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Printed Graphics Design & Production


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Printed Graphics Design & Production

  1. 1. Printed Graphics Design & Production Elements & Principles of Design
  2. 2.                 The Elements                                             Lines       Ways Lines Can Be Used In Page Layout Or Illustration   • Lines are strokes made with pens or pencils, or they can be formed using tape or computers.   • Lines vary in width & length.   • Lines can be straight, wavy or curved to help create the desired visual effect.   • Lines help to move the reader's eyes from one point to another.    
  3. 3. Shapes
  4. 4. Squares
  5. 5. Circles
  6. 6. Triangles
  7. 7.                         Shapes • A shape is the result of the combination of lines & mass. •   • Examples include rectangles, circles, and other geometric designs •   • Many shapes add interest & identification to a message, such as the octagon shape of a stop sign. •   • Many shapes add form or structure to a message.  The shape of lettering also creates different impressions.
  8. 8. Mass Mass equals size
  9. 9.                     Mass Cont. • Each element (graphic, photo, line, text block) have their own mass relative to the whole piece.   • Mass refers to the amount of space taken up on the page.   • Larger objects, those with more mass, are noticed before smaller objects.   • That is why bold print is used in many books.  Bold type appears larger and more important.
  10. 10. Texture
  11. 11.                 Textures cont.     • Texture describes the surface of an object.  In other words, textures tell us whether the surface of an object is smooth or rough.   • The texture of a surface affects what you see or feel.   • Shading on drawings creates a feeling of texture.  It also provides realism to your drawing. 
  12. 12. Color   Ways to use vaule in your black and white designs Hues, Shades, and Tints
  13. 13.     Hues, Shades, and Tints Cont. • Color is the final element of design.   • Color adds emphasis to graphic work.   • Red & Yellow attrack attention.   • Blue & Green are calming (or mild) colors.   • Black & Yellow combinations denote a hazard.   • Changing the color of text draws attention to the printed material.
  14. 14. The Principles Proportion
  15. 15.                 Proportions cont.   • Proportion is the relationship of sizes in a design.   • Object size should be uniform throughout the whole message.   • Titles should not be much larger or smaller than the rest of the text.   • Large pictures often detract from the design.  Sometimes it can be difficult to complete a pleasing, uniform design.    
  16. 16.                 Proportions cont.   • Proportion should be considered when planning elements in a layout such as the margins, illustrations, type, and artwork.   • Type styles should be selected that have a proportional relationship to the whole layout.   • Once the general proportions of a layout have been chosen, consideration should be given to where the element is to be placed.
  17. 17. Balance
  18. 18.                 Balanced cont.   • Balance deals with the location of elements of the page so that they do not appear top heavy or bottom heavy.  Attention should be paid to the optical center, and its relation to balance.   • Optical center is the spot the eye focuses on when it encounters a printed page.  This spot is slightly above the exact center of the page, and is more pleasing to the eye.
  19. 19.                 Balanced cont.   • Balance deals with the location of parts or objects within a layout.  If the parts are centered, the layout is refered to as having Formal Balance.   • Formal balance places all elements symmetrically, and is achieved by identical or even placement on each side of a center point.  It creates the image of a no-nonsense, percise publication.  This causes the message to be formal, dignified, and reserved.
  20. 20.                 Balanced cont.   • In this case each item is orderly or evenly weighted.  If the arrangement of objects are random, the layout has "informal balance."   • Informal balance uses elements of similar weight, but not mecessarily identical, placed in relationship to one another so that there is weight at the top of the layout as well as the bottom, and to the left and right to balance the whole.
  21. 21.                     Contrast   • Contrast is important in providing a point of emphasis in a layout.   • Contrast can be achieved with colors, text, or lines.   • Bold styles of lettering often provide contrast.   • Color or shading of artwork can also provide contrast.  Attempts to "catch" your eye usually are examples of contrast.
  22. 22. Rhythm
  23. 23.                    Rhythm cont.   • Rhythm deals with the way a message is constructed.  Certain designs seem to guide your eye through the message.   • Printed messages use art and words to direct and control the motion of the reader's eyes.   • Layouts do this by arranging material in logical progression, correct placement of elements, and by using repetitive typographic devices.
  24. 24.                    Rhythm cont.       • The eye meets the page at a point slightly above, and to the left of true center.   • We can take advantage of the natural path the eye takes by placing elements along this path, which is a "Z" pattern.
  25. 25. Unity
  26. 26.                     Unity cont.     • Unity is the final design principle.  The function of unity is to "Pull" the total design together.   • Designs that lack unity rarely communicate a message well.   • The exchange of ideas or feelings becomes confusing.   • Simplicity is the key to unity. By keeping it simple we eliminate distraction.
  27. 27.                     Unity cont.   • Similar elements should be combined to promote a total effect.    • Unity can also be achieved by using the "three-point layout method".   • When we see three units together we tend to unify them.   • Keep in mind that odd-number units are more interesting than even-numbered ones.
  28. 28. Coding
  29. 29.                     Coding cont. • In communication, after the message has been designed it must be coded.   • in the case of a printed visual message, coding is known as layout.   • Layout is the assembly of copy (text) and artwork (illustrations).   • Your textbook is a good example of layout.  After the text was written and the illustrations selected, a layout was designed.
  30. 30.                    Coding cont.     • The copy includes the words, sentences, and paragraphs of the book.   • Copy also includes the captions that go along with the artwork.   • The artwork includes drawings and photographs.  They add meaning to the copy.
  31. 31. Five Steps Involved in Creating Layouts
  32. 32.                     Five Steps   • Thumbnail sketches   • Rough layout   • Comprehensive layout   • Pasteup   • Mechanical layout
  33. 33. Thumbnail sketches
  34. 34.             Thumbnail Sketches   • Layout starts with thumbnail sketches   o Small, crude drawings simular to the thumbnail sketches used in technical illistrations.   o Initial ideas for layout of the message.   o Used as a reference when discussing and developing initial designs.
  35. 35. Rough Layout
  36. 36.                    Rough Layout   • In rough layout the idea is developed further.   • It is more accurate and detailed than a thumbnail sketch.   • A rough layout is produced to scale. text and artwork will be shown in their proper proportions.   • It is used to show how the text and art will fit together and will appear very similar to the final product.
  37. 37. Comprehensive Layout
  38. 38.             Comprehensive Layout   • It is used by the layout person as a guide during the reproducting of the work.   • The actual type and illustrations are still not used at this point.   • Final corrections of the layout can still be made.
  39. 39. Pasteup
  40. 40.                         Pasteup   • It is an assembly of the complete message.   • the copy (text) is typeset and the necessary artwork is located, or "pasted", on the page using the computer and software.
  41. 41. Mechanical Layout  
  42. 42.                Mechanical Layout • The final step is a neatly prepared Mechanical Layout.   • After the pasteup is finished, it is then placed on a clean, white sheet of paper or cardstock.   • Artwork and type must be located and positioned.  Blue pencils are sued for marking, which will not reproduce.   • Artwork can be secured with rubber cement, glue sticks, tape, or wax.   • This layout is Camera Ready.
  43. 43. Copy and Artwork  
  44. 44.                           Copy   • Copy can be set in several ways:   o Hand lettering and stencils o Computer and software o Transfer lettering and Kroy Machines o Computers and typesetting machines prepared most type setby commercial firms. o Type can be made photographically on light-sensitive film.  This is called Phototypesetting.
  45. 45.                       Artwork • Artwork (photographs and illustrations) usually comes from four major sources.   o Hand drawings o Computer generated or printed clip art. o photographs o Mechanical Drawings   • Clip Art is drawn by professional artists.  It usually is sold in book form or in desktop publishing software for the computer.
  46. 46. Transmitting  
  47. 47.               Transmitting cont.   • Six major methods of transmitting a printed graphics Image:   o Relief printing process o Screen printing process o Continuous tone photography o Intaglio process o Electrostatic printing process o Lithography (offset printing)
  48. 48.               Transmitting cont.   • Selecting the best method of transmission is often determined by:   o Purpose o Medium used o Time o Cost
  49. 49. Purpose  
  50. 50.                      Purpose   • The purpose of the message sometimes determines the printing process used.   • If the purpose of the message is to create a strong, lasting impression, a display using just illustrations may be used.  Offset process woudl be best.   • if the purpose of the message is to store a large amount of information in text only, electrostatic copying or offset would be best.
  51. 51.                       Media   • The transmitting medium often determines the printing procedure.  The medium is what is used to "carry" the message.  Your text has paper as its tranmitting medium.   • T-shirts are best printed by screen process methods.   • Transfer images (applied with heat) might also be selected for clothing.
  52. 52. Time and Cost  
  53. 53.                   Time and Cost   • Time and cost are critical factors.   • companies always want to do things as inexpensively as possible.   • Sometimes a deadline is involved and time becomes more important than cost.   • A more expensive process might be used because it is faster.
  54. 54. Receiving and Storing  
  55. 55.              Receiving and Storing • When selecting the best process for a product, you also identify the receiving medium. • Magazines, clothing, and beverage cans are all printed by various methods. • in the case of computer-generated charts, the receiving medium is paper. • Other receiving media including o Wood o Textile o Plastic o Metal
  56. 56.          Receiving and Storing cont. • Many types of storage media are available.  Each has a different use:   • Photographic paper   • Computer disk   • Microfilm