Printed Graphics Design &
Elements & Principles of Design
Ways Lines Can Be Used In Page Layout Or Illustration
• Lines are strokes made with pens or pencils, or they can
be formed using tape or computers.
• Lines vary in width & length.
• Lines can be straight, wavy or curved to help create the
desired visual effect.
• Lines help to move the reader's eyes from one point to
• A shape is the result of the combination of lines & mass.
• Examples include rectangles, circles, and other geometric
• Many shapes add interest & identification to a message,
such as the octagon shape of a stop sign.
• Many shapes add form or structure to a message. The
shape of lettering also creates different impressions.
• Each element (graphic, photo, line, text block) have their
own mass relative to the whole piece.
• Mass refers to the amount of space taken up on the
• Larger objects, those with more mass, are noticed
before smaller objects.
• That is why bold print is used in many books. Bold type
appears larger and more important.
• Texture describes the surface of an object. In other
words, textures tell us whether the surface of an object
is smooth or rough.
• The texture of a surface affects what you see or feel.
• Shading on drawings creates a feeling of texture. It also
provides realism to your drawing.
Ways to use vaule in your
black and white designs
Hues, Shades, and Tints
Hues, Shades, and Tints Cont.
• Color is the final element of design.
• Color adds emphasis to graphic work.
• Red & Yellow attrack attention.
• Blue & Green are calming (or mild) colors.
• Black & Yellow combinations denote a hazard.
• Changing the color of text draws attention to the
• Proportion is the relationship of sizes in a design.
• Object size should be uniform throughout the whole
• Titles should not be much larger or smaller than the rest
of the text.
• Large pictures often detract from the design.
Sometimes it can be difficult to complete a pleasing,
• Proportion should be considered when planning elements
in a layout such as the margins, illustrations, type, and
• Type styles should be selected that have a proportional
relationship to the whole layout.
• Once the general proportions of a layout have been
chosen, consideration should be given to where the
element is to be placed.
• Balance deals with the location of elements of the page
so that they do not appear top heavy or bottom heavy.
Attention should be paid to the optical center, and its
relation to balance.
• Optical center is the spot the eye focuses on when it
encounters a printed page. This spot is slightly above
the exact center of the page, and is more pleasing to the
• Balance deals with the location of parts or objects within
a layout. If the parts are centered, the layout
is refered to as having Formal Balance.
• Formal balance places all elements symmetrically, and is
achieved by identical or even placement on each side of a
center point. It creates the image of a no-nonsense,
percise publication. This causes the message to be
formal, dignified, and reserved.
• In this case each item is orderly or evenly weighted. If
the arrangement of objects are random, the layout has
• Informal balance uses elements of similar weight, but not
mecessarily identical, placed in relationship to one
another so that there is weight at the top of the layout
as well as the bottom, and to the left and right to
balance the whole.
• Contrast is important in providing a point of emphasis in a
• Contrast can be achieved with colors, text, or lines.
• Bold styles of lettering often provide contrast.
• Color or shading of artwork can also provide contrast.
Attempts to "catch" your eye usually are examples of
• Rhythm deals with the way a message is constructed.
Certain designs seem to guide your eye through the
• Printed messages use art and words to direct and control
the motion of the reader's eyes.
• Layouts do this by arranging material in logical
progression, correct placement of elements, and by using
repetitive typographic devices.
• The eye meets the page at a point slightly above, and to
the left of true center.
• We can take advantage of the natural path the eye takes
by placing elements along this path, which is a "Z"
• Unity is the final design principle. The function of unity
is to "Pull" the total design together.
• Designs that lack unity rarely communicate a message
• The exchange of ideas or feelings becomes confusing.
• Simplicity is the key to unity. By keeping it simple we
• Similar elements should be combined to promote a total
• Unity can also be achieved by using the "three-point
• When we see three units together we tend to unify
• Keep in mind that odd-number units are more interesting
than even-numbered ones.
• In communication, after the message has been designed
it must be coded.
• in the case of a printed visual message, coding is known
• Layout is the assembly of copy (text) and artwork
• Your textbook is a good example of layout. After the
text was written and the illustrations selected, a layout
• The copy includes the words, sentences, and paragraphs
of the book.
• Copy also includes the captions that go along with the
• The artwork includes drawings and photographs. They
add meaning to the copy.
• Layout starts with thumbnail sketches
o Small, crude drawings simular to the thumbnail
sketches used in technical illistrations.
o Initial ideas for layout of the message.
o Used as a reference when discussing and developing
• In rough layout the idea is developed further.
• It is more accurate and detailed than a thumbnail sketch.
• A rough layout is produced to scale. text and artwork will
be shown in their proper proportions.
• It is used to show how the text and art will fit together
and will appear very similar to the final product.
• It is used by the layout person as a guide during the
reproducting of the work.
• The actual type and illustrations are still not used at this
• Final corrections of the layout can still be made.
• The final step is a neatly prepared Mechanical Layout.
• After the pasteup is finished, it is then placed on a
clean, white sheet of paper or cardstock.
• Artwork and type must be located and positioned. Blue
pencils are sued for marking, which will not reproduce.
• Artwork can be secured with rubber cement, glue sticks,
tape, or wax.
• This layout is Camera Ready.
• Copy can be set in several ways:
o Hand lettering and stencils
o Computer and software
o Transfer lettering and Kroy Machines
o Computers and typesetting machines prepared most
type setby commercial firms.
o Type can be made photographically on light-sensitive
film. This is called Phototypesetting.
• Artwork (photographs and illustrations) usually comes
from four major sources.
o Hand drawings
o Computer generated or printed clip art.
o Mechanical Drawings
• Clip Art is drawn by professional artists. It usually is
sold in book form or in desktop publishing software for
• Six major methods of transmitting a printed graphics
o Relief printing process
o Screen printing process
o Continuous tone photography
o Intaglio process
o Electrostatic printing process
o Lithography (offset printing)
• Selecting the best method of transmission is often
o Medium used
• The purpose of the message sometimes determines the
printing process used.
• If the purpose of the message is to create a strong,
lasting impression, a display using just illustrations may
be used. Offset process woudl be best.
• if the purpose of the message is to store a large amount
of information in text only, electrostatic copying or
offset would be best.
• The transmitting medium often determines the printing
procedure. The medium is what is used to "carry" the
message. Your text has paper as its tranmitting medium.
• T-shirts are best printed by screen process methods.
• Transfer images (applied with heat) might also be
selected for clothing.
Time and Cost
• Time and cost are critical factors.
• companies always want to do things as inexpensively as
• Sometimes a deadline is involved and time becomes more
important than cost.
• A more expensive process might be used because it is
Receiving and Storing
• When selecting the best process for a product, you also
identify the receiving medium.
• Magazines, clothing, and beverage cans are all printed by
• in the case of computer-generated charts, the receiving
medium is paper.
• Other receiving media including
Receiving and Storing cont.
• Many types of storage media are available. Each has a
• Photographic paper
• Computer disk