Q & A


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Q & A

  1. 1. 1. Enumerate the five organs of the UNand explain briefly the activities of each.• General Assembly • UN’s deliberative body (decisions are made, merely recommendations)• Security Council • Deals with threats to international peace and security • US, UK, France, Russia, China• Economic & Social Council • Active in addressing economic development and human rights issues• Trusteeship Council • In charge of administering newly independent states• International Court of Justice • Settles disputes between states
  2. 2. 2. Give 3 criticisms of the UN• Budget – Money comes from member states contributions – Developing countries have most votes – Rich states give more but poor states have more votes• No own standing Army – Depends on the no. of army each member state can contribute• Takes a long time before they can take action – Before the UN can interfere, it needs to have consent from that country first
  3. 3. 3. Explain MFN • Most Favored Nation • Trade without discrimination • Equality among nations • What you give to one state you will give to other states
  4. 4. 4. Give 3 criticisms of the WTO • Decision making based on CONSENSUS • Exists only when there is no objection • Little democracy in the system • Many of its policies where orchestrated by the powerful members • Agendas are set by wealthier members • WTO dictating policies of smaller states • Difficult for poor countries to go to developed countries
  5. 5. 5. Give 2 differences between theWorld Bank and the IMF • World Bank • International Monetary Fund – To support – Maintains currency-exchange reconstruction efforts in stability by promoting Europe but shifted to international monetary developmental cooperation assistance – Financial stability – Long term – Short term
  6. 6. 6. Explain how the World Bank and IMFoperate • World Bank • International Monetary Fund • Offers loans with lower • Operates like a credit union interest rates which requires each • Assisting states’ participant to contribute to a development planning common pool of fund from and training which it can borrow when need arises • Establishes institutions that regulate stability
  7. 7. 7. Give 2 criticisms of the World Bankand the IMF (one for each) • World Bank • International Monetary Fund • Weighted Voting • Creates dependency – Pay a membership fee, – The country would keep on the vote would depend relying on IMF because it is their on the economy of the last resort country
  8. 8. 8. Give 2 institutions of the EU and explainbriefly their functions • EU Commission – 32 commissioners nominated by member states implements new agendas – Execute the European Councils’ decrees – Manage the EU’s budget • EU Court of Justice – Decisions are binding, settles disputes and agendas – Responsibility for adjudicating claims and conflicts
  9. 9. 9. What is an NGO? Enumerate the five types ofinternational activities by these groups andbriefly explain each • Members are groups within states • Pursue social aims and Deals with all aspects • All non state and non profit organization • Build transnational bridges between states and IGO’s • Organizations of private citizens and groups
  10. 10. 9. What is an NGO? Enumerate the five types ofinternational activities by these groups andbriefly explain each• Non-state nations • Ethnic groups-peoples identity is defined by their sense of sharing a nationality • Indigenous people-native and ethnic cultural inhabitant• Transnational religious movements • Politically active organizations based on strong religious convictions• Transnational Terrorist Groups • Premeditated violence perpetrated against noncombat targets. Group to influence an audience• Multinational Corporations • Business enterprises organized in one society with major activities in others growing out of direct investment• Issue-advocacy group • Define the problem>Identifying and advocating a solution>Motivating action
  11. 11. 10. What are militant religious movements?Give two types of international activities bythese groups and briefly explain each• Militant religious movement • Politically active organizations based on religious convictions • Irredentism • Reclaim previously possessed territory• International terrorism • The threat or use of violence as tactics against targets
  12. 12. 11. What are human rights? Enumerate thefour characteristics of human rights• Human Rights are rights to which people are entitled by virtue of being human• Universal - Belongs to all human beings regardless of race, religion, gender..• Fundamental – Human beings’ entitlement cannot be removed• Indivisible - Civic and political rights, and, economic, social and cultural rights are interrelated and co-equal in importance• Absolute - Basic grounds for living a genuinely human life, they cannot be qualified
  13. 13. 12. Give and briefly explain the three types of human rights• Civil and Political. Key theme (liberty)• Negative – rights enjoyed by virtue of the inactivity of others, the government• Civil Liberties – rights and freedoms that belong to the citizens• Civil Rights – rights of participation and access to power• Right to freedom of speech, press, religion• Economical, Social and Cultural. Key theme (equality)• Positive – rights enjoyed through positive intervention of the government• Right to work, healthcare, education• Solidarity. Key theme (fraternity)• Attached to social groups – right to improve• Collective security• Right to development, peace, environment
  14. 14. 13. What is humanitarian intervention? Definehumanitarian intervention in terms of motives andoutcomes • Humanitarian Intervention is military intervention that is carried out in pursuit of humanitarian rather than strategic objectives • Motives: the desire to prevent harm to other people, accepting that there will always be mixed motives for intervention • Outcomes: results in net improvement in conditions and reduction in human suffering
  15. 15. 14. What are the criteria for justifiable militaryintervention according to International Commissionon Intervention and State Sovereignty (ICISS) • Responsibility to Protect (R2P)• Large-scale loss of life, actual or apprehended, with genocidal intent or not, which is the product either of deliberate state action, or state neglect inability to act, or a failed state situation• Large-scale ethnic cleansing, actual or apprehended, whether carried out by killing, forcible expulsion, acts of terrorism or rape
  16. 16. 15. Is humanitarian intervention justified? Give twoarguments for and two arguments againsthumanitarian intervention• Yes • No• Regional stability. • National Interest Rule. Humanitarian emergencies, Realists, states are motivated incentives for neighboring by national self interest and states to support military action is motivated intervention, with major by humanitarian powers opting to intervene considerations. The state in in order to prevent a question would be putting its possible regional war own citizens at rick in order to ‘save strangers’ violating its national interest
  17. 17. 15. Is humanitarian intervention justified? Give twoarguments for and two arguments againsthumanitarian intervention • Yes • No • Promoting democracy. • Simplistic politics. Based on a Endangered or suffering simplistic ‘good & evil’ image people do not possess the of political conflict. democratic means to Sometimes been a alleviate their own consequence of distortion hardship. Democracy (exaggeration of atrocities). promotion is a legitimate Tendency to simplify long term goal, humanitarian crises helps to strengthen respect for explain the tendency towards human rights and reduce ‘mission drift’ and for likelihood of future crises. interventions to go wrong.