Anthropology    Evolution   primAtology humAn AncEstryphysicAl vAriAtion
EVOLUTION• 8th C/19th C: Evolution was a viable theory• C. Linneaus (1707-1778): classified plants & animals  in a systema...
EVOLUTIONCHARLES DARWIN Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection(1859) The Descent of Man (1871)• Natural Selecti...
• Charles Darwin and Alfred Wallace – mechanism of  Natural Selection Every specie consists of various individuals, some ...
Sources of Biological Variation   Genetic Recombination – A unique offspring is produced by a shuffling    of the parents...
QUESTIONSDo you think the theory of natural selection is compatible with religious beliefs?How might the discovery of ge...
BIPEDALISMHuman beings are proficient in the mode oflocomotion known as bipedalism or walking ontwo legs. Imagine that you...
Primatology• We can infer how and why  humans diverged from the other  primates
Common Features of Primates• Two bones in the lower part of the leg and in the  forearm• Collarbone/Clavicle• Flexible pre...
TYPES• Prosimians: pre-monkey ; depend more on smell for  information; have mobile ears; whiskers, longer  snouts and fixe...
• Sexual dimorphism – males are larger, have  longer canines, more aggressive than  females   • Capable of surviving in ar...
Hominoids vs other monkeys• Longer brains especially the cerebral cortex• Fairly long arms, broad trunks, no tail• Hands a...
Humans• Bipedal• Human brain, particularly the cerebral cortex, is the  largest and most complex• Human females may engage...
Human features related to              Bipedalism•   Tool making•   Enlargement of the brain•   Prolonged period of infant...
HUMAN ANCESTRY Australopithecines   Homo Habilis   Homo Erectus   Homo SapiensHomo Sapiens Sapiens
AUSTRALOPITHECINES• the 1st man-apes of Africa; 4.5 million yrs.ago• adapted to light woodland or savannah living• with he...
HOMO HABILIS• The making of human kind• Olduvai tools : HH crosses the threshold from man-apes to humans..tool-  making• E...
HOMO ERECTUS• Tools, Hunting , Fire• Hairless, erect posture, smaller face, teeth & jaw due to cultural  innovations: disc...
HOMO SAPIENS• Multi-regional hypothesis: H.sapiens had risen all over  the world with perhaps gene flow linking one group ...
HOMO SAPIENS SAPIENS• Type specimen is Cro-Magnon man, dated at 30Ka, from  France; taller and finer-boned than Neandertha...
What happened to the Neanderthals?• Neanderthals and modern humans co-  existed in Europe and Middle east for 20k or  60k ...
Theories about the Origins of Modern Humans• Single Origin Theory: modern humans emerged in  Africa and spread to other pa...
Physical Variation• Looks at how and why population  physically resembles or vary from each  other• 1400’s concept of race...
• Concept of race has greatly influenced humanity and even  the thoughts of 10th century’s most vicious criminal   • Hitle...
Processes in Human Variation• Adaptation: genetic change that gives it carriers a better chance  of survival and reproduct...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Evolution, Primatology, Human Ancestry, Physical variation

1,533 views

Published on

Anthropology

REFERENCES:
Ember, C. (2007). Anthropology. Singapore: Pearson Educational South Asia.
Ember, C., Ember, M., & Peregrine, P. (2009). Human evolution and culture: Highlights of anthropology. (6th ed.). New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc.

Ervin, A. (2005). Applied anthropology: Tools and perspectives for contemporary practice. Boston: Pearson.

Kottak, C. (2011). Anthropology: Appreciating cultural diversity. New York: Mc Graw-Hill.

Kottak, C. (2008). Anthropology: The explanation of human diversity. Boston: Mc Graw-Hill.

Launda, R. (2010). Core concepts in cultural anthropology. Boston: McGraw-Hill Higher Education.

Nanda, S. (2007). Cultural anthropology. Belmont, California: Walsworth/Thomson Learning.

Published in: Technology
0 Comments
2 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,533
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
3
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
30
Comments
0
Likes
2
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Evolution, Primatology, Human Ancestry, Physical variation

  1. 1. Anthropology Evolution primAtology humAn AncEstryphysicAl vAriAtion
  2. 2. EVOLUTION• 8th C/19th C: Evolution was a viable theory• C. Linneaus (1707-1778): classified plants & animals in a systema naturae which placed humans in the same order (Primates) as apes & monkeys• J. B. Lamarck (1744-1829): species were not fixed in form. Acquired characteristics could be inherited.e.g. giraffes• G. Cuvier (1769-1832): Catastrophism: changes in the earth & fossil record. E.g. Noah’s flood• Hutton & Lyell: Uniformitarianism - Natural forces constantly shape and reshape the earth. Species evolved thru natural selection
  3. 3. EVOLUTIONCHARLES DARWIN Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection(1859) The Descent of Man (1871)• Natural Selection (variety, heritability, differential reproductive process).• Primate origins (similarities between apes and humans)
  4. 4. • Charles Darwin and Alfred Wallace – mechanism of Natural Selection Every specie consists of various individuals, some of which are better adapted to their environment than others (Variation) Offspring inherit traits from their parents (Heritability) Since better adapted individuals produce more offspring through time than the poorer adapted, the frequency of adaptive traits increases in subsequent generations. (Differential Reproductive Success)
  5. 5. Sources of Biological Variation Genetic Recombination – A unique offspring is produced by a shuffling of the parents’ genes. Random segregation - sorting of chromosomes in mieosis (the process by which the reproductive cells are reproduced). Crossing-over - the exchange of sections of chromosomes between one chromosome and another. Mutation – change in the DNA sequence (chemical substance which controls heredity). Ex. Galactosemia caused by recessive gene and usu. result in mental retardation and blindness. Genetic Drift – refers to random processes that affect gene frequencies in relatively isolated population Gene Flow – genes pass from one population to another through mating and reproduction
  6. 6. QUESTIONSDo you think the theory of natural selection is compatible with religious beliefs?How might the discovery of genetic cures & the use of genetic engineering affect the future of evolution?Why do you think humans have remained one species?
  7. 7. BIPEDALISMHuman beings are proficient in the mode oflocomotion known as bipedalism or walking ontwo legs. Imagine that you have been hired towrite copy for an “owner’s manual” of the humanbody. On a sheet of paper, provide detailedinstructions for standing from a seated position(without using the hands) & moving forward forabout 5-10 feet using only the legs.
  8. 8. Primatology• We can infer how and why humans diverged from the other primates
  9. 9. Common Features of Primates• Two bones in the lower part of the leg and in the forearm• Collarbone/Clavicle• Flexible prehensile (grasping) hands• Stereoscopic vision• Relatively large brain• Only one (or two) offspring at a time• Long maturation of the young• High degree of dependence on social life and learning• Reproductive system
  10. 10. TYPES• Prosimians: pre-monkey ; depend more on smell for information; have mobile ears; whiskers, longer snouts and fixed facial expressions.• Anthropoids: have rounded braincases; reduced, nonmobile outer ears; and relatively small, flat faces instead of muzzles; have highly dextrous hands.• Lesser Apes (Hylobates) : Gibbons and Siamangs• Great Apes (Pongids) : Orangutans, Gorillas, and Chimpanzees
  11. 11. • Sexual dimorphism – males are larger, have longer canines, more aggressive than females • Capable of surviving in arid and seasonal • Ischial callous on their bottoms
  12. 12. Hominoids vs other monkeys• Longer brains especially the cerebral cortex• Fairly long arms, broad trunks, no tail• Hands are longer than other primates• More bipedal• Dentition is unique, molars are flat and rounded• Gorilla and Chimpanzee have proteins and DNA similar to humans; use tools; ability to learn sign language• Diverged from a common ancestor. 5-6 MYA
  13. 13. Humans• Bipedal• Human brain, particularly the cerebral cortex, is the largest and most complex• Human females may engage in sexual intercourse at any time throughout the year• Human offspring has a proportionately longer dependency stage• Human behavior is learned and culturally patterned. (spoken, symbolic language and the use of tools to make other tools)• Humans have a division of labor in food-getting and food sharing in adulthood.
  14. 14. Human features related to Bipedalism• Tool making• Enlargement of the brain• Prolonged period of infant dependency• Sexual division of labor• Food sharing
  15. 15. HUMAN ANCESTRY Australopithecines Homo Habilis Homo Erectus Homo SapiensHomo Sapiens Sapiens
  16. 16. AUSTRALOPITHECINES• the 1st man-apes of Africa; 4.5 million yrs.ago• adapted to light woodland or savannah living• with herbivorous dentition; food-crushing molar teeth.• almost fully bipedal but probably retained an acrobatic nimbleness in tree climbing• many were small and very strong for their size.• brain size: 300-500 cm• Raymond Dart’s “Taung baby” (A. Africanus) possibly the missing link. 1st fossil hominid discovery South Africa in 1924. Relatively large brain size. Teeth were of human type. Foramen magnum – opening at the buck of the skull thru which the spinal cord emerges, was below the brain case• Fossil “Lucy” (A.Afarensis). by Tim White and Don Johanson in 1974 in Ethiopia; seen to be a hominid, since the knee and pelvis were characteristically human.
  17. 17. HOMO HABILIS• The making of human kind• Olduvai tools : HH crosses the threshold from man-apes to humans..tool- making• Expansion of brain size that allows the development of characteristically human intellectual, linguistic and social attributes and finer manipulative skills. The process of becoming human in a biological and social sense is called homonisation.• Habilis means “handy” or “dextrous”; label by Louis Leakey in 1964 to the hominid remains associated with the earliest tools at Olduvai.• Brain size: 500-850 cm• Lighter jaw; decrease in incisor size• Fossils in Eastern Africa
  18. 18. HOMO ERECTUS• Tools, Hunting , Fire• Hairless, erect posture, smaller face, teeth & jaw due to cultural innovations: discovery of fire & Acheulian tool)• Tool makers and users; e.g. Acheulian hand axe ( East Africa and Israel; 1.6 Ma;• Turkana boy – oldest and most complete skeleton of a single early human; West Turkana, Kenya; 1984; skeletally fully modern, bigger than HH• Larger brain size – early Java man 600-800 cm; late H. erectus volumes were as much as 1250 cm.• Represents a steady change in becoming mentally, socially and culturally more human. (Evidence of hunting and gathering; travelling & carrying would put a pressure on bipedalism
  19. 19. HOMO SAPIENS• Multi-regional hypothesis: H.sapiens had risen all over the world with perhaps gene flow linking one group to another and conserving the genetic integrity of a specie. Fitted with the racial ideas of five ancient races (Bushmen, Negroids, Caucasians, Mongoloids, and Australoids).• H. Sapiens Neandertahalensis: Neander River in Germany. They were upright and un-apelike; stocky and muscular; enlarged pelvis• Mousterian tool kit (refinement of an earlier Levalloisian method)
  20. 20. HOMO SAPIENS SAPIENS• Type specimen is Cro-Magnon man, dated at 30Ka, from France; taller and finer-boned than Neanderthals; the last European cavemen had impressive cave art at places in France and Spain; ritual burial sites reveal the devt. of jewelry, colored beads, and ivory bracelets.• Cultural take-off (Art, Language, Hunting, etc.)• As culture picked up and passed on ideas, the human species’ power over its envt. increased beyond the normal energy and physical limits of a hominid, setting the scene for the dawn of agriculture and the earliest civilization.
  21. 21. What happened to the Neanderthals?• Neanderthals and modern humans co- existed in Europe and Middle east for 20k or 60k yrs. • Possible causes:• Interbreeding• Genocide• Extinction
  22. 22. Theories about the Origins of Modern Humans• Single Origin Theory: modern humans emerged in Africa and spread to other parts of the world• Multiregional Theory: modern humans emerged into various parts of the world, becoming the varieties of humans today • Fitted with racial ideas of five ancient races (Bushmen, Negroids, Caucasians, Mongoloids and Australoids)• Intermediate: There may have been some population replacement local continuous evolution and interbreeding
  23. 23. Physical Variation• Looks at how and why population physically resembles or vary from each other• 1400’s concept of race developed and became fixed in the 1700’s• Common classification: white, black, yellow race
  24. 24. • Concept of race has greatly influenced humanity and even the thoughts of 10th century’s most vicious criminal • Hitler’s Aryan race • Apartheid in S. Africa thrived due to the belief that blacks belonged to an inferior race • European expansion was based on the “white man’s burden” percept. The early phrase of colonialism thus coincided with the rise of racism • Many beliefs about race, however are mythical in nature: Negroid (dark, tightly curled black hair), Australian Aborigines (dark wavy and sometimes blond hair) • Race is more of a social cultural construct than a biological fact, superior or inferior culture to skin color but not hair color
  25. 25. Processes in Human Variation• Adaptation: genetic change that gives it carriers a better chance of survival and reproduction than those without the genetic chance to live in the same environment• Acclimatization: involves physiological adjustments in individuals to environmental conditions • Tanning – an acclimatization among white skinned people when exposed to high levels of solar radiation is related to adaptation• Influence of the cultural environment: culture can alter the environment • Inca, Andean society practice head binding to create physical variation • Hebrew, Abraham and all males had to be circumcised as a sign of covenant between them

×