planning could factor in the above. Support to Rights based approaches could include an analysis of how women strategic needed to be met. <br />Partnership Issues<br />Translation of Equality policy into Oriya and making it available to all partners was required. As the resources became available Concern could consider finding and working with partners who were willing to address issues of patriarchy. Promoting equality is an ongoing process and partners will need support to move forward. Set up a task force among partners (on a voluntary basis) to learn from each other. Partners could be linked to Rights based women’s organizations that can provide handholding and training support. Management and project staff could be provided capacity building inputs to undertake gender analysis, gender planning and equality monitoring. Adequate resources could be allocated to promote women’s leadership in the community. At the community level, strategies could be developed to promote women's leadership in all projects. Women led community based organizations could be sensitized to struggle for basic needs as well as strategic needs. Programme interventions at the community level could involve sensitizing men to women’s rights and those of other marginalized communities. <br />Recommendations for Change<br />As we have discussed and documented equality has many dimensions. A voluntary organization which is promoting social justice in society needs to reflect its egalitarian values within the organization. Concern’s policies also work toward this. <br />To implement the Equality Policy across all project partners, each Programme Officer may review Partner organizational policies to ensure they promote principles of equality. The vision, mission statements need to address gender equality and recognize Dalit and indigenous people’s rights. Concern already has elaborate partnership guidelines in place. Policies to be reviewed are:<br />Human Resource policy – to include affirmative action for women, dalit and indigenous people. The policy should recognize the rights of people affected with HIV/AIDS and the differently abled. <br />The current review has highlighted that several labor laws are not implemented by the partners for a variety of reasons. The partners need to collectively review how the situation can be rectified (not paying PF, Gratuity, inadequate maternity leave). <br />Programming – participative planning for inclusion by project partners was acknowledged as an ideal. In spite of this due to shortage of time and inadequate skills this did not take place. In future, programme planning must address the interests of the marginalized. A check list of questions would help to ensure the inclusion of views from women, adivasi and dalit community. In education programmes care must be taken to ensure girls participation. Concern Worldwide India partnership guidelines provide for ending a partnership due to the “failure to target the poorest and most vulnerable”. Systematic efforts must be made towards capacity building to enhance the understanding and skills of project leaders and staff. <br />Resource Allocations – during the current review it was not possible to disaggregate resource flow data. For example, it is not clear as to what extent of funds are provided to women in any project area. It appears that livelihood interventions such as land development lead to grants being provided directly to men who own land. On the other hand large numbers of women are mobilized for the development activities in all projects. These women are primarily organized as SHGs and provided loans. This discrimination between men and women needs to be analyzed in each specific context. An analysis of class, caste and gender relations needs to be undertaken in each specific project and location to ensure that inequalities between genders and marginalized groups do not increase. Gender disaggregated data must be maintained from the planning stage to monitoring and result assessment. <br />Po

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